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  1. Mamman M, Hanapi ZM, Abdullah A, Muhammed A
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(1):e0210310.
    PMID: 30682038 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210310
    The increasing demand for network applications, such as teleconferencing, multimedia messaging and mobile TV, which have diverse requirements, has resulted in the introduction of Long Term Evolution (LTE) by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). LTE networks implement resource allocation algorithms to distribute radio resource to satisfy the bandwidth and delay requirements of users. However, the scheduling algorithm problem of distributing radio resources to users is not well defined in the LTE standard and thus considerably affects transmission order. Furthermore, the existing radio resource algorithm suffers from performance degradation under prioritised conditions because of the minimum data rate used to determine the transmission order. In this work, a novel downlink resource allocation algorithm that uses quality of service (QoS) requirements and channel conditions to address performance degradation is proposed. The new algorithm is formulated as an optimisation problem where network resources are allocated according to users' priority, whereas the scheduling algorithm decides on the basis of users' channel status to satisfy the demands of QoS. Simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, and results demonstrate that it performs better than do all other algorithms according to the measured metrics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  2. Hasiah Mohamed@Omar, Rohana Yusoff, Azizah Jaafar
    MyJurnal
    Heuristic Evaluation (HE) is used as a basis in developing a new technique to evaluate usability or
    educational computer games known as Playability Heuristic Evaluation for Educational Computer Game (PHEG). PHEG was developed to identify usability problems that accommodate five heuristics, namely, interface, educational elements, content, playability and multimedia. In HE process, usability problems are rated based on severity score and this is followed by presentation of a mean value. The mean value is used to determine the level of usability problems; however, in some cases, this value may not accurate because it will ignore the most critical problems found in a specific part. In developing PHEG, a new quantitative approach was proposed in analyzing usability problems data. Numbers of sub-heuristics for each heuristic involved were taken into account in calculating percentage for each heuristic. Functions to calculate critical problems were also introduced. Evaluation for one educational game that was still in development process was conducted and the results showed that most of the critical problems were found in educational elements and content heuristics (57.14%), while the least usability problems were found in playability heuristic. In particular, the mean value in this analysis can be used as an indicator in identifying critical problems for educational computer games.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  3. Lee TT, Kamisah Osman
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1301-1307.
    Tajuk Elektrokimia didapati sukar dipelajari kerana konsep abstrak yang melibatkan tahap perwakilan makroskopik, mikroskopik dan simbolik. Kajian lepas menunjukkan bahawa animasi dan simulasi menggunakan teknologi maklumat dan komunikasi (TMK) boleh membantu pelajar membayangkan dan seterusnya memperkuatkan pemahaman mereka dalam mempelajari tajuk kimia yang abstrak. Ekoran daripada itu, modul multimedia interaktif dengan agen pedagogi (MMIAP) yang dinamakan Makmal EK (Elektrokimia) dibangunkan dalam usaha membantu pelajar dalam mempelajari Elektrokimia. Reka bentuk penyiasatan kuasi eksperimen dengan ujian pra/pos kumpulan kawalan tidak setara dijalankan dalam usaha untuk menilai keberkesanan MMIAP Makmal EK terhadap pemahaman konsep pelajar dalam mempelajari elektrokimia. Seramai 127 orang pelajar tingkatan empat dari dua buah sekolah menengah terlibat dalam kajian ini. Setiap sekolah mempunyai sebuah kumpulan rawatan dan sebuah kumpulan kawalan yang diajar oleh guru kimia yang sama. Ujian pencapaian pra dan pos diberikan untuk menilai pemahaman konsep Elektrokimia pelajar sebelum dan selepas mempelajari kimia. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa intervensi seperti yang direkabentuk dalam kajian menghasilkan perbezaan yang bererti antara kumpulan kawalan dan kumpulan rawatan dalam memahami konsep Elekotrokimia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  4. Norzehan Sakamat, Siti Nabilah Sabri, Norizan Mat Diah
    Scientific Research Journal, 2017;14(2):35-48.
