Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 67 in total

  1. Ng KH
    Australas Phys Eng Sci Med, 2008 Jun;31(2):85-9.
    PMID: 18697700
    From the time when Roentgen and other physicists made the discoveries which led to the development of radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, medical physicists have played a pivotal role in the development of new technologies that have revolutionized the way medicine is practiced today. Medical physicists have been transforming scientific advances in the research laboratories to improving the quality of life for patients; indeed innovations such as computed tomography, positron emission tomography and linear accelerators which collectively have improved the medical outcomes for millions of people. In order for radiation-delivery techniques to improve in targeting accuracy, optimal dose distribution and clinical outcome, convergence of imaging and therapy is the key. It is timely for these two specialties to work closer again. This can be achieved by means of cross-disciplinary research, common conferences and workshops, and collaboration in education and training for all. The current emphasis is on enhancing the specific skill development and competency of a medical physicist at the expense of their future roles and opportunities. This emphasis is largely driven by financial and political pressures for optimizing limited resources in health care. This has raised serious concern on the ability of the next generation of medical physicists to respond to new technologies. In addition in the background loom changes of tsunami proportion. The clearly defined boundaries between the different disciplines in medicine are increasingly blurred and those between diagnosis, therapy and management are also following suit. The use of radioactive particles to treat tumours using catheters, high-intensity focused ultrasound, electromagnetic wave ablation and photodynamic therapy are just some areas challenging the old paradigm. The uncertainty and turf battles will only explode further and medical physicists will not be spared. How would medical physicists fit into this changing scenario? We are in the midst of molecular revolution. Are we prepared to explore the newer technologies such as nanotechnology, drug discovery, pre-clinical imaging, optical imaging and biomedical informatics? How are our curricula adapting to the changing needs? We should remember the late Professor John Cameron who advocated imagination and creativity - these important attributes will make us still relevant in 2020 and beyond. To me the future is clear: "To achieve more, we should imagine together."
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine/education*; Nanomedicine/trends*
  2. Ali Khan A, Mudassir J, Mohtar N, Darwis Y
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2013;8:2733-44.
    PMID: 23926431 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S41521
    The delivery of drugs and bioactive compounds via the lymphatic system is complex and dependent on the physiological uniqueness of the system. The lymphatic route plays an important role in transporting extracellular fluid to maintain homeostasis and in transferring immune cells to injury sites, and is able to avoid first-pass metabolism, thus acting as a bypass route for compounds with lower bioavailability, ie, those undergoing more hepatic metabolism. The lymphatic route also provides an option for the delivery of therapeutic molecules, such as drugs to treat cancer and human immunodeficiency virus, which can travel through the lymphatic system. Lymphatic imaging is useful in evaluating disease states and treatment plans for progressive diseases of the lymph system. Novel lipid-based nanoformulations, such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, have unique characteristics that make them promising candidates for lymphatic delivery. These formulations are superior to colloidal carrier systems because they have controlled release properties and provide better chemical stability for drug molecules. However, multiple factors regulate the lymphatic delivery of drugs. Prior to lymphatic uptake, lipid-based nanoformulations are required to undergo interstitial hindrance that modulates drug delivery. Therefore, uptake and distribution of lipid-based nanoformulations by the lymphatic system depends on factors such as particle size, surface charge, molecular weight, and hydrophobicity. Types of lipid and concentration of the emulsifier are also important factors affecting drug delivery via the lymphatic system. All of these factors can cause changes in intermolecular interactions between the lipid nanoparticle matrix and the incorporated drug, which in turn affects uptake of drug into the lymphatic system. Two lipid-based nanoformulations, ie, solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, have been administered via multiple routes (subcutaneous, pulmonary, and intestinal) for targeting of the lymphatic system. This paper provides a detailed review of novel lipid-based nanoformulations and their lymphatic delivery via different routes, as well as the in vivo and in vitro models used to study drug transport in the lymphatic system. Physicochemical properties that influence lymphatic delivery as well as the advantages of lipid-based nanoformulations for lymphatic delivery are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine*
  3. John AA, Subramanian AP, Vellayappan MV, Balaji A, Mohandas H, Jaganathan SK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:4267-77.
