Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 236 in total

  1. Tan GH, Bhoo-Pathy N, Taib NA, See MH, Jamaris S, Yip CH
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2015 Feb;39(1):115-7.
    PMID: 25475062 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2014.11.005
    Changes in the American Joint Commission on Cancer staging for breast cancer occurred when the 5th Edition was updated to the 6th Edition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging*
  2. Rosenblatt E, Barton M, Mackillop W, Fidarova E, Cordero L, Yarney J, et al.
    Radiother Oncol, 2015 Jul;116(1):35-7.
    PMID: 26164776 DOI: 10.1016/j.radonc.2015.06.012
    Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate (RTU) is the proportion of all cancer cases that should receive radiotherapy. Optimal RTU was estimated for 9 Middle Income Countries as part of a larger IAEA project to better understand RTU and stage distribution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  3. Koh T, Fadli M, Vijaya Kumar S, Rao AS
    Malays Orthop J, 2012 Nov;6(3):69-71.
    PMID: 25279065 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1207.020
    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) was first reported by J. Erdheim and W. Chester, in 1930. There are less than 250 reported cases till date. We report a case of ECD in a 16- year-old Malay male, who initially presented with elusive anemic symptoms with more specific symptoms of bony pain, cardiorespiratory and hepatic involvement evolving as the disease progressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  4. Saw, A.
    Malays Orthop J, 2007;1(2):1-2.
    Musculoskeletal tumour is much less common compared to tumours of epithelial origin. Most of these tumours are benign, with only about 1% malignant in nature. A general orthopaedic surgeon may only come across a malignant primary bone or soft tissue tumour a few times in his entire medical career. The current recommendation is for these conditions to be investigated and treated in centres with musculoskeletal oncology service. Careful clinical evaluation with appropriate plain radiography can provide adequate information for definitive diagnosis and treatment for most cases, especially the benign tumours. For some other cases, further investigations will be necessary. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide excellent details on anatomical location of a tumour and delineate vital structures that may have been distorted by the lesion. For primary malignant tumours, computerized tomography scanning is still the gold standard for evaluation of pulmonary metastasis, and bone scan can allow early detection of distant metastasis to other bones. Whole body MRI has recently been recommended for tumour staging but the potential benefit for musculoskeletal tumour is not that convincing. PET may be very helpful for follow up detection of tumour recurrence but its role in diagnosis and staging of musculoskeletal tumours is still being evaluated...
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  5. Krishnan R
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:139.
    PMID: 16108196
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  6. Lim, Christopher, Mra, Aung, Chin, Suliong, Venkata Rao, Challa, Aung, Tun, Sieman, Jony, et al.
    This article will cover some of the most recent advances in the diagnosis of the world’s most common cancer in women, namely, breast cancer as we enter the era of precision medicine. The authors will discuss the differences between East and West pertaining to the incidence and mortality rates, the types of breast cancer and the revised staging criteria of breast cancer according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual, 8th edition. In addition, the advances of newer imaging modalities are presented and compared with traditional ultrasonography and mammography
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  7. Azmawati MN, Najibah E, Hatta MD, Norfazilah A
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(13):5283-6.
    PMID: 25040989
    Stage of cervical cancer may adversely affect the quality of life (QOL) among patients. The objective of this study was to predict the QOL among cervical cancer patients by the stage of their cancer. A cross-sectional study from September 2012 until January 2013 was conducted among cervical cancer patients who completed treatment. All patients completed a interviewer-guided questionnaire comprising four sections: (A) socio- demographic data, (B) medical history, (C) QOL measured by general health status questionnaire (QLQ-30) and (D) cervical cancer specific module CX-24 (EORTC) was used to measured patient's functional, symptom scale and their global health status. Results showed that global health status, emotional functioning and pain score were higher in stage III cervical cancer patients while role functioning was higher in stage I cervical cancer patients. Patients with stage IV cancer have a lower mean score in global health status (adjusted b-22.0, 95 CI% -35.6, -8.49) and emotional functioning (adjusted b -22.5, 95 CI% -38.1, -6.69) while stage III had lower mean score in role functioning (adjusted b -14.3, 95 CI% -25.4, -3.21) but higher mean score in pain (adjusted b 22.1, 95 CI% 8.56, 35.7). In conclusion, stage III and IV cervical cancers mainly affect the QOL of cervical cancer patients. Focus should be given to these subgroups to help in improving the QOL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/psychology*
  8. Yip Ch, Bhoo-Pathy N, Daniel J, Foo Y, Mohamed A, Abdullah M, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016;17(3):1077-82.
    PMID: 27039727
    BACKGROUND: The three standard biomarkers used in breast cancer are the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The Ki-67 index, a proliferative marker, has been shown to be associated with a poorer outcome, and despite absence of standardization of pathological assessment, is widely used for therapy decision making. We aim to study the role of the Ki-67 index in a group of Asian women with breast cancer.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 450 women newly diagnosed with Stage 1 to 3 invasive breast cancer in a single centre from July 2013 to Dec 2014 were included in this study. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between Ki-67 (positive defined as 14% and above) and age, ethnicity, grade, mitotic index, ER, PR, HER2, lymph node status and size. All analyses were performed using SPSS Version 22.