    MyJurnal
    Storytelling is considered as an interactive social arts that uses word and
    gestures to reveal the elements and images of a story while engaging the
    listener's imagination. Multimedia based digital storytelling learning
    approach provides interesting, interactive, engaging and multisensory
    learning experience to children. Children explore new experience and
    scenarios as new stories are being told. This study concentrates on
    determining the best combination of elements for designing effective digital
    storytelling applications specifically for the usage of dyslexic children.
    Dyslexic children are known to have a common learning difficulty that can
    cause problems with reading, writing, spelling and comprehension. These
    applications are design with the objective to help in improving dyslexic
    children ability in readings and comprehensions. Four elements were
    derived from extensive literature studies. The elements are multimedia
    components, multi-sensory instructional approach, emotional design and
    games design. The relationship among all the elements were determine
    and described in details as it will be used to contribute to the design and
    development of the application in further works. The strength of this study
    is it models the combinations of technology, psychology and instructional
    approach as a support components for developing an effective digital story
    telling learning application for dyslexic children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  5. Jahanirad M, Wahab AW, Anuar NB
    Forensic Sci. Int., 2016 May;262:242-75.
    PMID: 27060542 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.03.035
    Camera attribution plays an important role in digital image forensics by providing the evidence and distinguishing characteristics of the origin of the digital image. It allows the forensic analyser to find the possible source camera which captured the image under investigation. However, in real-world applications, these approaches have faced many challenges due to the large set of multimedia data publicly available through photo sharing and social network sites, captured with uncontrolled conditions and undergone variety of hardware and software post-processing operations. Moreover, the legal system only accepts the forensic analysis of the digital image evidence if the applied camera attribution techniques are unbiased, reliable, nondestructive and widely accepted by the experts in the field. The aim of this paper is to investigate the evolutionary trend of image source camera attribution approaches from fundamental to practice, in particular, with the application of image processing and data mining techniques. Extracting implicit knowledge from images using intrinsic image artifacts for source camera attribution requires a structured image mining process. In this paper, we attempt to provide an introductory tutorial on the image processing pipeline, to determine the general classification of the features corresponding to different components for source camera attribution. The article also reviews techniques of the source camera attribution more comprehensively in the domain of the image forensics in conjunction with the presentation of classifying ongoing developments within the specified area. The classification of the existing source camera attribution approaches is presented based on the specific parameters, such as colour image processing pipeline, hardware- and software-related artifacts and the methods to extract such artifacts. The more recent source camera attribution approaches, which have not yet gained sufficient attention among image forensics researchers, are also critically analysed and further categorised into four different classes, namely, optical aberrations based, sensor camera fingerprints based, processing statistics based and processing regularities based, to present a classification. Furthermore, this paper aims to investigate the challenging problems, and the proposed strategies of such schemes based on the suggested taxonomy to plot an evolution of the source camera attribution approaches with respect to the subjective optimisation criteria over the last decade. The optimisation criteria were determined based on the strategies proposed to increase the detection accuracy, robustness and computational efficiency of source camera brand, model or device attribution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  6. Tan LK, Wong JH, Ng KH
    AJR Am J Roentgenol, 2006 Mar;186(3):898-901.