    PMID: 26170663 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S83777
    Neuroregeneration is the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells, or cell products involved in neurodegeneration and inflammatory diseases of the nervous system like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Nowadays, application of nanotechnology is commonly used in developing nanomedicines to advance pharmacokinetics and drug delivery exclusively for central nervous system pathologies. In addition, nanomedical advances are leading to therapies that disrupt disarranged protein aggregation in the central nervous system, deliver functional neuroprotective growth factors, and change the oxidative stress and excitotoxicity of affected neural tissues to regenerate the damaged neurons. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are allotropes of carbon that have been exploited by researchers because of their excellent physical properties and their ability to interface with neurons and neuronal circuits. This review describes the role of carbon nanotubes and graphene in neuroregeneration. In the future, it is hoped that the benefits of nanotechnologies will outweigh their risks, and that the next decade will present huge scope for developing and delivering technologies in the field of neuroscience.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine*
  4. Cabrera-Fuentes HA, Aragones J, Bernhagen J, Boening A, Boisvert WA, Bøtker HE, et al.
    Basic Res. Cardiol., 2016 11;111(6):69.
    PMID: 27743118
    In this meeting report, particularly addressing the topic of protection of the cardiovascular system from ischemia/reperfusion injury, highlights are presented that relate to conditioning strategies of the heart with respect to molecular mechanisms and outcome in patients' cohorts, the influence of co-morbidities and medications, as well as the contribution of innate immune reactions in cardioprotection. Moreover, developmental or systems biology approaches bear great potential in systematically uncovering unexpected components involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury or heart regeneration. Based on the characterization of particular platelet integrins, mitochondrial redox-linked proteins, or lipid-diol compounds in cardiovascular diseases, their targeting by newly developed theranostics and technologies opens new avenues for diagnosis and therapy of myocardial infarction to improve the patients' outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Theranostic Nanomedicine/trends*
  5. Subin TS, Vijayan V, Kumar KJR
    Pharm Nanotechnol, 2017;5(3):180-191.
    PMID: 28641516 DOI: 10.2174/2211738505666170615095542
    BACKGROUND: Nanomedicine is a branch which deals with medicinal products, devices, nonbiological complex drugs and antibody-nanoparticle conjugates and general health products that are manufactured using nanotechnology.

    OBJECTIVE: Nano-medicine provides the same efficacies as traditional medicines owing to their improved solubility and bioavailability with reduced dosages. However, there are currently safety concerns due to the difficulties related to nanomaterial characterization; this might be the reason for unawareness of such medicines among the patients. The absence of clear regulatory guidelines further complicates matters, as it makes the path to registering them with regulatory bodies difficult. However, some products have overcome these obstacles and have been registered. While there are many international initiatives to harmonize the regulatory requirements and helps the industry to determine the most important characteristics that influence in vivo product performance.

    CONCLUSION: This review focuses on the various types of nanopharmaceuticals, and developments process with strategies tailored to upcoming regulations may satisfy the patients' needs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine/instrumentation; Nanomedicine/legislation & jurisprudence*; Nanomedicine/methods
  6. Foroozandeh P, Aziz AA
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2015;10:221.
    PMID: 25995715 DOI: 10.1186/s11671-015-0922-3
    Protein corona has became a prevalent subject in the field of nanomedicine owing to its diverse role in determining the efficiency, efficacy, and the ultimate biological fate of the nanomaterials used as a tool to treat and diagnose various diseases. For instance, protein corona formation on the surface of nanoparticles can modify its physicochemical properties and interfere with its intended functionalities in the biological microenvironments. As such, much emphasis should be placed in understanding these complex phenomena that occur at the bio-nano interface. The main aim of this review is to present different factors that are influencing protein-nanoparticle interaction such as physicochemical properties of nanoparticle (i.e., size and size distribution, shape, composition, surface chemistry, and coatings) and the effect of biological microenvironments. Apart from that, the effect of ignored factors at the bio-nano interface such as temperature, plasma concentration, plasma gradient effect, administration route, and cell observer were also addressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine
  7. Sharma PA, Maheshwari R, Tekade M, Tekade RK
    Curr. Pharm. Des., 2015;21(30):4465-78.
