Displaying all 19 publications

  1. Umar-Tsafe N, Mohamed-Said MS, Rosli R, Din LB, Lai LC
    Mutat Res, 2004 Aug 8;562(1-2):91-102.
    PMID: 15279832
    Goniothalamin (GTN) is a styrylpyrrone derivative from Goniothalamus umbrosus and other Annonaceae species. It has been shown to have anti-cancer and apoptosis-inducing properties against various human tumour and animal cell lines. The compound has also been shown to be active in vivo against DMBA-induced rat mammary tumours and was reported as an anti-fertility agent in rats. The aim of our study was to assess the genotoxicity of GTN in CHO cells using the UKEMS guidelines. A metabolic activation fraction (S9) was prepared according to standard methods. The methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) screening assay was then carried out to determine the cytotoxicity index (IC50) of GTN. The average IC50 value was 12.45 (+/- 3.63)microM. The mitotic index (MI) assay was then performed to determine the clastogenicity indices (MI(C25), MI(C50) and MI(C100)) of GTN. The chromosome aberration (CA) induction assay using air-dried metaphase spread was then performed to investigate the clastogenic effects of goniothalamin. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS) were used as positive controls in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation, respectively. The anti-genotoxicity effect of GTN was also assessed using a combination of GTN and EMS, and GTN and BaP. Dose-responses of CA frequencies were determined for both, the genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity effects. GTN on its own and when combined with positive controls, was found to induce and enhance CA, respectively. Chromatid and whole chromosome breaks/gaps, as well as interchanges, endoreduplications and ring chromosomes were the main types of aberration induced by GTN. The overall clastogenic effect of GTN was statistically significant. In conclusion, GTN is potentially a genotoxic or clastogenic substance without any anti-genotoxic properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
  2. Wesam RK, Ghanya AN, Mizaton HH, Ilham M, Aishah A
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2013 Oct;6(10):811-6.
    PMID: 23870471 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(13)60143-1
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cytotoxicity and the genotoxicity of standardized aqueous of dry leaves of Erythroxylum cuneatum (E. cuneatum) in human HepG2 and WRL68 cells.

    METHODS: The cytotoxicity of E. cuneatum extract was evaluated by both MTS and LDH assays. Genotoxicity study on E. cuneatum extract was assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The protective effect of E. cuneatum against menadione-induced cytotoxicity was also investigated.

    RESULTS: Results from this study showed that E. cuneatum extract exhibited cytotoxic activities towards the cells with IC50 value of (125±12) and (125±14) μg/mL for HepG2 and WRL68 cells respectively, after 72 h incubation period as determined by MTS assay. LDH leakage was detected at (251±19) and (199.5±12.0) μg/mL for HepG2 and WRL68 respectively. Genotoxicity study results showed that treatment with E. cuneatum up to 1 mg/mL did not cause obvious DNA damage in WRL68 and HepG2 cells. Addition of E. cunaetum did not show significant protection towards menadione in WRL68 and HepG2 Cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: E. cuneatum standardized aqueous extract might be developed in order to establish new pharmacological possibilities for its application.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
  3. Yuet Ping K, Darah I, Yusuf UK, Yeng C, Sasidharan S
    Molecules, 2012 Jun 26;17(7):7782-91.
    PMID: 22735780 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17077782
    The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of E. hirta extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of E. hirta exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity
  4. Al-Shami SA, Rawi CS, Ahmad AH, Nor SA
    Toxicol Ind Health, 2012 Sep;28(8):734-9.
    PMID: 22025505 DOI: 10.1177/0748233711422729
    The genotoxic effects of increasing concentrations (below lethal concentration [LC₅₀]) of cadmium ([Cd] 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/L), copper ([Cu] 0.2, 2 and 20 mg/L) and zinc ([Zn] 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/L) on Chironomus kiiensis were evaluated using alkaline comet assay after exposure for 24 h. Both the tail moment and the olive tail moment showed significant differences between the control and different concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). The highest concentration of Cd was associated with higher DNA damage to C. kiiensis larvae compared with Cu and Zn. The potential genotoxicity of these metals to C. kiiensis was Cd > Cu > Zn.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
  5. Loh DS, Er HM, Chen YS
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2009 Dec 10;126(3):406-14.
