Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 105 in total

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  1. Ng KH
    Australas Phys Eng Sci Med, 2008 Jun;31(2):85-9.
    PMID: 18697700
    From the time when Roentgen and other physicists made the discoveries which led to the development of radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, medical physicists have played a pivotal role in the development of new technologies that have revolutionized the way medicine is practiced today. Medical physicists have been transforming scientific advances in the research laboratories to improving the quality of life for patients; indeed innovations such as computed tomography, positron emission tomography and linear accelerators which collectively have improved the medical outcomes for millions of people. In order for radiation-delivery techniques to improve in targeting accuracy, optimal dose distribution and clinical outcome, convergence of imaging and therapy is the key. It is timely for these two specialties to work closer again. This can be achieved by means of cross-disciplinary research, common conferences and workshops, and collaboration in education and training for all. The current emphasis is on enhancing the specific skill development and competency of a medical physicist at the expense of their future roles and opportunities. This emphasis is largely driven by financial and political pressures for optimizing limited resources in health care. This has raised serious concern on the ability of the next generation of medical physicists to respond to new technologies. In addition in the background loom changes of tsunami proportion. The clearly defined boundaries between the different disciplines in medicine are increasingly blurred and those between diagnosis, therapy and management are also following suit. The use of radioactive particles to treat tumours using catheters, high-intensity focused ultrasound, electromagnetic wave ablation and photodynamic therapy are just some areas challenging the old paradigm. The uncertainty and turf battles will only explode further and medical physicists will not be spared. How would medical physicists fit into this changing scenario? We are in the midst of molecular revolution. Are we prepared to explore the newer technologies such as nanotechnology, drug discovery, pre-clinical imaging, optical imaging and biomedical informatics? How are our curricula adapting to the changing needs? We should remember the late Professor John Cameron who advocated imagination and creativity - these important attributes will make us still relevant in 2020 and beyond. To me the future is clear: "To achieve more, we should imagine together."
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine/education*; Nanomedicine/trends*
  2. Khandaker MU, Nagatsu K, Minegishi K, Zhang MR, Jalilian AR, Bradley DA
    Appl Radiat Isot, 2020 Sep 15;166:109428.
    PMID: 32979754 DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2020.109428
    186gRe (T1/2 = 3.7183 d, E(β-)mean = 346.7 keV, I(β-)mean = 92.59%), a mixed beta and γ-emitter shows great potential for use in theranostic applications. The dominant 185Re(n,γ) route, via use of a nuclear reactor, provides 186gRe in carrier added form with low specific activity, while cyclotrons offer no carrier-added (NCA) high specific activity production of 186gRe. However, to be able to select the best possible nuclear reaction and to optimize the production route via the use of a cyclotron, information on the excitation function for the reaction of interest as well as for the competing reactions is necessary. Accordingly, we have conducted a detailed study of the excitation functions for natW(d, x) reactions in seeking optimized parameters for the NCA production of 186gRe. Noting a discrepancy among the experimental data, we made an evaluation of the available literature, finally selecting optimum parameters for the production of 186gRe via the 186W(d,2n)186Re reaction. These beam parameters were then used for batch production of 186gRe by irradiating an enriched 186W metallic powder target, followed by a subsequent automated chemical separation process. The preliminary results show 98.1% radionuclidic purity of 186gRe at 8 h subsequent to the End of Bombardment (EOB), offering the potential for use in clinical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Theranostic Nanomedicine
  3. Wong XY, Sena-Torralba A, Álvarez-Diduk R, Muthoosamy K, Merkoçi A
    ACS Nano, 2020 03 24;14(3):2585-2627.
