Engineered biochar is increasingly regarded as a cost-effective and eco-friendly peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activator. Herein, biochar doped with nitrogen and sulfur moieties was prepared by pyrolysis of wood shavings and doping precursor. The doping precursor consists of either urea, thiourea or 1:1 w/w mixture of urea and thiourea (denoted as NSB-U, NSB-T and NSB-UT, respectively). The physicochemical properties of the NSBs were extensively characterized, revealing that they are of noncrystalline carbon with porous structure. The NSBs were employed as PMS activator to degrade organic pollutants particularly methylene blue (MB). It was found that NSB-UT exhibited higher MB removal rate with kapp = 0.202 min-1 due to its relatively high surface area and favorable intrinsic surface moieties (combination of graphitic N and thiophenic S). The effects of catalyst loading, PMS dosage and initial pH were evaluated. Positive enhancement of the MB removal rate can be obtained by carefully increasing the catalyst loading or PMS dosage. Meanwhile, the MB removal rate is greatly influenced by pH due to electrostatic interactions and pH dependent reactions. The NSB-UT can be reused for several cycles to some extent and its catalytic activity can be restored by thermal treatment. Based on the radical scavenger study and XPS analysis, the nonradical pathway facilitated by the graphitic N and thiophenic S active sites are revealed to be the dominant reaction pathway. Overall, the results of this study show that engineered biochar derived from locally available biowaste can be transformed into PMS activator for environmental applications.
Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) represent a promising class of metallic catalysts for reduction of nitrogen-containing contaminants (NCCs), such as 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Nevertheless, most researches involving MOFs for 4-NP reduction employ noble metals in the form of fine powders, making these powdered noble metal-based MOFs impractical and inconvenient for realistic applications. Thus, it would be critical to develop non-noble-metal MOFs which can be incorporated into macroscale and porous supports for convenient applications. Herein, the present study proposes to develop a composite material which combines advantageous features of macroscale/porous supports, and nanoscale functionality of MOFs. In particular, copper foam (CF) is selected as a macroscale porous medium, which is covered by nanoflower-structured CoO to increase surfaces for growing a cobaltic MOF, ZIF-67. The resultant composite comprises of CF covered by CoO nanoflowers decorated with ZIF-67 to form a hierarchical 3D-structured catalyst, enabling this ZIF-67@Cu foam (ZIF@CF) a promising catalyst for reducing 4-NP, and other NCCs. Thus, ZIF@CF can readily reduce 4-NP to 4-AP with a significantly lower Ea of 20 kJ/mol than reported values. ZIF@CF could be reused over 10 cycles and remain highly effective for 4-NP reduction. ZIF@CF also efficiently reduces other NCCs, such as 2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, methylene blue, and methyl orange. ZIF@CF can be adopted as catalytic filters to enable filtration-type reduction of NCCs by passing NCC solutions through ZIF@CF to promptly and conveniently reduce NCCs. The versatile and advantageous catalytic activity of ZIF@CF validates that ZIF@CF is a promising and practical heterogeneous catalyst for reductive treatments of NCCs.
Nitrogen is essential for seagrass productivity but excesses in nitrogen exposure contribute to declines in meadow health. This study reports baseline data of bulk nitrogen loadings and contents in surficial sediments and seagrass tissues to determine the extent of nitrogen inputs in meadows of Sungai Pulai estuary (Johor, Malaysia). The sediment contained relatively low nitrogen loadings (mean range of 91-94 g N m-2) with likely origins from land-based sources. At the meadow-level, Enhalus acoroides, Cymodocea serrulata and Thalassia hemprichii are the most important species as nitrogen sinks. The highest δ15N values of seagrass tissues were recorded for T. hemprichii (10.7 ± 0.4‰), which indicated an elevated capacity for internal recycling of nitrogen. The data demonstrates the provision of ecosystem services by the meadows in mitigating excess nitrogen imported into the estuary. Seagrasses health, however, needs to be at optimum levels for the effectiveness of the meadow as a nutrient sink.