    PMID: 19778596 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.025
    Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) is a weed commonly found in tropical countries and has been used traditionally for asthma, bronchitis and conjunctivitis. However, one of the constituents in this plant, quercetin, was previously reported to be mutagenic. This work aimed to determine the level of quercetin in the aqueous and methanol plant extracts and to investigate the mutagenic effects of quercetin and the extracts in the Ames test utilising the mutant Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. The antimutagenic activity of Euphorbia hirta aqueous and methanol extracts was also studied in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. HPLC analyses showed that quercetin and rutin, a glycosidic form of quercetin, were present in the acid-hydrolysed methanol extract and non-hydrolysed methanol extract respectively. The quercetin concentration was negligible in both non-hydrolysed and acid-hydrolysed aqueous extracts. The total phenolic contents in Euphorbia hirta were determined to be 268 and 93 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of aqueous and methanol extracts, respectively. Quercetin (25 microg/mL) was found to be strongly mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. However, both the aqueous and methanol extracts did not demonstrate any mutagenic properties when tested with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains at concentrations up to 100 microg/mL in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. In the absence of S-9 metabolic activation, both the extracts were unable to inhibit the mutagenicity of the known mutagen, 2-nitrofluorene, in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts at 100 microg/mL and methanol extracts at 10 and 100 microg/mL exhibited strong antimutagenic activity against the mutagenicity of 2-aminoanthracene, a known mutagen, in the presence of S-9 metabolic activating enzymes. The results indicated that these extracts could modulate the xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in the liver at the higher concentrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
  6. Ali Y, Hamid SA, Rashid U
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018;18(18):1548-1558.
    PMID: 29792144 DOI: 10.2174/1389557518666180524113111
    Azo dyes are widely used in textile, fiber, cosmetic, leather, paint and printing industries. Besides their characteristic coloring function, azo compounds are reported as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and cytotoxic agents. They have the ability to be used as drug carriers, either by acting as a 'cargo' that entrap therapeutic agents or by prodrug approach. The drug is released by internal or external stimuli in the region of interest, as observed in colon-targeted drug delivery. Besides drug-like and drug carrier properties, a number of azo dyes are used in cellular staining to visualize cellular components and metabolic processes. However, the biological significance of azo compounds, especially in cancer chemotherapy, is still in its infancy. This may be linked to early findings that declared azo compounds as one of the possible causes of cancer and mutagenesis. Currently, researchers are screening the aromatic azo compounds for their potential biomedical use, including cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we highlight the medical applications of azo compounds, particularly related to cancer research. The biomedical significance of cis-trans interchange and negative implications of azo compounds are also discussed in brief.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity
  7. Er HM, Cheng EH, Radhakrishnan AK
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2007 Sep 25;113(3):448-56.
    PMID: 17698306
    The anti-proliferative effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) against a mouse mammary cancer cell line (4T1) and a normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were evaluated under an optimal (in culture medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS)) and a sub-optimal (in culture medium containing 0.5% FBS) conditions. Under the optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-proliferative effect at 200 microg/mL and 300 microg/mL in 4T1 cells and 300 microg/mL in NIH/3T3 cells, whereas the methanol extract did not show any notable anti-proliferative effect in these cell lines, at any of the concentrations tested. Under the sub-optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-proliferative effect at 200 microg/mL and 300 microg/mL in NIH/3T3 cells, whilst the methanol extract showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-proliferative effect at 200 microg/mL and 300 microg/mL in both cell lines. An upward trend of apoptosis was observed in both 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells treated with increasing concentrations of the aqueous extract. The level of apoptosis observed at all the concentrations of the aqueous extract tested was consistently higher than necrosis. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the level of necrosis observed in the 4T1 cells treated with 300 microg/mL of the methanol extract. Generally, the level of necrosis was noted to be higher than that of apoptosis in the methanol extract-treated cells. The mutagenicity assay performed showed that in the absence of S-9 liver metabolic activation, the extract was not mutagenic up to the concentration of 165 microg/mL . However, in the presence of S-9 liver metabolic activation, the aqueous extract was mutagenic at all the concentrations tested. This study shows that both the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) do not have appreciable anti-proliferative effect on the 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells as the EC(50) values obtained are greater than 50 microg/mL when tested under optimal culture condition. Moreover, the aqueous extract may form mutagenic compound(s) upon the metabolisation by liver enzymes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
  8. D'Souza UJ, Narayana K, Zain A, Raju S, Nizam HM, Noriah O
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2006 Feb;65(1):6-10.