    RESULTS: In univariable analysis, Ki -67 index was associated with younger age, higher grade, ER and PR negativity, HER2 positivity, high mitotic index and positive lymph nodes. However on multivariable analysis only tumour size, grade, PR and HER2 remained significant. Out of 102 stage 1 patients who had ER positive/PR positive/HER2 negative tumours and non-grade 3, only 5 (4.9%) had a positive Ki-67 index and may have been offered chemotherapy. However, it is interesting to note that none of these patients received chemotherapy.

    CONCLUSIONS: Information on Ki67 would have potentially changed management in an insignificant proportion of patients with stage 1 breast cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods
  9. Nordin N, Yaacob NM, Abdullah NH, Mohd Hairon S
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2018 Feb 26;19(2):497-502.
    PMID: 29480991
    Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease and the leading cause of cancer death among
    women globally. This study aimed to determine the median survival time and prognostic factors for breast cancer
    patients in a North-East State of Malaysia. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted from January till
    April 2017 using secondary data obtained from the state’s cancer registry. All 549 cases of breast cancer diagnosed
    from 1st January 2007 until 31st December 2011 were selected and retrospectively followed-up until 31st December
    2016. Sociodemographic and clinical information was collected to determine prognostic factors. Results: The average
    (SD) age at diagnosis was 50.4 (11.2) years, the majority of patients having Malay ethnicity (85.8%) and a histology of
    ductal carcinoma (81.5%). Median survival times for those presenting at stages III and IV were 50.8 (95% CI: 25.34,
    76.19) and 6.9 (95% CI: 3.21, 10.61) months, respectively. Ethnicity (Adj. HR for Malay vs non-Malay ethnicity=2.52;
    95% CI: 1.54, 4.13; p<0.001), stage at presentation (Adj. HR for Stage III vs Stage I=2.31; 95% CI: 1.57, 3.39; p<0.001
    and Adj. HR for Stage IV vs Stage I=6.20; 95% CI: 4.45, 8.65; p<0.001), and history of surgical treatment (Adj. HR
    for patients with no surgical intervention=1.95; 95% CI: 1.52, 2.52; p<0.001) were observed to be the statistically
    significant prognostic factors associated with death caused by breast cancer. Conclusion: The median survival time
    among breast cancer patients in North-East State of Malaysia was short as compared to other studies. Primary and
    secondary prevention aimed at early diagnosis and surgical management of breast cancer, particularly among the Malay
    ethnic group, could improve treatment outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods
  10. Selvi V, Nori J, Meattini I, Francolini G, Morelli N, De Benedetto D, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2018;2018:1569060.
    PMID: 30046588 DOI: 10.1155/2018/1569060
    Purpose: The prevalence of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), the second most common type of breast cancer, accounts for 5%-15% of all invasive breast cancer cases. Its histological feature to spread in rows of single cell layers explains why it often fails to form a palpable lesion and the lack of sensitivity of mammography and ultrasound (US) to detect it. It also has a higher incidence of multifocal, multicentric, and contralateral disease when compared to the other histological subtypes. The clinicopathologic features and outcomes of Invasive Ductolobular Carcinoma (IDLC) are very similar to the ILC. The purpose of our study is to assess the importance of MRI in the preoperative management and staging of patients affected by ILC or IDLC.