This work investigates the performances of coconut shell waste-based activated carbon (CSWAC) adsorption in batch studies for removal of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and refractory pollutants (as indicated by decreasing COD concentration) from landfill leachate. To valorize unused resources, coconut shell, recovered and recycled from agricultural waste, was converted into activated carbon, which can be used for leachate treatment. The ozonation of the CSWAC was conducted to enhance its removal performance for target pollutants. The adsorption mechanisms of refractory pollutants by the adsorbent are proposed. Perspectives on nutrient recovery technologies from landfill leachate from the view-points of downstream processing are presented. Their removal efficiencies for both recalcitrant compounds and ammoniacal nitrogen were compared to those of other techniques reported in previous work. It is found that the ozonated CSWAC substantially removed COD (i.e. 76%) as well as NH3-N (i.e. 75%), as compared to the CSWAC without pretreatment (i.e. COD: 44%; NH3-N: 51%) with NH3-N and COD concentrations of 2750 and 8500 mg/L, respectively. This reveals the need of ozonation for the adsorbent to improve its performance for the removal of COD and NH3-N at optimized reactions: 30 g/L of CSWAC, pH 8, 200 rpm of shaking speed and 20 min of reaction time. Nevertheless, treatment of the leachate samples using the ozonated CSWAC alone was still unable to result in treated effluents that could meet the COD and NH3-N discharge standards below 200 and 5 mg/L, respectively, set by legislative requirements. This reveals that another treatment is necessary to be undertaken to comply with the requirement of their effluent limit.
The identification of nitrogen sources and cycling processes is critical to the management of nitrogen pollution. Here, we used both stable (δ15N-NO3-, δ18O-NO3-, δ15N-NH4+) and radiogenic (222Rn) isotopes together with nitrogen concentrations to evaluate the relative importance of point (i.e. sewage) and diffuse sources (i.e. agricultural-derived NO3- from groundwater, drains and creeks) in driving nitrogen dynamic in a shallow coastal embayment, Port Phillip Bay (PPB) in Victoria, Australia. This study is an exemplar of nitrogen-limited coastal systems around the world where nitrogen contamination is prevalent and where constraining it may be challenging. In addition to surrounding land use, we found that the distributions of NO3- and NH4+ in the bay were closely linked to the presence of drift algae. Highest NO3- and NH4+ concentrations were 315 μmol L-1 and 2140 μmol L-1, respectively. Based on the isotopic signatures of NO3- (δ15N: 0.17 to 21‰; δ18O: 3 to 26‰) and NH4+ (δ15N: 30 to 39‰) in PPB, the high nitrogen concentrations were attributed to three major sources which varied between winter and summer; (1) nitrified sewage effluent and drift algae derived NH4+ mainly during winter, (2) NO3- mixture from atmospheric deposition, drains and creeks predominantly observed during summer and (3) groundwater and sewage derived NO3- during both surveys. The isotopic composition of NO3- also suggested the removal of agriculture-derived NO3- through denitrification was prevalent during transport. This study highlights the role of terrestrial-coastal interactions on nitrogen dynamics and illustrates the importance of submarine groundwater discharge as a prominent pathway of diffuse NO3- inputs. Quantifying the relative contributions of multiple NO3- input pathways, however, require more extensive efforts and is an important avenue for future research.
The study represents a comprehensive analysis of engine exhaust emission variation from a compression ignition (CI) diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel blends. Biodiesel used in this investigation was produced through transesterification procedure from Moringa oleifera oil. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, naturally aspirated diesel engine was used for this purpose. The pollutants from the exhaust of the engine that are monitored in this study are nitrogen oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and smoke opacity. Engine combustion and performance parameters are also measured together with exhaust emission data. Some researchers have reported that the reason for higher NO emission of biodiesel is higher prompt NO formation. The use of antioxidant-treated biodiesel in a diesel engine is a promising approach because antioxidants reduce the formation of free radicals, which are responsible for the formation of prompt NO during combustion. Two different antioxidant additives namely 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) and 2,2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol) (MBEBP) were individually dissolved at a concentration of 1% by volume in MB30 (30% moringa biodiesel with 70% diesel) fuel blend to investigate and compare NO as well as other emissions. The result shows that both antioxidants reduced NO emission significantly; however, HC, CO, and smoke were found slightly higher compared to pure biodiesel blends, but not more than the baseline fuel diesel. The result also shows that both antioxidants were quite effective in reducing peak heat release rate (HRR) and brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) as well as improving brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and oxidation stability. Based on this study, antioxidant-treated M. oleifera biodiesel blend (MB30) can be used as a very promising alternative source of fuel in diesel engine without any modifications.