    PMID: 26354926
    The increasing prevalence and complexity of cardiovascular diseases demand innovative strategies for diagnostic and therapeutic applications to improve patient care/prognoses. Additionally, various factors constrain present cardiovascular therapies, including low aqueous drug solubility, early metabolism, short half-life and drug delivery limitations. The efficient treatment of cardiovascular diseases requires improvement of traditional drug delivery systems. This can be accomplished by using novel nanomaterial that can incorporate diverse bio-actives along with diagnostic agents in a single carrier, referred to as theranostics. This review discusses the state of the art in the applications to diagnosis and therapy of innovative, nanomaterial- based strategies such as lipid based carriers, nanocapsules, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, protein conjugated nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon-based nanoformulations with a special emphasis on how they can contribute to improving the management of cardiovascular disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine*
  8. Anniebell S, Gopinath SCB
    Curr. Med. Chem., 2018;25(12):1433-1445.
    PMID: 28093984 DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666170116123633
    BACKGROUND: Research interest on the properties of polymer conjugated gold nanoparticle (GNP) in biomedicine is rapidly rising because of the extensive evidences for their unique properties. In the field of biomedicine, GNPs have been widely used because of their inertness and low levels of cytotoxicity. Therefore, when exposed to cells, they are less prone to exert damaging effects. GNPs are capable of being functionalized as desired and are ideal as they do not encourage undesired side reactions that might counter react with the intention of the functionalization. Biofouling is an occurrence that takes place at cellular and biological molecular level, binds non-specifically on the detection surface and forms a wrong output. This undesired incidence can be avoided by conjugating the surface of biomolecules with polymers. Densely packed repeating chains of polymers such as polyethylene glycol are capable of decreasing non-specific reactions. Applications of polymer conjugated GNPs in the field of biomedicine are as biosensors, delivery and therapeutic agents.

    CONCLUSION: Therefore, the properties and applications of polymer conjugated GNPs are studied widely as overviewed here.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine/methods*
  9. Thakur V, Kutty RV
    J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res., 2019 Oct 28;38(1):430.
    PMID: 31661003 DOI: 10.1186/s13046-019-1443-1
    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most complex and aggressive type of breast cancer encountered world widely in women. Absence of hormonal receptors on breast cancer cells necessitates the chemotherapy as the only treatment regime. High propensity to metastasize and relapse in addition to poor prognosis and survival motivated the oncologist, nano-medical scientist to develop novel and efficient nanotherapies to solve such a big TNBC challenge. Recently, the focus for enhanced availability, targeted cellular uptake with minimal toxicity is achieved by nano-carriers. These smart nano-carriers carrying all the necessary arsenals (drugs, tracking probe, and ligand) designed in such a way that specifically targets the TNBC cells at site. Articulating the targeted delivery system with multifunctional molecules for high specificity, tracking, diagnosis, and treatment emerged as theranostic approach. In this review, in addition to classical treatment modalities, recent advances in nanotheranostics for early and effective diagnostic and treatment is discussed. This review highlighted the recently FDA approved immunotherapy and all the ongoing clinical trials for TNBC, in addition to nanoparticle assisted immunotherapy. Futuristic but realistic advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning not only improve early diagnosis but also assist clinicians for their workup in TNBC. The novel concept of Nanoparticles induced endothelial leakiness (NanoEL) as a way of tumor invasion is also discussed in addition to classical EPR effect. This review intends to provide basic insight and understanding of the novel nano-therapeutic modalities in TNBC diagnosis and treatment and to sensitize the readers for continue designing the novel nanomedicine. This is the first time that designing nanoparticles with stoichiometric definable number of antibodies per nanoparticle now represents the next level of precision by design in nanomedicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Theranostic Nanomedicine; Nanomedicine
  10. Mishra V, Patil A, Thakur S, Kesharwani P
    Drug Discov. Today, 2018 06;23(6):1219-1232.