    PMID: 16498128
    The purpose of this article was to develop a low-cost method for high-quality remote capturing and recording of multimedia presentations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  7. Ponnusamy Subramaniam, Kwai Ching Kan, Shazli Ezzat Ghazali, Rosdinom Razali
    Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 2018;16(101):243-244.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: There are increasing trend in using information and communication technology to enhance the deliverance of reminiscence work for people with dementia. Thus this study aimed to explore the feasibility of Digital Memory Album (DMA) to support reminiscence work and subsequently evaluate the psychosocial benefits of the DMA system for older adults with dementia living in community. Method: This was an exploratory case study involved five participants with mild to moderate dementia and their primary caregivers. Each participant had an opportunity to review their own life history using Life Review Experience Form (LREF) with the researcher for 8 consecutive weeks in which subsequently facilitated in development of a personalised digital life story. Caregivers provided additional information to support the development of DMA. The whole process was audio recorded. The digital life story was presented in multimedia format and displayed using the DMA. The DMA was given to the participants for review. Qualitative data was collected using semi structure questions with the participants and caregivers immediately after the completion of DMA and 6 weeks after having the DMA as a gift. Results: Analysis of the audio-records and interview data indicated that DMA promoted psychosocial wellbeing which included enjoyment, comfort, stimulate long term memory and enhanced communication and social interactions with family members and friends. Caregivers expressed the DMA helped them in recollecting the past and better understanding of their loved ones. It also reoriented their focus on their loved ones from their disability to the remaining strength. Conclusion: For the first time, this study demonstrates the feasibility of using DMA in improving the psychosocial wellbeing for people with dementia in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  8. Ghani Z, Anuar A, Majid Z, Yoneda M
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:2383-2392.
    This study describes the development of a multimedia environmental fate and transport model of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) at Sungai Sayong watershed. Based on the latest estimated DDT emission, the DDT concentrations in air, soil, water and sediment as well as the transfer processes were simulated under the equilibrium and steady-state assumption. Model predictions suggested that soil and sediment was the dominant sink of DDT. The results showed that the model predicted was generally good agreement with field data. Compared with degradation reaction, advection outflow was more important processes occurred in the model. Sensitivities of the model estimates to input parameters were tested. The result showed that vapour pressure (Ps) and organic carbon water partition coefficient (KOC) were the most influential parameters for the model output. The model output-concentrations of DDT in multimedia environment is very important as it can be used in future for human exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at Sungai Sayong Basin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  9. Abidi SS, Yusoff Z
    PMID: 10724889
    The Malaysian Telemedicine initiative advocates a paradigm shift in healthcare delivery patterns by way of implementing a person-centred and wellness-focused healthcare system. This paper introduces the Malaysian Telemedicine vision, its functionality and associated operational conditions. In particular, we focus on the conceptualisation of one key Telemedicine component i.e. the Lifetime Health Plan (LHP) system--a distributed multimodule application for the periodic monitoring and generation of health-care advisories for all Malaysians. In line with the LHP project, we present an innovative healthcare delivery info-structure--LifePlan--that aims to provide life-long, pro-active, personalised, wellness-oriented healthcare services to assist individuals to manage and interpret their health needs. Functionally, LifePlan based healthcare services are delivered over the WWW, packaged as Personalised Lifetime Health Plans that allow individuals to both monitor their health status and to guide them in healthcare planning.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia/trends*
  10. Abidi SS, Goh A, Yusoff Z
    Stud Health Technol Inform, 1998;52 Pt 2:1282-6.
    PMID: 10384666
    The practice of medicine, with its wide range of environmental conditions and complex dependencies, has long been used as a test bed for various advanced technologies. Telemedicine, as conceptualised within the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) context, is seen as the application of several relatively mature technologiesartificial intelligence (AI), multimedia communication and information systems (IS) amongst othersso as to benefit a large cross-section of the Malaysian population. We will discuss in general terms the Malaysian vision on the comprehensive MSC telemedicine solution, its functionality and associated operational conditions. In particular, this paper focuses on the conceptualisation of one key telemedical component i.e. the Lifetime Health Plan (LHP) system, which is eventually intended to be a distributed multi-module application for the periodic monitoring and generation of health-care advisories for upwards of 20 million Malaysians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  11. Abbasi A, Woo CS, Ibrahim RW, Islam S
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(4):e0123427.