The CANON process is a promising method for nitrogen removal in wastewaters with low organic carbon content like reject water. This study investigated the effect of important factors for optimization of the CANON process through inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). In the acclimation period, complete ammonium removal and 43.3% total N removal were obtained at hydraulic retention time of 12 h, temperature of 30°C ± 0.5°C and DO equal to 7-9 mg/L. The effects of air flow rate (AFR) (representative of DO), SRT and C/N were evaluated. Air flow rate was the most important factor for controlling the process, but the effect of SRT was negligible. When AFR was increased from 100 to 500 mL/min, both ammonium removal efficiency (33-43% to 81-83%) and nitrite accumulation (nitritation, 40 mgN/L to 100-120 mgN/L) were increased, but with increasing AFR to 1000 mL/min only ammonium removal efficiency was increased and because of better condition (high DO) for NOBs, nitritation was decreased. C/N had an effect like AFR of 1000 and only increased ammonium removal efficiency and total N removal. With increasing AFR and C/N, both OUR and AUR were increased, but SVI was decreased.
The permeable (sandy) sediments that dominate the world's coastlines and continental shelves are highly exposed to nitrogen pollution, predominantly due to increased urbanisation and inefficient agricultural practices. This leads to eutrophication, accumulation of drift algae and changes in the reactions of nitrogen, including the potential to produce the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Nitrogen pollution in coastal systems has been identified as a global environmental issue, but it remains unclear how this nitrogen is stored and processed by permeable sediments. We investigated the interaction of drift algae biomass and nitrate (NO3-) exposure on nitrogen cycling in permeable sediments that were impacted by high nitrogen loading. We treated permeable sediments with increasing quantities of added macroalgal material and NO3- and measured denitrification, dissimilatory NO3- reduction to ammonium (DNRA), anammox, and nitrous oxide (N2O) production, alongside abundance of marker genes for nitrogen cycling and microbial community composition by metagenomics. We found that the presence of macroalgae dramatically increased DNRA and N2O production in sediments without NO3- treatment, concomitant with increased abundance of nitrate-ammonifying bacteria (e.g. Shewanella and Arcobacter). Following NO3- treatment, DNRA and N2O production dropped substantially while denitrification increased. This is explained by a shift in the relative abundance of nitrogen-cycling microorganisms under different NO3- exposure scenarios. Decreases in both DNRA and N2O production coincided with increases in the marker genes for each step of the denitrification pathway (narG, nirS, norB, nosZ) and a decrease in the DNRA marker gene nrfA. These shifts were accompanied by an increased abundance of facultative denitrifying lineages (e.g. Pseudomonas and Marinobacter) with NO3- treatment. These findings identify new feedbacks between eutrophication and greenhouse gas emissions, and in turn have potential to inform biogeochemical models and mitigation strategies for marine eutrophication.
In this study, luminescent bio-adsorbent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) was produced and applied for the removal and detection of Hg (II) from aqueous media. N-CDs were synthesized from oil palm empty fruit bunch carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and urea. According to several analytical techniques used, the obtained N-CDs display graphitic core with an average size of 4.2 nm, are enriched with active sites, stable over a wide range of pH and have great resistance to photobleaching. The N-CDs have bright blue emission with an improved quantum yield (QY) of up to 35.5%. The effect of the variables including pH, adsorbent mass, initial concentration and incubation time on the removal of Hg (II) was investigated using central composite design. The statistical results confirmed that the adsorption process could reach equilibrium within 30 min. The reduced cubic model (R2 = 0.9989) revealed a good correlation between the observed values and predicted data. The optimal variables were pH of 7, dose of 0.1 g, initial concentration of 100 mg/L and duration of 30 min. Under these conditions, adsorption efficiency of 84.6% was obtained. The adsorption kinetic data could be well expressed by pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models. The optimal adsorption capacity was 116.3 mg g-1. Furthermore, the adsorbent has a good selectivity towards Hg (II) with a detection limit of 0.01 μM due to the special interaction between Hg (II) and carboxyl/amino groups on the edge of N-CDs. This work provided an alternative direction for constructing low-cost adsorbents with effective sorption and sensing of Hg (II).
