Displaying all 11 publications

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  1. Mawaddah A, Gendeh HS, Lum SG, Marina MB
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Apr;42(1):23-35.
    PMID: 32342928
    INTRODUCTION: To review the present literature on upper respiratory tract sampling in COVID-19 and provide recommendations to improve healthcare practices and directions in future studies.

    METHODS: Twelve relevant manuscripts were sourced from a total of 7288 search results obtained using PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar. The search keywords used were COVID-19, nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, swabs, SARS and CoV2. Original manuscripts were obtained and analysed by all authors. The review included manuscripts which have not undergone rigorous peer-review process in view of the magnitude of the topic discussed.

    RESULTS: The viral load of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the upper respiratory tract was significantly higher during the first week and peaked at 4-6 days after onset of symptoms, during which it can be potentially sampled. Nasopharyngeal swab has demonstrated higher viral load than oropharyngeal swab, where the difference in paired samples is best seen at 0-9 days after the onset of illness. Sensitivity of nasopharyngeal swab was higher than oropharyngeal swabs in COVID-19 patients. Patient self-collected throat washing has been shown to contain higher viral load than nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab, with significantly higher sensitivity when compared with paired nasopharyngeal swab.

    RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine nasopharyngeal swab of suspected COVID-19 infection should take anatomy of the nasal cavity into consideration to increase patient comfort and diagnostic yield. Routine oropharyngeal swab should be replaced by throat washing which has demonstrated better diagnostic accuracy, and it is safe towards others.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nasopharynx/virology*
  2. Tan GC, Cheong SK
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Apr;42(1):1.
    PMID: 32342925
    No abstract available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nasopharynx/virology
  3. Ng KT, Oong XY, Pang YK, Hanafi NS, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK
    Emerg Microbes Infect, 2015 Aug;4(8):e47.
    PMID: 26421270 DOI: 10.1038/emi.2015.47
    Matched MeSH terms: Nasopharynx/virology
  4. Chow WZ, Chan YF, Oong XY, Ng LJ, Nor'E SS, Ng KT, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 06 09;6:27730.
    PMID: 27279080 DOI: 10.1038/srep27730
    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important viral respiratory pathogen worldwide. Current knowledge regarding the genetic diversity, seasonality and transmission dynamics of HMPV among adults and children living in tropical climate remains limited. HMPV prevailed at 2.2% (n = 86/3,935) among individuals presented with acute respiratory tract infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between 2012 and 2014. Seasonal peaks were observed during the northeast monsoon season (November-April) and correlated with higher relative humidity and number of rainy days (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Nasopharynx/virology
  5. Etemadi MR, Jalilian FA, Othman N, Lye MS, Ansari S, Yubbu P, et al.
    J. Virol. Methods, 2019 07;269:1-6.
    PMID: 30910688 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.03.013
    BACKGROUND: The role of respiratory viruses as the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) in children is becoming increasingly evident due to the use of sensitive molecular detection methods. The aim of this study was to use conventional and molecular detection methods to assess the epidemiology of respiratory viral infections in children less than five years of age that were hospitalized with ALRTIs.

    METHODS: The cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the occurrence of respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytisl virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), influenza virus A and B (IFV-A and B), parainfluenzavirus 1, 2, 3 and 4 (PIV 1, 2, 3 and 4), human rhinoviruses (HRV), human enterovirus (HEV), human coronaviruses (HCoV) 229E and OC43, human bocavirus (HBoV) and human adenovirus (HAdV) in hospitalized children with ALRTIs, at Hospital Serdang, Malaysia, from June 16 to December 21, 2009. The study was also designed in part to assess the performance of the conventional methods against molecular methods.