    PMID: 16783728
    The effects of exposure to low doses of paraquat, a herbicide, via the dermal route were studied on the spermatozoa of Sprague-Dawley rats. Paraquat (1, 1'-dimethyl-4, 4'-bipyridinium dichloride) was administered once a day for five days, at intervals of 24 h at 0, 6, 15 and 30 mg/kg, and the rats were sacrificed on days 7, 14, 28, and 42 after the last exposure. The sperm suspensions were obtained by mincing the caudae epididymes and ductus deferens for the purpose of performing a sperm morphology test, sperm count and analysis of sperm mortality and sperm motility, as per the standard procedures. The sperm count was decreased (p < 0.05) only on days 7 and 14 but sperm abnormalities increased on all days (p < 0.05). Sperm mortality increased at higher dose-levels (p < 0.05) except on day 42, and motility was affected by 30 mg/kg only on day 42. In conclusion, paraquat is a genotoxic and cytotoxic agent to germ cells in the male rat.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
  9. Mohammed KB, Ma TH
    Mutat Res, 1999 May 19;426(2):193-9.
    PMID: 10350597
    The clastogenic and mutagenic effects of the insecticide Dimethoate (Cygon-2E), herbicides Atrazine, Simazine (Princep), Dicamba (Banvel D) and Picloram (Tordon) were studied using the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen hair mutation (Trad-SHM) assays. In clone 4430, dimethoate fumes both significantly increased the pink mutation events and reduced the number of stamen hairs per filament with increasing dosages. The pink mutation events were elevated by the liquid treatment with Picloram at 100 ppm concentration. The result of Trad-MCN test on Dimethoate fumes was not significantly different between the control and treated groups. The herbicide Atrazine showed positive effects at 10-50 ppm dose (liquid) and signs of overdose at 100 and 500 ppm concentrations. Simazine was mildly positive in elevating the MCN frequencies in the dose range of 5 to 200 ppm (liquid doses). Both Dicamba and Picloram induced a dosage-related increase in MCN frequencies in the Trad-MCN tests using Tradescantia clone 03. However, in higher dosages (200 ppm or higher), there were signs of overdose, reduction of MCN frequencies and physical damage of the leaves and buds of plant cuttings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
  10. Wee SL, Tan KH
    J Chem Ecol, 2001 May;27(5):953-64.
    PMID: 11471947 DOI: 10.1023/A:1010387020135
    Methyl eugenol (ME), is converted into two major phenylpropanoids, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol and trans-coniferyl alcohol, following consumption by the male fruit fly Bactrocera papayae. Chemical analysis of wild male B. papayae rectal glands, where the compounds are sequestered, revealed the presence of ME metabolites in varying quantities. These phenylpropanoids are shown to be involved in the fruit fly defense both in no-choice and choice feeding tests against the Malayan spiny gecko, Gekko monarchus. After being acclimatized to feeding on fruit flies, geckos consumed significantly fewer ME-fed male flies than controls that consumed all the ME-deprived male flies offered throughout a two-week period. Diagnosis of dissected livers from geckos that consumed ME-fed male flies revealed various abnormalities. These included discoloration and hardening of liver tissue, whitening of the gallbladder, or presence of tumor-like growths in all geckos that consumed ME-fed male flies. Control geckos fed on ME-deprived male flies had healthy livers. When given an alternative prey, geckos preferred to eat untreated house flies, Musca domestica to avoid preying on ME-fed fruit flies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
  11. Muhammad H, Gomes-Carneiro MR, Poça KS, De-Oliveira AC, Afzan A, Sulaiman SA, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Jan 27;133(2):647-53.