Non-point source (NPS) pollution has become a vital contaminant source affecting the water environment because of its wide distribution, hydrodynamic complexity, and difficulty in prevention and control. In this study, the identification and evaluation of NPS pollution risk based on landscape pattern were carried out in the Hanjiang River basin above Ankang hydrological section, Shaanxi province, China. Landscape distribution information was obtained through land use data, analyzing the contribution of "source-sink" landscape to NPS pollution through the location-weighted landscape contrast index. Using the NPS pollution risk index to identify and evaluate the regional NPS pollution risk considering the slope, cost distance, soil erosion, and precipitation erosion affect migration of pollutants. The results showed that (i) the pollution risk was generally high in the whole watershed, and the sub-watersheds dominated by "source" landscapes account for 74.61% of the whole basin; (ii) the high-risk areas were distributed in the central, eastern, and western regions of the river basin; the extremely high-risk areas accounted for 12.7% of the whole watershed; and the southern and northern regions were dominated by forestland and grassland with little pollution risk; (iii) "source" landscapes were mostly distributed in areas close to the river course, which had a great impact on environment, and the landscape pattern units near the water body needed to be further adjusted to reduce the influence of NPS pollution.
There are increasing applications of diazotrophic rhizobacteria in the sustainable agriculture system. A field experiment on young immature oil palm was conducted to quantify the uptake of N derived from N₂ fixation by the diazotroph Bacillus sphaericus strain UPMB-10, using the ¹⁵N isotope dilution method. Eight months after ¹⁵N application, young immature oil palms that received 67% of standard N fertilizer application together with B. sphaericus inoculation had significantly lower ¹⁵N enrichment than uninoculated palms that received similar N fertilizers. The dilution of labeled N served as a marker for the occurrence of biological N₂ fixation. The proportion of N uptake that was derived from the atmosphere was estimated as 63% on the whole plant basis. The inoculation process increased the N and dry matter yields of the palm leaflets and rachis significantly. Field planting of young, immature oil palm in soil inoculated with B. sphaericus UPMB-10 might mitigate inorganic fertilizer-N application through supplementation by biological nitrogen fixation. This could be a new and important source of nitrogen biofertilizer in the early phase of oil palm cultivation in the field.
Sel fuel mikrob (SFM) merupakan peranti yang menggunakan bakteria sebagai biomangkin untuk mengoksidakan bahan organik dan bukan organik bagi menjanakan arus elektrik. Tujuan utama kajian ini ialah menguji kebolehan SFM skala makmal dengan menggunakan enapcemar yang mengandungi kultur campuran yang hidup dalam air sisa buangan kilang pemprosesan sawit (POME). Kajian ini juga bertujuan membina reka bentuk SFM yang sesuai dan mengkaji keaktifan kultur campuran yang boleh menghasilkan kuasa elektrik. POME telah digunakan dalam bentuk yang dicairkan dengan kandungan COD bersamaan dengan 3750 mg-COD L-1. Prestasi penghasilan kuasa elektrik dan kecekapan rawatan yang dinilai daripada segi penyingkiran COD, nitrogen dan jumlah karbohidrat dalam SFM dwi-ruang telah dicatat dan dianalisis setiap hari selama 15 hari. Hasil padanan uji kaji dan model kekutuban adalah memuaskan dan telah menjelaskan ketumpatan kuasa elektrik yang dapat dihasilkan pada setiap hari. Ketumpatan kuasa didapati meningkat dari hari pertama 1.607 mW m-2 (3.816 mA m-2) ke nilai maksimum pada hari ketiga 1.979 mW m-2 (4.780 mA m-2) dan mula turun sehingga minimum pada hari ketujuh 1.311 mW m-2 (3.346 mA m-2). Peringkat rawatan air sisa kilang sawit oleh SFM boleh dibahagikan kepada tiga tahap yang berbeza. Kecekapan rawatan yang rendah walaupun ketumpatan kuasa meningkat pada tahap pertama, manakala pada tahap kedua kecekapan rawatan lebih tinggi dan akhirnya pada tahap ketiga penghasilan kuasa SFM mula turun. Kecekapan rawatan paling tinggi berlaku pada tahap ketiga semasa penghasilan kuasa elektrik yang terhasil agak malar. Kecekapan rawatan yang dinilaikan dalam bentuk penyingkiran COD, penggunaan nitrogen dan karbohidrat paling tinggi berlaku pada hari ke-15 dengan nilai masing-masing adalah 54.9, 100 dan 98.9%. Hubungan penghasilan kuasa elektrik dan kecekapan rawatan telah berjaya dimodelkan dalam persamaan linear matematik berdasarkan kepada tahap-tahap penghasilan kuasa elektrik ini.