    PMID: 25884854 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123427
    Digital image watermarking is an important technique for the authentication of multimedia content and copyright protection. Conventional digital image watermarking techniques are often vulnerable to geometric distortions such as Rotation, Scaling, and Translation (RST). These distortions desynchronize the watermark information embedded in an image and thus disable watermark detection. To solve this problem, we propose an RST invariant domain watermarking technique based on fractional calculus. We have constructed a domain using Heaviside function of order alpha (HFOA). The HFOA models the signal as a polynomial for watermark embedding. The watermark is embedded in all the coefficients of the image. We have also constructed a fractional variance formula using fractional Gaussian field. A cross correlation method based on the fractional Gaussian field is used for watermark detection. Furthermore the proposed method enables blind watermark detection where the original image is not required during the watermark detection thereby making it more practical than non-blind watermarking techniques. Experimental results confirmed that the proposed technique has a high level of robustness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  12. Manogaran G, Shakeel PM, Fouad H, Nam Y, Baskar S, Chilamkurti N, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2019 Jul 09;19(13).
    PMID: 31324070 DOI: 10.3390/s19133030
    According to the survey on various health centres, smart log-based multi access physical monitoring system determines the health conditions of humans and their associated problems present in their lifestyle. At present, deficiency in significant nutrients leads to deterioration of organs, which creates various health problems, particularly for infants, children, and adults. Due to the importance of a multi access physical monitoring system, children and adolescents' physical activities should be continuously monitored for eliminating difficulties in their life using a smart environment system. Nowadays, in real-time necessity on multi access physical monitoring systems, information requirements and the effective diagnosis of health condition is the challenging task in practice. In this research, wearable smart-log patch with Internet of Things (IoT) sensors has been designed and developed with multimedia technology. Further, the data computation in that smart-log patch has been analysed using edge computing on Bayesian deep learning network (EC-BDLN), which helps to infer and identify various physical data collected from the humans in an accurate manner to monitor their physical activities. Then, the efficiency of this wearable IoT system with multimedia technology is evaluated using experimental results and discussed in terms of accuracy, efficiency, mean residual error, delay, and less energy consumption. This state-of-the-art smart-log patch is considered as one of evolutionary research in health checking of multi access physical monitoring systems with multimedia technology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  13. Mohan J, Razali Raja Yaacob R
    Int J Med Inform, 2004 Mar 31;73(3):217-27.
    PMID: 15066550
    Telehealth refers to the integration of information, telecommunication, human-machine interface technologies and health technologies to deliver health care, to promote the heath status of the people and to create health. The Malaysian Telehealth Application will, on completion, provide every resident of the country an electronic Lifetime Health Record (LHR) and Lifetime Health Plan (LHP). He or she will also hold a smart card that will contain a subset of the data in the Lifetime Health Record. These will be the means by which Malaysians will receive "seamless continuous quality care" across a range of health facilities and health care providers, and by which Malaysia's health goal of a nation of "healthy individuals, families and communities" is achieved. The challenges to security and privacy in providing access to an electronic Lifetime Health Record at private and government health facilities and to the electronic Lifetime Health Plan at homes of consumers require not only technical mechanisms but also national policies and practices addressing threats while facilitating access to health data during health encounters in different care settings. Organisational policies establish the goals that technical mechanisms serve. They should outline appropriate uses and access to information, create mechanisms for preventing and detecting violations, and set sanctions for violations. Some interesting innovations have been used to address these issues against the background of the launching of the multimedia supercorridor (MSC) in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  14. Waran V, Selladurai BM, Bahuri NF, George GJ, Lim GP, Khine M
    J Trauma, 2008 Feb;64(2):362-5; discussion 365.
    PMID: 18301199 DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e318070cc88
    : We present our initial experience using a simple and relatively cost effective system using existing mobile phone network services and conventional handphones with built in cameras to capture carefully selected images from hard copies of scan images and transferring these images from a hospital without neurosurgical services to a university hospital with tertiary neurosurgical service for consultation and management plan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  15. Lua Pei Lin, Nor Khaira Wahida Khairuzzaman
    MyJurnal
    Objective: This paper intended to review and analyse relevant published articles which have studied or applied multimedia as the educational medium for patients or their caregivers. The benefits were also recorded.