    PMID: 32031781 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.9b08133
    Nanotheranostics is one of the biggest scientific breakthroughs in nanomedicine. Most of the currently available diagnosis and therapies are invasive, time-consuming, and associated with severe toxic side effects. Nanotheranostics, on the other hand, has the potential to bridge this gap by harnessing the capabilities of nanotechnology and nanomaterials for combined therapeutics and diagnostics with markedly enhanced efficacy. However, nanomaterial applications in nanotheranostics are still in its infancy. This is due to the fact that each disease has a particular microenvironment with well-defined characteristics, which promotes deeper selection criteria of nanomaterials to meet the disease needs. In this review, we have outlined how nanomaterials are designed and tailored for nanotheranostics of cancer and other diseases such as neurodegenerative, autoimmune (particularly on rheumatoid arthritis), and cardiovascular diseases. The penetrability and retention of a nanomaterial in the biological system, the therapeutic strategy used, and the imaging mode selected are some of the aspects discussed for each disease. The specific properties of the nanomaterials in terms of feasibility, physicochemical challenges, progress in clinical trials, its toxicity, and their future application on translational medicine are addressed. Our review meticulously and critically examines the applications of nanotheranostics with various nanomaterials, including graphene, across several diseases, offering a broader perspective of this emerging field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Theranostic Nanomedicine*; Nanomedicine*
  4. Low LE, Wang Q, Chen Y, Lin P, Yang S, Gong L, et al.
    Nanoscale, 2021 Jun 17;13(23):10197-10238.
    PMID: 34027535 DOI: 10.1039/d1nr02127c
    Neurodegenerative disorder is an illness involving neural dysfunction/death attributed to complex pathological processes, which eventually lead to the mortality of the host. It is generally recognized through features such as mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, oxidative stress, metal ions dyshomeostasis, membrane potential change, neuroinflammation and neurotransmitter impairment. The aforementioned neuronal dysregulations result in the formation of a complex neurodegenerative microenvironment (NME), and may interact with each other, hindering the performance of therapeutics for neurodegenerative disease (ND). Recently, smart nanoassemblies prepared from functional nanoparticles, which possess the ability to interfere with different NME factors, have shown great promise to enhance the diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy of NDs. Herein, this review highlights the recent advances of stimuli-responsive nanoassemblies that can effectively combat the NME for the management of ND. The first section outlined the NME properties and their interrelations that are exploitable for nanoscale targeting. The discussion is then extended to the controlled assembly of functional nanoparticles for the construction of stimuli-responsive nanoassemblies. Further, the applications of stimuli-responsive nanoassemblies for the enhanced diagnosis and therapy of ND are introduced. Finally, perspectives on the future development of NME-tailored nanomedicines are given.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine
  5. Ali A, Akhtar J, Ahmad U, Basheer AS, Jaiswal N, Jahan A
    PMID: 36374840 DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.2022039241
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. However, more than half of all incidence and mortality are caused by risk factors such as smoking, unhealthy diet, excessive alcohol consumption, inactivity, and excess weight, and thus can be protected. CRC morbidity and mortality can also be reduced by proper screening and monitoring. Over the last few years the amalgamation of nanotechnology with healthcare system has brought about the potential to administer the delivery of certain therapeutic drugs to cancer cells without affecting normal tissues. Recent strategies combine the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the overall performance of cancer nanomedicines. Targeted cancer nanotherapeutics provides many more opportunities for the selective detection of toxic chemicals within cancer cells. The distinctive features of nanoparticles, such as their small size, large surface to volume ratio, and the ability of nanoparticles to achieve several interactions of ligands at surface, offer great benefits of nanomedicines to treat various types of cancers. This review highlights the molecular mechanisms of colorectal carcinogenesis and discusses various key concepts in the development of nanotherapeutics targeted for CRC treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine
  6. Mousavi SM, Low FW, Hashemi SA, Lai CW, Ghasemi Y, Soroshnia S, et al.
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2020 Dec;48(1):1189-1205.