    Materials and Methods: We identified women diagnosed with ILC or IDLC. We selected the patients who had preoperative breast MRI. For each patient we identified the areas of multifocal, multicentric, or contralateral disease not visible to standard exams and detected by preoperative MRI. We analyzed the potential correlation between additional cancer areas and histological cancer markers.

    Results: Of the 155 women who met our inclusion criteria, 93 (60%) had additional cancer areas detected by MRI. In 61 women, 39,4% of the overall population, the additional cancer areas were confirmed by US/tomosynthesis second look and biopsy. Presurgical MRI staging changed surgical management in the 37,4% of the patients. Only six patients of the overall population needed a reoperation after the initial surgery. No statistically significant correlation was found between MRI overestimation and the presence of histological peritumoral vascular/linfatic invasion. No statistically significant correlation was found between additional cancer areas and histological cancer markers.

    Conclusions: Our study suggests that MRI is an important tool in the preoperative management and staging of patients affected by lobular or ductolobular invasive carcinoma.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging*
  11. Fauzi MFA, Chen W, Knight D, Hampel H, Frankel WL, Gurcan MN
    J Med Syst, 2019 Dec 18;44(2):38.
    PMID: 31853654 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-019-1515-y
    Tumor budding is defined as the presence of single tumor cells or small tumor clusters (less than five cells) that 'bud' from the invasive front of the main tumor. Tumor budding (TB) has recently emerged as an important adverse prognostic factor for many different cancer types. In colorectal carcinoma (CRC), tumor budding has been independently associated with lymph node metastasis and poor outcome. Pathologic assessment of tumor budding by light microscopy requires close evaluation of tumor invasive front on intermediate to high power magnification, entailing locating the 'hotspot' of tumor budding, counting all TB in one high power field, and generating a tumor budding score. By automating these time-consuming tasks, computer-assisted image analysis tools can be helpful for daily pathology practice, since tumor budding reporting is now recommended on select cases. In this paper, we report our work on the development of a tumor budding detection system in CRC from whole-slide Cytokeratin AE1/3 images, based on de novo computer algorithm that automates morphometric analysis of tumor budding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods*
  12. Elhusseiny KM, Abd-Elhay FA, Kamel MG, Abd El Hamid Hassan HH, El Tanany HHM, Hieu TH, et al.
    Head Neck, 2019 08;41(8):2625-2635.
    PMID: 30905082 DOI: 10.1002/hed.25742
    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the prognostic role of examined (dissected) lymph nodes (ELNs), negative LNs (NLNs), and positive (metastatic) LNs (PLNs) counts and LN ratio (LNR = PLNs/ELNs×100) in patients with major salivary gland cancer (SGC).

    METHODS: Data were retrieved for major SGC patients diagnosed between 1988 and 2011 from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program.

    RESULTS: We have included 5446 patients with major SGC. Most patients had parotid gland cancer (84.61%). Patients having >18 ELNs, >4 PLNs, and >33.33% LNR were associated with a worse survival. Moreover, older age, male patients, grade IV, distant stage, unmarried patients, submandibular gland cancer, and received chemotherapy but not received surgery were significantly associated with a worse survival.

    CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that patients with >18 ELNs and >4 PLNs counts, and >33.33% LNR were high-risk group patients. We strongly suggest adding the ELNs and PLNs counts and/or LNR into the current staging system.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods*
  13. Liam CK, Andarini S, Lee P, Ho JC, Chau NQ, Tscheikuna J
    Respirology, 2015 May;20(4):526-34.
    PMID: 25682805 DOI: 10.1111/resp.12489
    For a long time lung cancer was associated with a fatalistic approach by healthcare professionals. In recent years, advances in imaging, improved diagnostic techniques and more effective treatment modalities are reasons for optimism. Accurate lung cancer staging is vitally important because treatment options and prognosis differ significantly by stage. The staging algorithm should include a contrast computed tomography (CT) of the chest and the upper abdomen including adrenals, positron emission tomography/CT for staging the mediastinum and to rule out extrathoracic metastasis in patients considered for surgical resection, endosonography-guided needle sampling procedure replacing mediastinoscopy for near complete mediastinal staging, and brain imaging as clinically indicated. Applicability of evidence-based guidelines for staging of lung cancer depends on the available expertise and level of resources and is directly impacted by financial issues. Considering the diversity of healthcare infrastructure and economic performance of Asian countries, optimal and cost-effective use of staging methods appropriate to the available resources is prudent. The pulmonologist plays a central role in the multidisciplinary approach to lung cancer diagnosis, staging and management. Regional respiratory societies such as the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology should work with national respiratory societies to strive for uniform standards of care. For developing countries, a minimum set of care standards should be formulated. Cost-effective delivery of optimal care for lung cancer patients, including staging within the various healthcare systems, should be encouraged and most importantly, tobacco control implementation should receive an absolute priority status in all countries in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods; Neoplasm Staging/trends
  14. Cheen Hoe AK, Hamzah F, Abdul Khader MA
    PMID: 25977638 MyJurnal
    The detection rate of thyroid incidentalomas is increasing; in fact, as many as 2.3% of patients undergoing FDG PET-CT for other indications have been found to have thyroid incidentalomas. The risk of malignancy in these thyroid incidentalomas can be as high as 47%. The increased uptake and the focal uptake pattern of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in the thyroid during positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT), and the calcification of the thyroid incidentaloma, are associated with even higher risk of malignancy. We report a case of a lady undergoing FDG PET-CT for breast cancer staging but noted to have a calcified thyroid incidentaloma, which was proven to be follicular thyroid carcinoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  15. Zainal AI, Zulkarnaen M, Norlida DK, Syed Alwi SA
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Feb;67(1):60-5.
    PMID: 22582550
    Acral melanoma involve the non-pigmented palmoplantar and subungual areas and are commonly seen among Asians. Patients commonly display advanced stage of disease at presentation. It may appear unnoticed and mimic benign lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  16. Norsa'adah B, Rampal KG, Rahmah MA, Naing NN, Biswal BM
    BMC Cancer, 2011;11:141.
    PMID: 21496310 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-141
    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in Malaysia. Delayed diagnosis is preventable and has major effects on patients' prognosis and survival. The objectives of our study were to identify the magnitude of delayed diagnosis and its associated factors in women with breast cancer in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  17. Malwinder, S., Wan Zamaniah W.I., Cimmeran, K., Phua, V.C.E.
    JUMMEC, 2018;21(1):6-13.
    Objectives: Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive silent killer with a median survival of a few months. It is the
    fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic
    factors affecting the survival of patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas in Malaysia.
    Methods: This retrospective study examined 107 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas from 2002
    to 2012 at University Malaya Medical Centre. The factors evaluated were age, sex, race, smoking habits,
    performance status, the presence of jaundice, pre-treatment CA 19.9 serum level, the location of a primary
    tumour, tumour grade, tumour staging and intent of treatment.