    PMID: 21044879 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.10.055
    Orthosiphon stamineus, Benth, also known as Misai Kucing in Malaysia and Java tea in Indonesia, is traditionally used in Southeastern Asia to treat kidney dysfunctions, diabetes, gout and several other illnesses. Recent studies of Orthosiphon stamineus pharmacological profile have revealed antioxidant properties and other potentially useful biological activities thereby lending some scientific support to its use in folk medicine. So far the genotoxicity of Orthosiphon stamineus extracts has not been evaluated. In this study the genotoxic potential of Orthosiphon stamineus aqueous extract was investigated by the Salmonella/microsome mutation assay and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
  12. Lim CK, Yaacob NS, Ismail Z, Halim AS
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2010 Apr;24(3):721-7.
    PMID: 20079826 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.01.006
    Biopolymer chitosan (beta-1,4-d-glucosamine) comprises the copolymer mixture of N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine. The natural biocompatibility and biodegradability of chitosan have recently highlighted its potential use for applications in wound management. Chemical and physical modifications of chitosan influence its biocompatibility and biodegradability, but it is unknown as to what degree. Hence, the biocompatibility of the chitosan porous skin regenerating templates (PSRT 82, 87 and 108) was determined using an in vitro toxicology model at the cellular and molecular level on primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (pNHEK). Cytocompatibility was accessed by using a 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay from 24 to 72h. To assess the genotoxicity of the PSRTs, DNA damage to the pNHEK was evaluated by using the Comet assay following direct contact with the various PSRTs. Furthermore, the skin pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-8 were examined to evaluate the tendency of the PSRTs to provoke inflammatory responses. All PSRTs were found to be cytocompatible, but only PSRT 108 was capable of stimulating cell proliferation. While all of the PSRTs showed some DNA damage, PSRT 108 showed the least DNA damage followed by PSRT 87 and 82. PSRT 87 and 82 induced a higher secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-8 in the pNHEK cultures than did PSRT 108. Hence, based on our experiments, PSRT 108 is the most biocompatible wound dressing of the three tested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity
  13. Choi EM, Kim YH
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2008 Jan;46(1):375-9.
    PMID: 17904263 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2007.08.018
    The present study was undertaken to determine whether Ligularia fischeri leaf extract (LF) is efficacious against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. DBA/1J mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen and treated with LF (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 49 days. Mice were assessed regularly for signs of arthritis and the levels of rheumatoid factor, anti-type II collagen antibody, cytokines, AST, ALT, and creatinine in serum were also examined after the animals were killed. The arthritis score and paw edema were markedly suppressed in the groups treated with LF. Moreover, levels of rheumatoid factor, anti-type II collagen antibody, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6 in sera were reduced by LF administration. These data suggest that L. fischeri might be effective for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis like human rheumatoid arthritis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
  14. Sharif R, Ghazali AR, Rajab NF, Haron H, Osman F
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2008 Jan;46(1):368-74.
    PMID: 17900779
    Malaysian locally processed raw food products are widely used as main ingredients in local cooking. Previous studies showed that these food products have a positive correlation with the incidence of cancer. The cytotoxicity effect was evaluated using MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimetil-2-thiazolil)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) against Chang liver cells at 2000 microg/ml following 72 h incubation. Findings showed all methanol extracts caused a tremendous drop in the percentage of cell viability at 2000 microg/ml (shrimp paste - 41.69+/-3.36%, salted fish - 37.2+/-1.06%, dried shrimp - 40.32+/-1.8%, p<0.05). To detect DNA damage in a single cell, alkaline Comet Assay was used. None of the extracts caused DNA damage to the Chang liver cells at 62.5 microg/ml following 24 h incubation, as compared to the positive control, hydrogen peroxide (tail moment - 9.50+/-1.50; tail intensity - 30.50+/-2.50). Proximate analysis which was used for the evaluation of macronutrients in food showed that shrimp paste did not comply with the protein requirement (<25%) as in Food Act 1983. Salt was found in every sample with the highest percentage being detected in shrimp paste which exceeded 20%. Following heavy metal analysis (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury), arsenic was found in every sample with dried shrimps showing the highest value as compared to the other samples (6.16 mg/kg). In conclusion, several food extracts showed cytotoxic effect but did not cause DNA damage against Chang liver cells. Salt was found as the main additive and arsenic was present in every sample, which could be the probable cause of the toxicity effects observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
  15. Tan HH, Thomas NF, Inayat-Hussain SH, Chan KM
    PLoS One, 2020;15(5):e0223344.