    Method: The search was performed across the databases EBSCO Host, Springer Link, Science Direct and PubMed for relevant studies. Only full-text articles using English as a language of publication were included. Eligible articles included any usage of multimedia intervention as health information delivery for patients or caregivers. No restriction for publication date was set to permit a wider capture.

    Result: Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria involving a total of 1,797 respondents. The studies have been conducted in various countries mostly in North American region followed by Europe. The focused disease for each study varied from asthma to cognitive impairment but most were on cancer. Problems in caregiving and depression were also reported. The overall data suggested that the multimedia-based education had generated modest improvement in self-efficacy, patient satisfaction, coping skills, and perceptions of social support. Cost benefits were also recorded. Additionally, patients’ behavioural changes were well maintained in parallel with the intervention programme.

    Conclusion: The evolution of multimedia as an educational medium is growing and its incorporation has benefited health education management especially in improving patients’ and their family’s psychosocial outcomes. However, due to still limited scientific evidence to support its value, further multimedia-based interventions should be developed out of the need to share information and knowledge among patients as well as caregivers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  16. King TL, Kho EK, Tiong YH, Julaihi SN
    Singapore Med J, 2015 Feb;56(2):103-8.
    PMID: 25715856
    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate whether multimedia counselling (MC) using a touchscreen computer is as effective and time-efficient as conventional counselling (CC) in promoting correct metered-dose inhaler (MDI) technique, with or without the valved holding chamber (VHC).

    METHODS: Participants in the MDI-only and MDI-with-VHC groups were randomly assigned to the MC group or CC group. No blinding was imposed. Inhalation technique was assessed using checklists before and after counselling. Time spent on counselling was determined for all participants, while time taken to perfect the technique was determined only for participants who achieved perfect technique within one hour.

    RESULTS: The CC group had more elderly participants than the MC group, but the difference was not significant. MDI-only and MDI-with-VHC users showed significant improvement in their inhaler technique after multimedia (44.5 ± 28.0% and 44.1 ± 14.4%, respectively) and conventional counselling (36.8 ± 20.5% and 37.0 ± 14.6%, respectively). No significant difference in MDI technique enhancement was found between the two groups. Although no significant difference was found between the MC and CC groups with regard to the time spent on counselling and the time taken to perfect the technique, the average time spent on counselling was longer for MDI-only users. MDI-only users had 13.5 times the odds of failing to achieve perfect technique compared to MDI-with-VHC users (95% confidence interval 1.50-121.32, p = 0.020).

    CONCLUSION: MC and CC significantly improved MDI technique. Both methods showed comparable short-term effectiveness and time-efficiency in MDI technique education. VHC was beneficial, especially for MDI-users with hand-lung coordination problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  17. Adler AJ, Martin N, Mariani J, Tajer CD, Owolabi OO, Free C, et al.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2017 Apr 29;4:CD011851.