    RESULTS: Viral pathogens were detected in 158 (95.8%) of the patients. Single virus infections were detected in 114 (67.9%) patients; 46 (27.9%) were co-infected with different viruses including double-virus infections in 37 (22.4%) and triple-virus infections in 9 (5.5%) cases. Approximately 70% of samples were found to be positive using conventional methods compared with 96% using molecular methods. A wide range of respiratory viruses were detected in the study. There was a high prevalence of RSV (50.3%) infections, particularly group B viruses. Other etiological agents including HAdV, HMPV, IFV-A, PIV 1-3, HBoV, HCoV-OC43 and HEV were detected in 14.5, 9.6, 9.1, 4.8, 3.6, 2.4 and 1.8 percent of the samples, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated the increased sensitivity of molecular detection methods compared with conventional methods for the diagnosis of ARTIs in hospitalized children. This is the first report of HMPV infections in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nasopharynx/virology
  6. Toh X, Soh ML, Ng MK, Yap SC, Harith N, Fernandez CJ, et al.
    Transbound Emerg Dis, 2019 Sep;66(5):1884-1893.
    PMID: 31059176 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13218
    Equine influenza is a major cause of respiratory infections in horses and can spread rapidly despite the availability of commercial vaccines. In this study, we carried out molecular characterization of Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) isolated from the Malaysian outbreak in 2015 by sequencing of the HA and NA gene segments using Sanger sequencing. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of HA and NA were compared with representative Florida clade 1 and clade 2 strains using phylogenetic analysis. The Florida clade 1 viruses identified in this outbreak revealed numerous amino acid substitutions in the HA protein as compared to the current OIE vaccine strain recommendations and representative strains of circulating Florida sub-lineage clade 1 and clade 2. Differences in HA included amino acids located within antigenic sites which could lead to reduced immune recognition of the outbreak strain and alter the effectiveness of vaccination against the outbreak strain. Detailed surveillance and genetic information sharing could allow genetic drift of equine influenza viruses to be monitored more effectively on a global basis and aid in refinement of vaccine strain selection for EIV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nasopharynx/virology
  7. Ng KT, Oong XY, Lim SH, Chook JB, Takebe Y, Chan YF, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2018 07 02;67(2):261-268.
    PMID: 29385423 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciy063
    Background: Rhinovirus (RV) is one of the main viral etiologic agents of acute respiratory illnesses. Despite the heightened disease burden caused by RV, the viral factors that increase the severity of RV infection, the transmission pattern, and seasonality of RV infections remain unclear.

    Methods: An observational study was conducted among 3935 patients presenting with acute upper respiratory illnesses in the ambulatory settings between 2012 and 2014.

    Results: The VP4/VP2 gene was genotyped from all 976 RV-positive specimens, where the predominance of RV-A (49%) was observed, followed by RV-C (38%) and RV-B (13%). A significant regression in median nasopharyngeal viral load (VL) (P < .001) was observed, from 883 viral copies/µL at 1-2 days after symptom onset to 312 viral copies/µL at 3-4 days and 158 viral copies/µL at 5-7 days, before declining to 35 viral copies/µL at ≥8 days. In comparison with RV-A (median VL, 217 copies/µL) and RV-B (median VL, 275 copies/µL), RV-C-infected subjects produced higher VL (505 copies/µL; P < .001). Importantly, higher RV VL (median, 348 copies/µL) was associated with more severe respiratory symptoms (Total Symptom Severity Score ≥17, P = .017). A total of 83 phylogenetic-based transmission clusters were identified in the population. It was observed that the relative humidity was the strongest environmental predictor of RV seasonality in the tropical climate.