Kobalt sulfida telah dihasilkan dengan kaedah pemendakan kimia di dalam kehadiran 0.1% ester sukrosa S1670s. Corak pembelauan sinar-x (XRD) menunjukkan kobalt sulfida yang dihasilkan mempunyai sifat amofos dan analisis sinar-x (EDX) menunjukkan kobalt sulfida yang terbentuk mempunyai nisbah atom Co: S dalam 1:1.08 iaitu CoS. CoS yang terbentuk mempunyai struktur liang bersaiz nano (~10 nm) apabila diperhatikan di bawah elektron mikroskop transmisi (TEM) dan disahkan oleh ujian penjerapan gas nitrogen (BET). Pembentukan struktur liang adalah disebabkan oleh struktur misel ester sukrosa yang mempunyai saiz misel dalam lingkungan 10 nm. CoS yang dihasilkan diuji keupayaan penjerapan dengan metilena biru sebagai sampel pewarna. Didapati keupayaan penjerapan optimum CoS ialah 110 mg/g dan pH yang paling sesuai untuk penjerapan berlaku adalah lebih daripada 6.
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) is a kind of ideal metal-free photocatalysts for artificial photosynthesis. At present, pristine g-C3 N4 suffers from small specific surface area, poor light absorption at longer wavelengths, low charge migration rate, and a high recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, which significantly limit its performance. Among a myriad of modification strategies, point-defect engineering, namely tunable vacancies and dopant introduction, is capable of harnessing the superb structural, textural, optical, and electronic properties of g-C3 N4 to acquire an ameliorated photocatalytic activity. In view of the burgeoning development in this pacey field, a timely review on the state-of-the-art advancement of point-defect engineering of g-C3 N4 is of vital significance to advance the solar energy conversion. Particularly, insights into the intriguing roles of point defects, the synthesis, characterizations, and the systematic control of point defects, as well as the versatile application of defective g-C3 N4 -based nanomaterials toward photocatalytic water splitting, carbon dioxide reduction and nitrogen fixation will be presented in detail. Lastly, this review will conclude with a balanced perspective on the technical and scientific hindrances and future prospects. Overall, it is envisioned that this review will open a new frontier to uncover novel functionalities of defective g-C3 N4 -based nanostructures in energy catalysis.
Development of thermophilic composting for maximizing NH3 gas recovery would enable the production of a nitrogen source which is free from pathogen/heavy metal, for the cultivation of high-value microalgae. The present study examined the effect of NH3 recovery, nitrogen mass balance, and microbial community dynamics on thermophilic composting of shrimp aquaculture sludge. The emission of NH3 gas at 60 and 70 °C was 14.7% and 15.6%, respectively, which was higher than that at 50 °C (9.0%). The nitrogen mass balance analysis revealed that higher temperatures enhanced the solubilization of non-dissolved nitrogen and liberation of NH3 gas from the produced NH4+-N. High-throughput microbial community analysis revealed the shift of the dominant bacterial group from Bacillus to Geobacillus with the rise of composting temperature. In conclusion, thermophilic composting of shrimp aquaculture sludge at 60-70 °C was the most favorable condition for enhancing NH3 gas recovery.
In the past few decades, there has been a rapid growth in the concentration of nitrogenous compounds such as nitrate-nitrogen and ammonia-nitrogen in rivers, primarily due to increasing agricultural and industrial activities. These nitrogenous compounds are mainly responsible for eutrophication when present in river water, and for 'blue baby syndrome' when present in drinking water. High concentrations of these compounds in rivers may eventually lead to the closure of treatment plants. This study presents a training and a selection approach to develop an optimum artificial neural network model for predicting monthly average nitrate-N and monthly average ammonia-N. Several studies have predicted these compounds, but most of the proposed procedures do not involve testing various model architectures in order to achieve the optimum predicting model. Additionally, none of the models have been trained for hydrological conditions such as the case of Malaysia. This study presents models trained on the hydrological data from 1981 to 2017 for the Langat River in Selangor, Malaysia. The model architectures used for training are General Regression Neural Network (GRNN), Multilayer Neural Network and Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN). These models were trained for various combinations of internal parameters, input variables and model architectures. Post-training, the optimum performing model was selected based on the regression and error values and plot of predicted versus observed values. Optimum models provide promising results with a minimum overall regression value of 0.92.