    PMID: 29366761 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2018.01.006
    Nanotechnology has gained significant interest from biomedical and analytical researchers in recent years. Carbon dots (C-dots), a new member of the carbon nanomaterial family, are spherical, nontoxic, biocompatible, and discrete particles less than 10nm in diameter. Research interest has focused on C-dots because of their ultra-compact nanosize, favorable biocompatibility, outstanding photoluminescence, superior electron transfer ability, and versatile surface engineering properties. C-dots show significant potential for use in cellular imaging, biosensing, targeted drug delivery, and other biomedical applications. Here we discuss C-dots, in terms of their physicochemical properties, fabrication techniques, toxicity issues, surface engineering and biomedical potential in drug delivery, targeting as well as bioimaging.
    Matched MeSH terms: Theranostic Nanomedicine
  11. Foroozandeh P, Aziz AA
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2018 Oct 25;13(1):339.
    PMID: 30361809 DOI: 10.1186/s11671-018-2728-6
    Nanoparticle science is rapidly changing the landscape of various scientific fields and defining new technological platforms. This is perhaps even more evident in the field of nanomedicine whereby nanoparticles have been used as a tool for the treatment and diagnosis of many diseases. However, despite the tremendous benefit conferred, common pitfalls of this technology is its potential short and long-term effects on the human body. To understand these issues, many scientific studies have been carried out. This review attempts to shed light on some of these studies and its outcomes. The topics that were examined in this review include the different possible uptake pathways of nanoparticles and intracellular trafficking routes. Additionally, the effect of physicochemical properties of nanoparticle such as size, shape, charge and surface chemistry in determining the mechanism of uptake and biological function of nanoparticles are also addressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine
  12. Wui WT
    PMID: 25966873
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine/methods*; Nanomedicine/trends
  13. Ruttala HB, Ramasamy T, Madeshwaran T, Hiep TT, Kandasamy U, Oh KT, et al.
    Arch. Pharm. Res., 2018 Feb;41(2):111-129.
    PMID: 29214601 DOI: 10.1007/s12272-017-0995-x
    The development of novel drug delivery systems based on well-defined polymer therapeutics has led to significant improvements in the treatment of multiple disorders. Advances in material chemistry, nanotechnology, and nanomedicine have revolutionized the practices of drug delivery. Stimulus-responsive material-based nanosized drug delivery systems have remarkable properties that allow them to circumvent biological barriers and achieve targeted intracellular drug delivery. Specifically, the development of novel nanocarrier-based therapeutics is the need of the hour in managing complex diseases. In this review, we have briefly described the fundamentals of drug targeting to diseased tissues, physiological barriers in the human body, and the mechanisms/modes of drug-loaded carrier systems. To that end, this review serves as a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems, with focus on their potential applications and impact on the future of drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine/methods; Nanomedicine/trends*
  14. Safdar MH, Hussain Z, Abourehab MAS, Hasan H, Afzal S, Thu HE
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2018 Dec;46(8):1967-1980.