    PMID: 32365104 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223344
    Stilbenes are a group of chemicals characterized with the presence of 1,2-diphenylethylene. Previously, our group has demonstrated that synthesized (E)-N-(2-(3, 5-dimethoxystyryl) phenyl) furan-2-carboxamide (BK3C231) possesses potential chemopreventive activity specifically inducing NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) protein expression and activity. In this study, the cytoprotective effects of BK3C231 on cellular DNA and mitochondria were investigated in normal human colon fibroblast, CCD-18Co cells. The cells were pretreated with BK3C231 prior to exposure to the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). BK3C231 was able to inhibit 4NQO-induced cytotoxicity. Cells treated with 4NQO alone caused high level of DNA and mitochondrial damages. However, pretreatment with BK3C231 protected against these damages by reducing DNA strand breaks and micronucleus formation as well as decreasing losses of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cardiolipin. Interestingly, our study has demonstrated that nitrosative stress instead of oxidative stress was involved in 4NQO-induced DNA and mitochondrial damages. Inhibition of 4NQO-induced nitrosative stress by BK3C231 was observed through a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) level and an increase in glutathione (GSH) level. These new findings elucidate the cytoprotective potential of BK3C231 in human colon fibroblast CCD-18Co cell model which warrants further investigation into its chemopreventive role.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
  16. Malakahmad A, Manan TSBA, Sivapalan S, Khan T
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Feb;25(6):5421-5436.
    PMID: 29209979 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-0721-8
    Allium cepa assay was carried out in this study to evaluate genotoxic effects of raw and treated water samples from Perak River in Perak state, Malaysia. Samples were collected from three surface water treatment plants along the river, namely WTPP, WTPS, and WTPK. Initially, triplicates of equal size Allium cepa (onions) bulbs, 25-30 mm in diameter and average weight of 20 g, were set up in distilled water for 24 h at 20 ± 2 °C and protected from direct sunlight, to let the roots to grow. After germination of roots (0.5-1.0 cm in length), bulbs were transferred to collected water samples each for a 96-h period of exposure. The root physical deformations were observed. Genotoxicity quantification was based on mitotic index and genotoxicity level. Statistical analysis using cross-correlation function for replicates from treated water showed that root length has inverse correlation with mitotic indices (r = - 0.969) and frequencies of cell aberrations (r = - 0.976) at lag 1. Mitotic indices and cell aberrations of replicates from raw water have shown positive correlation at lag 1 (r = 0.946). Genotoxicity levels obtained were 23.4 ± 1.98 (WTPP), 26.68 ± 0.34 (WTPS), and 30.4 ± 1.13 (WTPK) for treated water and 17.8 ± 0.18 (WTPP), 37.15 ± 0.17 (WTPS), and 47.2 ± 0.48 (WTPK) for raw water. The observed cell aberrations were adherence, chromosome delay, C-metaphase, chromosome loss, chromosome bridge, chromosome breaks, binucleated cell, mini cell, and lobulated nuclei. The morphogenetic deformations obtained were likely due to genotoxic substances presence in collected water samples. Thus, water treatment in Malaysia does not remove genotoxic compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
  17. Ali AQ, Kannan TP, Ahmad A, Samsudin AR
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2008 Feb;22(1):57-67.