    Conclusions: Our findings underline the role of VL in increasing disease severity attributed to RV-C infection, and unravel the factors that fuel the population transmission dynamics of RV.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nasopharynx/virology
  8. Furuse Y, Suzuki A, Kishi M, Galang HO, Lupisan SP, Olveda RM, et al.
    J. Med. Virol., 2010 May;82(6):1071-4.
    PMID: 20419824 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.21763
    Several novel viruses have been recently identified in respiratory samples. However, the epidemiology of these viruses in tropical countries remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of the epidemiology of novel respiratory viruses, including human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, new subtypes of human coronavirus (NL63 and HKU1), KI virus, WU virus, and Melaka virus in the Philippines, a tropical country. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from 465 patients with influenza-like illness were collected in 2006 and 2007. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR were performed to detect viruses from culture-negative specimens. Human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, human coronavirus HKU1, KI virus, and WU virus were detected for the first time in the Philippines; Melaka virus was not found.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nasopharynx/virology*
  9. Al-Khannaq MN, Ng KT, Oong XY, Pang YK, Takebe Y, Chook JB, et al.
    Virol. J., 2016 Feb 25;13:33.
    PMID: 26916286 DOI: 10.1186/s12985-016-0488-4
    BACKGROUND: Despite the worldwide circulation of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), data on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical Southeast Asia region is lacking.
    METHODS: The study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity, temporal distribution, population history and clinical symptoms of betacoronavirus infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between 2012 and 2013. A total of 2,060 adults presented with acute respiratory symptoms were screened for the presence of betacoronaviruses using multiplex PCR. The spike glycoprotein, nucleocapsid and 1a genes were sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction and Bayesian coalescent inference.
    RESULTS: A total of 48/2060 (2.4 %) specimens were tested positive for HCoV-OC43 (1.3 %) and HCoV-HKU1 (1.1 %). Both HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 were co-circulating throughout the year, with the lowest detection rates reported in the October-January period. Phylogenetic analysis of the spike gene showed that the majority of HCoV-OC43 isolates were grouped into two previously undefined genotypes, provisionally assigned as novel lineage 1 and novel lineage 2. Sign of natural recombination was observed in these potentially novel lineages. Location mapping showed that the novel lineage 1 is currently circulating in Malaysia, Thailand, Japan and China, while novel lineage 2 can be found in Malaysia and China. Molecular dating showed the origin of HCoV-OC43 around late 1950s, before it diverged into genotypes A (1960s), B (1990s), and other genotypes (2000s). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 27.3 % of the HCoV-HKU1 strains belong to genotype A while 72.7 % belongs to genotype B. The tree root of HCoV-HKU1 was similar to that of HCoV-OC43, with the tMRCA of genotypes A and B estimated around the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Correlation of HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 with the severity of respiratory symptoms was not observed.
    CONCLUSIONS: The present study reported the molecular complexity and evolutionary dynamics of human betacoronaviruses among adults with acute respiratory symptoms in a tropical country. Two novel HCoV-OC43 genetic lineages were identified, warranting further investigation on their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics.
    Study site: Primary Care Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Nasopharynx/virology
  10. Pathmanathan R, Prasad U, Sadler R, Flynn K, Raab-Traub N
    N. Engl. J. Med., 1995 Sep 14;333(11):693-8.
    PMID: 7637746 DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199509143331103
    BACKGROUND: The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is consistently detected in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To determine whether EBV infection is an early, initiating event in the development of this malignant tumor, we screened nasopharyngeal-biopsy samples, most of which were archival, for preinvasive lesions, including dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. Preinvasive lesions were found in 11 samples, which were tested for the presence of EBV.
    METHODS: EBV infection was detected with in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) and by immunohistochemical staining for latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1). The larger samples were also tested for the EBV genome with the use of Southern blotting. The expression of specific EBV RNAs was determined by the amplification of complementary DNA with the polymerase chain reaction.
    RESULTS: Evidence of EBV infection was detected in all 11 tissue samples with dysplasia or carcinoma in situ. EBERs were identified in all eight samples tested, and LMP-1 was detected in all six of the tested samples. Six of the seven samples tested for the EBV termini contained clonal EBV DNA: Transcription of the latent EBV gene products, EBV nuclear antigen 1, LMP-1, LMP-2A, and the BamHI-A fragment, was detected in most of the samples. Viral proteins characteristic of lytic lesions were not detected.
    CONCLUSIONS: Preinvasive lesions of the nasopharynx are infected with EBV. The EBV DNA is clonal, indicating that the lesions represent a focal cellular growth that arose from a single EBV-infected cell and that EBV infection is an early, possibly initiating event in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Preinvasive lesions contain EBV RNAs that are characteristic of latent infection but not the viral proteins that are characteristic of lytic infection. The detection of the EBV-transforming gene, LMP-1, in all the neoplastic cells suggests that its expression is essential for preinvasive epithelial proliferations associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nasopharynx/virology
  11. Oong XY, Chook JB, Ng KT, Chow WZ, Chan KG, Hanafi NS, et al.
    Virol. J., 2018 05 23;15(1):91.
    PMID: 29792212 DOI: 10.1186/s12985-018-1005-8
    BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is established as one of the causative agents of respiratory tract infections. To date, there are limited reports that describe the effect of HMPV genotypes and/or viral load on disease pathogenesis in adults. This study aims to determine the role of HMPV genetic diversity and nasopharyngeal viral load on symptom severity in outpatient adults with acute respiratory tract infections.
    METHODS: Severity of common cold symptoms of patients from a teaching hospital was assessed by a four-category scale and summed to obtain the total symptom severity score (TSSS). Association between the fusion and glycoprotein genes diversity, viral load (quantified using an improved RT-qPCR assay), and symptom severity were analyzed using bivariate and linear regression analyses.
    RESULTS: Among 81/3706 HMPV-positive patients, there were no significant differences in terms of demographics, number of days elapsed between symptom onset and clinic visit, respiratory symptoms manifestation and severity between different HMPV genotypes/sub-lineages. Surprisingly, elderly patients (≥65 years old) had lower severity of symptoms (indicated by TSSS) than young and middle age adults (p = 0.008). Nasopharyngeal viral load did not correlate with nor predict symptom severity of HMPV infection. Interestingly, at 3-5 days after symptom onset, genotype A-infected patients had higher viral load compared to genotype B (4.4 vs. 3.3 log10 RNA copies/μl) (p = 0.003).
    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, HMPV genetic diversity and viral load did not impact symptom severity in adults with acute respiratory tract infections. Differences in viral load dynamics over time between genotypes may have important implications on viral transmission.
    Study site: Primary Care Clinic, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Nasopharynx/virology
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