The present work investigates the feasibility of aerobic granulation for the treatment of low-medium strength domestic wastewater for long-term operation and effects of a static mixer on the properties and removal performances of the aerobic granules formed. The static mixer was installed in a sequential batch reactor to provide higher hydrodynamic shear force in enhancing the formation of the aerobic granules. Aerobic granules were successfully formed in the domestic wastewater, and the granulation treatment system was sustained for a period of 356 days without granules disintegration. Subsequent to the installation, aerobic granules with a low SVI30 of 41.37 mL/gTSS, average diameter 1.11 mm, granular strength with integrity coefficient 10.4% and regular shape with minimum filamentous outgrowth were formed. Mineral concentrations such as Fe, Mg, Ca and Na as well as composition of protein and polysaccharide in tightly bound-extracellular polymeric substance of the aerobic granules were found to be higher under the effect of the static mixer. However, no significant improvement was observed on the TCOD, NH4+-N and TSS removal performance. Good TCOD and TSS removal performance of above 85% and 90%, respectively and moderate NH4+-N removal performance of about 60% were observed throughout the study. Higher simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) efficiency of 56% was observed after the installation of the static mixer, as compared to 21% prior. Therefore, it may be concluded that the installation of the static mixer significantly improved the properties of aerobic granules formation and SND efficiency but not the TCOD, NH4+-N and TSS removal performance.
This paper presents the promising method of synchronizing the Six Sigma and reliability analyses at 15 sewage treatment plants (STPs) operating in Melaka, Malaysia. Five different suspended growth treatment technologies in various capacities were investigated. The sequential batch reactor (SBR) and extended aeration activated sludge (EAAS) processes, conventional activated sludge (CAS), aerated lagoon (AL), and oxidation pond (OP) were compared using innovative Niku's treatment reliability and Six Sigma process capability method for biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), oil and grease (O&G), and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) effluent parameters and justified the importance of understanding the lognormal behavior of the effluent parameters in interpreting the performance monitoring results and discharge compliance. The results showed that the SBR and EAAS systems relatively fulfilled the highest performance (>95%) compared to conventional systems to ensure the high quality of effluent discharge. Although the whole system is incapable of removing nutrients efficiently, ranging between 42.31% and 90.48%, may lead to eutrophication issues. Process modification and treatment control should become a critical priority in order to reduce variability, improve stability, and increase the efficiency of nutrient removal. These initiatives promote global sustainable development goals (SDGs) 2030 and the domestic water sector transformation (WST) 2040 by treatment cost reduction, improving environmental sustainability and guaranteeing social and health benefits.
This paper's novel focus is predicting the leaf nitrogen content of rice during growing and maturing. A multispectral image processing-based prediction model of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) model was proposed. Moreover, this paper depicted three primary points as the following: First, collect images of rice leaves (RL) from a controlled condition experimental laboratory and new shoot leaves in different stages in the visible light spectrum, and apply digital image processing technology to extract the color characteristics of RL and the morphological characteristics of the new shoot leaves. Secondly, the RBFNN model, the General Regression Model (GRL), and the General Regression Method (GRM) model were constructed based on the extracted image feature parameters and the nitrogen content of rice leaves. Third, the RBFNN is optimized by and Partial Least-Squares Regression (RBFNN-PLSR) model. Finally, the validation results show that the nitrogen content prediction models at growing and mature stages that the mean absolute error (MAE), the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the RFBNN model during the rice-growing stage and the mature stage are 0.6418 (%), 0.5399 (%), 0.0652 (%), and 0.3540 (%), 0.1566 (%), 0.0214 (%) respectively, the predicted value of the model fits well with the actual value. Finally, the model may be used to give the best foundation for achieving exact fertilization control by continuously monitoring the nitrogen nutrition status of rice. In addition, at the growing stage, the RBFNN model shows better results compared to both GRL and GRM, in which MAE is reduced by 0.2233% and 0.2785%, respectively.