    PMID: 17892925
    The aims of this study are to determine the mutagenicity of a locally produced polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) using Salmonella mutagenicity test and to find out if PHB altered the expression of p53 and c-myc proto-oncogenes and bcl-xl and bcl-xs anti-apoptotic genes in the human fibroblast cell line, MRC-5. Different concentrations of PHB were incubated with special genotypic variants of Salmonella strains (TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98 and TA100) carrying mutations in several genes both with and without metabolic activation (S9) and the test was assessed based on the number of revertant colonies. The average number of revertant colonies per plate treated with PHB was less than double as compared to that of negative control. For the gene expression analyses, fibroblast cell lines were treated with PHB at different concentrations and incubated for 1, 12, 24 and 48 h separately. The total RNA was isolated and analysed for the expression of p53, c-myc, bcl-xl and bcl-xs genes. The PHB did not show over or under expression of the genes studied. The above tests indicate that the locally produced PHB is non-genotoxic and does not alter the expression of the proto-oncogenes and anti-apoptotic genes considered in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
  18. Li Y, Qin T, Ingle T, Yan J, He W, Yin JJ, et al.
    Arch Toxicol, 2017 Jan;91(1):509-519.
    PMID: 27180073 DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1730-y
    In spite of many reports on the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), the mechanisms underlying the toxicity are far from clear. A key question is whether the observed toxicity comes from the silver ions (Ag(+)) released from the AgNPs or from the nanoparticles themselves. In this study, we explored the genotoxicity and the genotoxicity mechanisms of Ag(+) and AgNPs. Human TK6 cells were treated with 5 nM AgNPs or silver nitrate (AgNO3) to evaluate their genotoxicity and induction of oxidative stress. AgNPs and AgNO3 induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in a similar range of concentrations (1.00-1.75 µg/ml) when evaluated using the micronucleus assay, and both induced oxidative stress by measuring the gene expression and reactive oxygen species in the treated cells. Addition of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an Ag(+) chelator) to the treatments significantly decreased genotoxicity of Ag(+), but not AgNPs, while addition of Trolox (a free radical scavenger) to the treatment efficiently decreased the genotoxicity of both agents. In addition, the Ag(+) released from the highest concentration of AgNPs used for the treatment was measured. Only 0.5 % of the AgNPs were ionized in the culture medium and the released silver ions were neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic at this concentration. Further analysis using electron spin resonance demonstrated that AgNPs produced hydroxyl radicals directly, while AgNO3 did not. These results indicated that although both AgNPs and Ag(+) can cause genotoxicity via oxidative stress, the mechanisms are different, and the nanoparticles, but not the released ions, mainly contribute to the genotoxicity of AgNPs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
  19. Al-Dualimi DW, Shah Abdul Majid A, Al-Shimary SFF, Al-Saadi AA, Al Zarzour R, Asif M, et al.
    Drug Chem Toxicol, 2018 Jan;41(1):82-88.
    PMID: 28635332 DOI: 10.1080/01480545.2017.1317785
    Herbal products contain a variety of compounds which may be useful in protecting against cellular damage caused by mutagens. Orthosiphon stamineus (O.s) also known as Cat whiskers. The herb has been shown anti-oxidative properties and can modulate key cellular proteins that have cytoprotective effect. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1) of 50% ethanol extract of O.s (Et. O.s) on micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), Polychromatic to normachromatic erythrocytes ratio (PCE/NCE), Mitotic index (MI), and Chromosomal aberration (CA) in Bab/c mice. Moreover, these parameters were used to evaluate the anti-genotoxic and clastogenic potencies of (Et. O.s) against mitomycin c (MMC) that interact with biological molecules and induce genotoxic and clastogenic disorders in non-tumor cells. MMC (4 mg kg-1) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the mice before and after treatment with three different doses of (Et. O.s). The results indicated that the extract at different doses did not show significant (p ≥ 0.05) differences in (MNPCE), (PCE/NCE) ratios, and (CA) values. The higher doses sowed high (MI) values compared with untreated control group. MMC showed significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in (MNPCE), (CA) and reduce (PCE/NCE) and (MI) values compared with untreated control group. Treatment with (Et. O.s) at different doses before and after MMC injection showed to modulate MNPCE, PCE/NCE ratios, CA and MI values in mice bone marrow cells suggesting genoprotective potential of this plant extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagens/toxicity*
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