    PMID: 32930615 DOI: 10.1080/21691401.2020.1817052
    Graphene and its derivative materials present high potential towards medical and biological applications, including drug delivery and bioimaging, due to their exceptional properties such as thermal conductivity and high specific surface area. The main focus of this work is to review the current development of graphene materials and the derivatives for biocompatible, bioimaging and drug delivery applications. Also, the synthesis methods with variation of graphene nanocomposites and the functionalisation will be further explained. For the graphene approaches, chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is the best-known technique to make high-quality graphene sheet by growth route with mass production. By considering the organic graphene nanocomposites, the biocompatibility and cytotoxic effects against graphene nanocomposites were evaluated for biomedical employments such as high quality bioimaging and effective drug delivery for cancer treatments. For example, graphene oxide incorporated with PEG and loaded with SN 38 for camptothecin analolgue as anticancer drug and revealed high cytotoxicity has an effect of 1000 times better effect than CPT in HCT-116 cells. Their drug delivery ability for both in-vivo and in-vitro applications compared to the controlled drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX) will be discussed accordingly. The graphene and its deriavatives possess some intriguing properties, which will lead to drug delivery due to strong biocompatibility and cyctotoxic effect towards biomedicine applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine/methods*
  7. Ali Khan A, Mudassir J, Mohtar N, Darwis Y
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2013;8:2733-44.
    PMID: 23926431 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S41521
    The delivery of drugs and bioactive compounds via the lymphatic system is complex and dependent on the physiological uniqueness of the system. The lymphatic route plays an important role in transporting extracellular fluid to maintain homeostasis and in transferring immune cells to injury sites, and is able to avoid first-pass metabolism, thus acting as a bypass route for compounds with lower bioavailability, ie, those undergoing more hepatic metabolism. The lymphatic route also provides an option for the delivery of therapeutic molecules, such as drugs to treat cancer and human immunodeficiency virus, which can travel through the lymphatic system. Lymphatic imaging is useful in evaluating disease states and treatment plans for progressive diseases of the lymph system. Novel lipid-based nanoformulations, such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, have unique characteristics that make them promising candidates for lymphatic delivery. These formulations are superior to colloidal carrier systems because they have controlled release properties and provide better chemical stability for drug molecules. However, multiple factors regulate the lymphatic delivery of drugs. Prior to lymphatic uptake, lipid-based nanoformulations are required to undergo interstitial hindrance that modulates drug delivery. Therefore, uptake and distribution of lipid-based nanoformulations by the lymphatic system depends on factors such as particle size, surface charge, molecular weight, and hydrophobicity. Types of lipid and concentration of the emulsifier are also important factors affecting drug delivery via the lymphatic system. All of these factors can cause changes in intermolecular interactions between the lipid nanoparticle matrix and the incorporated drug, which in turn affects uptake of drug into the lymphatic system. Two lipid-based nanoformulations, ie, solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, have been administered via multiple routes (subcutaneous, pulmonary, and intestinal) for targeting of the lymphatic system. This paper provides a detailed review of novel lipid-based nanoformulations and their lymphatic delivery via different routes, as well as the in vivo and in vitro models used to study drug transport in the lymphatic system. Physicochemical properties that influence lymphatic delivery as well as the advantages of lipid-based nanoformulations for lymphatic delivery are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine*
  8. John AA, Subramanian AP, Vellayappan MV, Balaji A, Mohandas H, Jaganathan SK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:4267-77.
    PMID: 26170663 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S83777
    Neuroregeneration is the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells, or cell products involved in neurodegeneration and inflammatory diseases of the nervous system like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Nowadays, application of nanotechnology is commonly used in developing nanomedicines to advance pharmacokinetics and drug delivery exclusively for central nervous system pathologies. In addition, nanomedical advances are leading to therapies that disrupt disarranged protein aggregation in the central nervous system, deliver functional neuroprotective growth factors, and change the oxidative stress and excitotoxicity of affected neural tissues to regenerate the damaged neurons. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are allotropes of carbon that have been exploited by researchers because of their excellent physical properties and their ability to interface with neurons and neuronal circuits. This review describes the role of carbon nanotubes and graphene in neuroregeneration. In the future, it is hoped that the benefits of nanotechnologies will outweigh their risks, and that the next decade will present huge scope for developing and delivering technologies in the field of neuroscience.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine*
  9. Al-Hatamleh MAI, Hatmal MM, Alshaer W, Rahman ENSEA, Mohd-Zahid MH, Alhaj-Qasem DM, et al.
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2021 Apr 05;896:173930.