    PMID: 28455948 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011851.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Worldwide at least 100 million people are thought to have prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD). This population has a five times greater chance of suffering a recurrent cardiovascular event than people without known CVD. Secondary CVD prevention is defined as action aimed to reduce the probability of recurrence of such events. Drug interventions have been shown to be cost-effective in reducing this risk and are recommended in international guidelines. However, adherence to recommended treatments remains sub-optimal. In order to influence non-adherence, there is a need to develop scalable and cost-effective behaviour-change interventions.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of mobile phone text messaging in patients with established arterial occlusive events on adherence to treatment, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, and adverse effects.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, the Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science on Web of Science on 7 November 2016, and two clinical trial registers on 12 November 2016. We contacted authors of included studies for missing information and searched reference lists of relevant papers. We applied no language or date restrictions.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised trials with at least 50% of the participants with established arterial occlusive events. We included trials investigating interventions using short message service (SMS) or multimedia messaging service (MMS) with the aim to improve adherence to medication for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Eligible comparators were no intervention or other modes of communication.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. In addition, we attempted to contact all authors on how the SMS were developed.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included seven trials (reported in 13 reports) with 1310 participants randomised. Follow-up ranged from one month to 12 months. Due to heterogeneity in the methods, population and outcome measures, we were unable to conduct meta-analysis on these studies. All seven studies reported on adherence, but using different methods and scales. Six out of seven trials showed a beneficial effect of mobile phone text messaging for medication adherence. Dale 2015a, reported significantly greater medication adherence score in the intervention group (Mean Difference (MD) 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19 to 0.97; 123 participants randomised) at six months. Khonsari 2015 reported less adherence in the control group (Relative Risk (RR) 4.09, 95% CI 1.82 to 9.18; 62 participants randomised) at eight weeks. Pandey 2014 (34 participants randomised) assessed medication adherence through self-reported logs with 90% adherence in the intervention group compared to 70% in the control group at 12 months. Park 2014a (90 participants randomised) reported a greater increase of the medication adherence score in the control group, but also measured adherence with an event monitoring system for a number of medications with adherence levels ranging from 84.1% adherence to 86.2% in the intervention group and 79.7% to 85.7% in the control group at 30 days. Quilici 2013, reported reduced odds of non-adherence in the intervention group (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.43, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.86, 521 participants randomised) at 30 days. Fang 2016, reported that participants given SMS alone had reduced odds of being non-adherent compared to telephone reminders (OR 0.40 95% CI 0.18 to 0.63; 280 patients randomised). Kamal 2015 reported higher levels of adherence in the intervention arm (adjusted MD 0.54, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.85; 200 participants randomised). Khonsari 2015 was the only study to report fatal cardiovascular events and only reported two events, both in the control arm. No study reported on the other primary outcomes. No study reported repetitive thumb injury or road traffic crashes or other adverse events that were related to the intervention.Four authors replied to our questionnaire on SMS development. No study reported examining causes of non-adherence or provided SMS tailored to individual patient characteristics.The included studies were small, heterogeneous and included participants recruited directly after acute events. All studies were assessed as having high risk of bias across at least one domain. Most of the studies came from high-income countries, with two studies conducted in an upper middle-income country (China, Malaysia), and one study from a lower middle-income country (Pakistan). The quality of the evidence was found to be very low. There was no obvious conflicts of interest from authors, although only two declared their funding.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: While the results of this systematic review are promising, there is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the effectiveness of text message-based interventions for adherence to medications for secondary prevention of CVD. Sufficiently powered, high-quality randomised trials are needed, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
  18. Hatami T, Noroozi A, Tahmasebi R, Rahbar A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Nov;25(6):110-120.
    PMID: 30914884 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.6.11
    Background: Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem. A way to decrease this cancer is through dietary behavioural changes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of education on dietary behaviour based on the health belief model (HBM) using multimedia.

    Methods: In this clinical trial study, 98 participants were randomly allocated to an HBM group (n = 48) and a control group (n = 50). The HBM group received an audiovisual compact disc (CD) that contained information about nutritional behaviour of colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention based on HBM that lasted 45 min. Both groups completed questionnaires regarding demographic factors, knowledge and HBM constructs, and a three-day dietary recall at the beginning of the study, 1 week after, and 3 months after the education. The outcome of this study was measured by the amount of food servings consumed and dietary micronutrient intake.

    Results: At the baseline, there were no significant differences between groups regarding demographic factors. Findings showed that self-efficacy (P < 0.001), severity (P < 0.001), and benefits (P < 0.001) were perceived to be higher, and knowledge (P < 0.001) was increased in the HBM group compared to control group 3 months after education. There was a significant increase in fruit and vegetable (P < 0.001) and dairy (P = 0.001) intake and a significant decrease in red meat servings (P = 0.016) in the HBM group compared to the control group. Also, intake of vitamin D (P < 0.001), folate (P < 0.001), calcium (P = 0.008), and dietary fibre (P < 0.001) was increased in the HBM group compared to the control group 3 months after education.

    Conclusion: Education plans based on HBM and implemented through multimedia can change nutritional beliefs and behaviours for the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Multimedia
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