    Results: The median survival for the overall study population was 7.0 months (95% CI 5.1-8.8 months) with
    1, 3, and 5-year survival rates of 30.8%, 8.4% and 3.7% respectively. The survival was 16.1 months (95% CI
    7.7-24.4 months) for stage 1, 15.5 months (95% CI 8.1-22.8 months) for stage 2, 8.4 months (95% CI 6.1-10.8
    months) for stage 3, and 3.8 months (95% CI 2.9-4.7 months) for stage 4. In multivariate analysis, independent
    and unfavourable prognostic factors which retained significance were performance status, tumour stage and
    treatment intent.
    Conclusions: The biological characteristics are important as predictors of survival in patients with pancreatic
    cancer. Longer survival is possible if the disease is identified in its early stages with good performance status.
    Further development and evaluation of novel screening strategies need to be established to improve early
    detection of this disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  18. Cheah PL, Looi LM
    Malays J Pathol, 1999 Jun;21(1):1-15.
    PMID: 10879274
    Since its recognition about 150 years ago, there has been much progress in the understanding of the pathogenesis, prevention, early detection and management of carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Important historical landmarks include the (1) recognition of pre-invasive and pre-clinical lesions, and the devise of various systems for reporting these lesions, (2) improvements in diagnostic techniques particularly colposcopy, (3) advent of therapeutic procedures (electrocoagulation, cryotherapy, laser therapy and loop electrosurgical excision), and (4) recognition of the aetiological relationship between the human papillomavirus and cervical neoplasia. The susceptibility of the cervical transformation zone to malignant change is now well recognised. The WHO classification system remains the one most commonly utilised for histological reporting of cervical cancers. In the recent 1994 update, cervical carcinoma is divided into 3 main categories: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and other epithelial tumours. Squamous cell carcinoma (60-80%) predominates among invasive cervical carcinoma. Recognised variants include verrucous, warty (condylomatous), papillary squamous (transitional) and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma (5-15% of invasive carcinomas) shows an increasing trend in young females. Like its squamous counterpart, preinvasive and microinvasive versions are known. Variants such as mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, mesonephric, serous, villoglandular and minimal deviation carcinoma are now defined. Adenosquamous carcinoma (5-25%), adenoid-cystic, adenoid-basal, neuroendocrine and undifferentiated carcinomas constitute other epithelial tumours of the cervix. The management of invasive cervical carcinoma remains heavily dependent on its stage. The FIGO staging system remains the most widely used. The 1995 update provides more definite criteria in subdividing stage IA tumours by delimiting stromal invasion of stage IA1 lesions to a maximum depth of 3 mm and a horizontal axis of 7 mm. In Malaysia, an appreciation of the cervical carcinoma problem has to take into consideration the population at risk, its multi-ethnicity, its socio-economic and geographical diversities and the constraints of the health care system. Females form 48.9% of the Malaysian population. 52.9% of them are in the sexually active age group of 15-50 years, indicating a significant population at risk for cervical carcinoma. Cervical carcinoma was the third most common cause of death due to solid tumours among Malaysian females in 1995 following carcinoma of the breast and respiratory tract. East Malaysia is predominantly rural with many communities having limited modern facilities. Such areas imply a lower educational and socio-economic status, raising the worry of a population at higher risk for developing cervical carcinoma. The population: doctor for Malaysia of 2153:1 compares poorly with nearby Singapore. Besides a shortage of doctors, there is also an uneven distribution of doctors, resulting in a ratio in East Malaysia of > 4000:1. Although Malaysia does not have a national cervical cancer-screening programme, many action plans and cancer awareness campaigns have been launched throughout the years, which appear to have made an impact as evidenced by the decreasing mortality rates from cervical carcinoma. Another interesting feature of cervical carcinoma in Malaysia relates to its multiethnic population. In Malaysian Chinese and Malay females, the prevalence of cervical carcinoma ranks second to breast cancer whereas the pattern is reversed in Malaysian Indian females. Studies into its aetiology and pathogenesis are being undertaken and may shed more light on this matter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
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