    PMID: 33545157 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.173930
    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in December 2019 and caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, took the world by surprise with an unprecedented public health emergency. Since this pandemic began, extraordinary efforts have been made by scientists to understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and to fight the infection by providing various preventive, diagnostic and treatment opportunities based on either novel hypotheses or past experiences. Despite all the achievements, COVID-19 continues to be an accelerating health threat with no specifically approved vaccine or therapy. This review highlights the recent advances in COVID-19 infection, with a particular emphasis on nanomedicine applications that can help in the development of effective vaccines or therapeutics against COVID-19. A novel future perspective has been proposed in this review based on utilizing polymersome nano-objects for effectively suppressing the cytokine storm, which may reduce the severity of COVID-19 infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine/methods*
  10. Cabrera-Fuentes HA, Aragones J, Bernhagen J, Boening A, Boisvert WA, Bøtker HE, et al.
    Basic Res Cardiol, 2016 11;111(6):69.
    PMID: 27743118
    In this meeting report, particularly addressing the topic of protection of the cardiovascular system from ischemia/reperfusion injury, highlights are presented that relate to conditioning strategies of the heart with respect to molecular mechanisms and outcome in patients' cohorts, the influence of co-morbidities and medications, as well as the contribution of innate immune reactions in cardioprotection. Moreover, developmental or systems biology approaches bear great potential in systematically uncovering unexpected components involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury or heart regeneration. Based on the characterization of particular platelet integrins, mitochondrial redox-linked proteins, or lipid-diol compounds in cardiovascular diseases, their targeting by newly developed theranostics and technologies opens new avenues for diagnosis and therapy of myocardial infarction to improve the patients' outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Theranostic Nanomedicine/trends*
  11. Foroozandeh P, Aziz AA
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2015;10:221.
    PMID: 25995715 DOI: 10.1186/s11671-015-0922-3
    Protein corona has became a prevalent subject in the field of nanomedicine owing to its diverse role in determining the efficiency, efficacy, and the ultimate biological fate of the nanomaterials used as a tool to treat and diagnose various diseases. For instance, protein corona formation on the surface of nanoparticles can modify its physicochemical properties and interfere with its intended functionalities in the biological microenvironments. As such, much emphasis should be placed in understanding these complex phenomena that occur at the bio-nano interface. The main aim of this review is to present different factors that are influencing protein-nanoparticle interaction such as physicochemical properties of nanoparticle (i.e., size and size distribution, shape, composition, surface chemistry, and coatings) and the effect of biological microenvironments. Apart from that, the effect of ignored factors at the bio-nano interface such as temperature, plasma concentration, plasma gradient effect, administration route, and cell observer were also addressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine
  12. Chik MW, Hussain Z, Zulkefeli M, Tripathy M, Kumar S, Majeed ABA, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):578-594.
    PMID: 29594914 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0505-9
    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess outstanding properties that could be useful in several technological, drug delivery, and diagnostic applications. However, their unique physical and chemical properties are hindered due to their poor solubility. This article review's the different ways and means of solubility enhancement of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The advantages of SWNTs over the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and the method of non-covalent modification for solubility enhancement has been the key interest in this review. The review also highlights a few examples of dispersant design. The review includes some interesting utility of SWNTs being wrapped with polymer especially in biological media that could mediate proper drug delivery to target cells. Further, the use of wrapped SWNTs with phospholipids, nucleic acid, and amphiphillic polymers as biosensors is of research interest. The review aims at summarizing the developments relating to wrapped SWNTs to generate further research prospects in healthcare.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine
  13. Subin TS, Vijayan V, Kumar KJR
    Pharm Nanotechnol, 2017;5(3):180-191.
    PMID: 28641516 DOI: 10.2174/2211738505666170615095542
    BACKGROUND: Nanomedicine is a branch which deals with medicinal products, devices, nonbiological complex drugs and antibody-nanoparticle conjugates and general health products that are manufactured using nanotechnology.