    PMID: 29082766 DOI: 10.1080/21691401.2017.1397001
    This review aims to overview and critically analyses recent developments in achieving tumour-specific delivery of anticancer agents, maximizing anticancer efficacy, and mitigating tumour progression and off-target effects. Stemming from critical needs to develop target-specific delivery vehicles in cancer therapy, various hyaluronic acid (HA)-conjugated nanomedicines have been fabricated owing to their biocompatibility, safety, tumour-specific targetability of drugs and genes, and proficient interaction with cluster-determinant-44 (CD44) receptors over-expressed on the surface of tumour cells. HA-based conjugation or surface modulation of anticancer drugs encapsulated nanocarriers have shown promising efficacy against the various types of carcinomas of liver, breast, colorectal, pancreatic, lung, skin, ovarian, cervical, head and neck and gastric. The success of this emerging platform is assessed in achieving the rapid internalization of anticancer payloads into the tumour cells, impeding cancer cells division and proliferation, induction of cancer-specific apoptosis and prevention of metastasis (tumour progression). This review extends detailed insight into the engineering of HA-based nanomedicines, characterization, utilization for the diagnosis or treatment of CD44 over-expressing cancer subtypes and emphasizing the transition of nanomedicines to clinical cancer therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine
  15. Bor G, Mat Azmi ID, Yaghmur A
    Ther Deliv, 2019 Jan 25.
    PMID: 30678550 DOI: 10.4155/tde-2018-0062
    The emergence of nanomedicine as an innovative and promising alternative technology shows many advantages over conventional cancer therapies and provides new opportunities for early detection, improved treatment, and diagnosis of cancer. Despite the cancer nanomedicines' capability of delivering chemotherapeutic agents while providing lower systemic toxicity, it is paramount to consider the cancer complexity and dynamics for bridging the translational bench-to-bedside gap. It is important to conduct appropriate investigations for exploiting the tumor microenvironment, and achieving a more comprehensive understanding of the fundamental biological processes in cancer and their roles in modulating nanoparticle-protein interactions, blood circulation, and tumor penetration. This review provides an overview of the current cancer nanomedicines, the major challenges, and the future opportunities in this research area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine
  16. Hussain Z, Khan S, Imran M, Sohail M, Shah SWA, de Matas M
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 06;9(3):721-734.
    PMID: 30895453 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-019-00631-4
    On account of heterogeneity, intrinsic ability of drug resistance, and the potential to invade to other parts of the body (malignancy), the development of a rational anticancer regimen is dynamically challenging. Chemotherapy is considered the gold standard for eradication of malignancy and mitigation of its reoccurrence; nevertheless, it has also been associated with detrimental effects to normal tissues owing to its nonselectivity and nominal penetration into the tumor tissues. In recent decades, nanotechnology-guided interventions have been well-acclaimed due to their ability to facilitate target-specific delivery of drugs, avoidance of nontarget distribution, alleviated systemic toxicity, and maximized drug internalization into cancer cells. Despite their numerous biomedical advantages, clinical translation of nanotechnology-mediated regimens is challenging due to their short plasma half-life and early clearance. PEGylation of nanomedicines has been adapted as an efficient strategy to extend plasma half-life and diminished early plasma clearance via alleviating the opsonization (uptake by monocytes and macrophages) of drug nanocarriers. PEGylation provides "stealth" properties to nanocarrier's surfaces which diminished their recognition or uptake by cellular immune system, leading to longer circulation time, reduced dosage and frequency, and superior site-selective delivery of drugs. Therefore, this review aims to present a comprehensive overview of the pharmaceutical advantages and therapeutic feasibility of PEGylation of nanocarriers in improving tumor-specific targetability, reversing drug resistance, and improving pharmacokinetic profile of drugs and anticancer efficacy. Challenges to PEGylated cancer nanomedicines, possible adaptations to resolve those challenges, and pivotal requirement for interdisciplinary research for development of rational anticancer regimen have also been pondered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine
  17. Fang G, Zhang Q, Pang Y, Thu HE, Hussain Z
    J Control Release, 2019 Jun 10;303:181-208.