    OBJECTIVE: Nano-medicine provides the same efficacies as traditional medicines owing to their improved solubility and bioavailability with reduced dosages. However, there are currently safety concerns due to the difficulties related to nanomaterial characterization; this might be the reason for unawareness of such medicines among the patients. The absence of clear regulatory guidelines further complicates matters, as it makes the path to registering them with regulatory bodies difficult. However, some products have overcome these obstacles and have been registered. While there are many international initiatives to harmonize the regulatory requirements and helps the industry to determine the most important characteristics that influence in vivo product performance.

    CONCLUSION: This review focuses on the various types of nanopharmaceuticals, and developments process with strategies tailored to upcoming regulations may satisfy the patients' needs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine/instrumentation; Nanomedicine/legislation & jurisprudence*; Nanomedicine/methods
  14. Thakur V, Kutty RV
    J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2019 Oct 28;38(1):430.
    PMID: 31661003 DOI: 10.1186/s13046-019-1443-1
    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most complex and aggressive type of breast cancer encountered world widely in women. Absence of hormonal receptors on breast cancer cells necessitates the chemotherapy as the only treatment regime. High propensity to metastasize and relapse in addition to poor prognosis and survival motivated the oncologist, nano-medical scientist to develop novel and efficient nanotherapies to solve such a big TNBC challenge. Recently, the focus for enhanced availability, targeted cellular uptake with minimal toxicity is achieved by nano-carriers. These smart nano-carriers carrying all the necessary arsenals (drugs, tracking probe, and ligand) designed in such a way that specifically targets the TNBC cells at site. Articulating the targeted delivery system with multifunctional molecules for high specificity, tracking, diagnosis, and treatment emerged as theranostic approach. In this review, in addition to classical treatment modalities, recent advances in nanotheranostics for early and effective diagnostic and treatment is discussed. This review highlighted the recently FDA approved immunotherapy and all the ongoing clinical trials for TNBC, in addition to nanoparticle assisted immunotherapy. Futuristic but realistic advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning not only improve early diagnosis but also assist clinicians for their workup in TNBC. The novel concept of Nanoparticles induced endothelial leakiness (NanoEL) as a way of tumor invasion is also discussed in addition to classical EPR effect. This review intends to provide basic insight and understanding of the novel nano-therapeutic modalities in TNBC diagnosis and treatment and to sensitize the readers for continue designing the novel nanomedicine. This is the first time that designing nanoparticles with stoichiometric definable number of antibodies per nanoparticle now represents the next level of precision by design in nanomedicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Theranostic Nanomedicine/methods*; Nanomedicine/methods*
  15. Pandey P, Satija S, Wadhwa R, Mehta M, Purohit D, Gupta G, et al.
    Dermatol Ther, 2020 05;33(3):e13292.
    PMID: 32126154 DOI: 10.1111/dth.13292
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine
  16. Ong YS, Bañobre-López M, Costa Lima SA, Reis S
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2020 Nov;116:111255.
    PMID: 32806240 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111255
    Methotrexate (MTX), an anti-neoplastic agent used for breast cancer treatment, has restricted clinical applications due to poor water solubility, non-specific targeting and adverse side effects. To overcome these limitations, MTX was co-encapsulated with an active-targeting platform known as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in a lipid-based homing system, nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). This multi-modal therapeutic regime was successfully formulated with good colloidal stability, bio- and hemo-compatibility. MTX-SPIONs co-loaded NLC was time-dependent cytotoxic towards MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line with IC50 values of 137 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL at 48 and 72 h, respectively. The MTX-SPIONs co-loaded NLC was internalized in the MDA-MB-231 cells via caveolae-mediated endocytosis in a time-dependent manner, and the superparamagnetic properties were sufficient to induce, under a magnetic field, a localized temperature increase at cellular level resulting in apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, MTX-SPIONs co-loaded NLC is a potential magnetic guiding multi-modal therapeutic system for the treatment of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine
  17. Sharma PA, Maheshwari R, Tekade M, Tekade RK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(30):4465-78.
    PMID: 26354926
    The increasing prevalence and complexity of cardiovascular diseases demand innovative strategies for diagnostic and therapeutic applications to improve patient care/prognoses. Additionally, various factors constrain present cardiovascular therapies, including low aqueous drug solubility, early metabolism, short half-life and drug delivery limitations. The efficient treatment of cardiovascular diseases requires improvement of traditional drug delivery systems. This can be accomplished by using novel nanomaterial that can incorporate diverse bio-actives along with diagnostic agents in a single carrier, referred to as theranostics. This review discusses the state of the art in the applications to diagnosis and therapy of innovative, nanomaterial- based strategies such as lipid based carriers, nanocapsules, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, protein conjugated nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon-based nanoformulations with a special emphasis on how they can contribute to improving the management of cardiovascular disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine*
  18. Anniebell S, Gopinath SCB
    Curr Med Chem, 2018;25(12):1433-1445.
    PMID: 28093984 DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666170116123633
    BACKGROUND: Research interest on the properties of polymer conjugated gold nanoparticle (GNP) in biomedicine is rapidly rising because of the extensive evidences for their unique properties. In the field of biomedicine, GNPs have been widely used because of their inertness and low levels of cytotoxicity. Therefore, when exposed to cells, they are less prone to exert damaging effects. GNPs are capable of being functionalized as desired and are ideal as they do not encourage undesired side reactions that might counter react with the intention of the functionalization. Biofouling is an occurrence that takes place at cellular and biological molecular level, binds non-specifically on the detection surface and forms a wrong output. This undesired incidence can be avoided by conjugating the surface of biomolecules with polymers. Densely packed repeating chains of polymers such as polyethylene glycol are capable of decreasing non-specific reactions. Applications of polymer conjugated GNPs in the field of biomedicine are as biosensors, delivery and therapeutic agents.

    CONCLUSION: Therefore, the properties and applications of polymer conjugated GNPs are studied widely as overviewed here.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine/methods*
  19. Jeyamogan S, Khan NA, Siddiqui R
    Arch Med Res, 2021 02;52(2):131-142.
    PMID: 33423803 DOI: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2020.10.016
    The number of cancer cases worldwide in terms of morbidity and mortality is a serious concern, despite the presence of therapeutic interventions and supportive care. Limitations in the current available diagnosis methods and treatments methods may contribute to the increase in cancer mortality. Theranostics, is a novel approach that has opened avenues for the simultaneous precise diagnosis and treatment for cancer patients. Although still in the early development stage, theranostic agents such as quantum dots, radioisotopes, liposomes and plasmonic nanobubbles can be bound to anticancer drugs, cancer cell markers and imaging agents, with the support of available imaging techniques, provide the potential to facilitate diagnosis, treatment and management of cancer patients. Herein, we discuss the potential benefits of several theranostic tools for the management of cancer. Specifically, quantum dots, radio-labelled isotopes, liposomes and plasmonic nanobubbles coupled with targeting agents and/or anticancer molecules and imaging agents as theranostic agents are deliberated upon in this review. Overall, the use of theranostic agents shows promise in cancer management. Nevertheless, intensive research is required to realize these expectations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Theranostic Nanomedicine/methods*
  20. Albalawi F, Hussein MZ, Fakurazi S, Masarudin MJ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2021;16:161-184.
    PMID: 33447033 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S288236
    The emergence of nanotechnology as a key enabling technology over the past years has opened avenues for new and innovative applications in nanomedicine. From the business aspect, the nanomedicine market was estimated to worth USD 293.1 billion by 2022 with a perception of market growth to USD 350.8 billion in 2025. Despite these opportunities, the underlying challenges for the future of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in nanomedicine research became a significant obstacle in bringing ENMs into clinical stages. These challenges include the capability to design bias-free methods in evaluating ENMs' toxicity due to the lack of suitable detection and inconsistent characterization techniques. Therefore, in this literature review, the state-of-the-art of engineered nanomaterials in nanomedicine, their toxicology issues, the working framework in developing a toxicology benchmark and technical characterization techniques in determining the toxicity of ENMs from the reported literature are explored.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine*
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