    PMID: 31015032 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.04.027
    Owing to its intricate autoimmune pathophysiology and significant risks of progression to other rheumatic co-morbidities (i.e., osteoporosis and osteoarthritis), a plausible therapeutic regimen is mandatory for early-stage management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Nevertheless, the conventional therapeutic agents particularly the corticosteroids and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have shown grander success in the treatment of RA; however, long-term use of these agents is also associated with serious adverse events. To combat these issues and optimize therapeutic efficacy, nanotechnology-based interventions have been emerged as viable option. While, nanomedicines signposted superiority over the conventional pharmacological moieties; there are still many pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic challenges to nanomedicines following their intravenous or intra-articular administration. To circumvent these challenges, significant adaptations such as PEGylation, surface conjugation of targeting ligand(s), and site- responsive behavior (i.e., pH-, biochemical-, or thermal-responsiveness) have been implemented. Besides, multi-functionalization of nanomedicines has been emerging as an exceptional strategy to overcome pharmacokinetic challenges, improve targetability to inflamed synovium, maximise internalisation into the activated macrophages, and improved therapeutic outcomes for treatment of RA. Therefore, this review aims to conceptualize and recapitulate the substantial evidences regarding the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic superiority of multi-functionalized nanomedicines over the naked nanomedicines for site-selective targeting to inflamed synovium and rational treatment of RA and other rheumatic co-morbidities. Pharmaceutical sustainability of the multi-functionalized nanomedicines for improved biocompatibility, profound interaction with the targeting tissue/cells/sub-cellular domain, and diminished systemic toxicity has also been pondered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine
  18. Jeevanandam J, Danquah MK, Debnath S, Meka VS, Chan YS
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2015;16(10):853-70.
    PMID: 26212563
    Diabetes mellitus has been a threat to humans for many years. Amongst the different diabetes types, type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common, and this is due to drastic changes in human lifestyle such as lack of exercise, stressful life and so on. There are a large number of conventional treatment methods available for type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, most of these methods are curative and are only applicable when the patient is highly symptomatic. Effective treatment strategies should be geared towards interfering with cellular and bio molecular mechanisms associated with the development and sustenance of the disease. In recent years, research into the medical potential of nanoparticles has been a major endeavor within the pharmaceutical industries. Nanoparticles display unique and tuneable biophysical characteristics which are determined by their shape and size. Nanoparticles have been used to manifest the properties of drugs, and as carriers for drug and vaccine delivery. Notwithstanding, there are further opportunities for nanoparticles to augment the treatment of a wide range of life threatening diseases that are yet to be explored. This review article seeks to highlight the application of potential nano-formulations in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, the activity of nanomedicine supplements in reversing insulin resistance is also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine*
  19. Lee JJ, Saiful Yazan L, Che Abdullah CA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12:2373-2384.
    PMID: 28392694 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S127329
    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide, especially among women, with substantial after-treatment effects. The survival rates of breast cancer have decreased over the years even with the existence of various therapeutic strategies, specifically, chemotherapy. Clinical drugs administered for breast cancer appear to be non-targeting to specific cancer sites leading to severe side effects and potentially harming healthy cells instead of just killing cancer cells. This leads to the need for designing a targeted drug delivery system. Nanomaterials, both organic and inorganic, are potential drug nanocarriers with the ability of targeting, imaging and tracking. Various types of nanomaterials have been actively researched together with their drug conjugate. In this review, we focus on selected nanomaterials, namely solid-lipid, liposomal, polymeric, magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots, and carbon nanotubes and their drug conjugates, for breast cancer studies. Their advantages, disadvantages and previously conducted studies were highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine/trends*
  20. Jahangirian H, Lemraski EG, Webster TJ, Rafiee-Moghaddam R, Abdollahi Y
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12:2957-2978.
    PMID: 28442906 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S127683
    This review discusses the impact of green and environmentally safe chemistry on the field of nanotechnology-driven drug delivery in a new field termed "green nanomedicine". Studies have shown that among many examples of green nanotechnology-driven drug delivery systems, those receiving the greatest amount of attention include nanometal particles, polymers, and biological materials. Furthermore, green nanodrug delivery systems based on environmentally safe chemical reactions or using natural biomaterials (such as plant extracts and microorganisms) are now producing innovative materials revolutionizing the field. In this review, the use of green chemistry design, synthesis, and application principles and eco-friendly synthesis techniques with low side effects are discussed. The review ends with a description of key future efforts that must ensue for this field to continue to grow.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanomedicine/methods*
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