Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 366 in total

  1. Sajjadi B, Abdul Aziz AR, Ibrahim S
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2015 Jan;22:463-73.
    PMID: 24981808 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2014.06.004
    The influence of sonoluminescence transesterification on biodiesel physicochemical properties was investigated and the results were compared to those of traditional mechanical stirring. This study was conducted to identify the mechanistic features of ultrasonication by coupling statistical analysis of the experiments into the simulation of cavitation bubble. Different combinations of operational variables were employed for alkali-catalysis transesterification of palm oil. The experimental results showed that transesterification with ultrasound irradiation could change the biodiesel density by about 0.3kg/m(3); the viscosity by 0.12mm(2)/s; the pour point by about 1-2°C and the flash point by 5°C compared to the traditional method. Furthermore, 93.84% of yield with alcohol to oil molar ratio of 6:1 could be achieved through ultrasound assisted transesterification within only 20min. However, only 89.09% of reaction yield was obtained by traditional macro mixing/heating under the same condition. Based on the simulated oscillation velocity value, the cavitation phenomenon significantly contributed to generation of fine micro emulsion and was able to overcome mass transfer restriction. It was found that the sonoluminescence bubbles reached the temperature of 758-713K, pressure of 235.5-159.55bar, oscillation velocity of 3.5-6.5cm/s, and equilibrium radius of 17.9-13.7 times greater than its initial size under the ambient temperature of 50-64°C at the moment of collapse. This showed that the sonoluminescence bubbles were in the condition in which the decomposition phenomena were activated and the reaction rate was accelerated together with a change in the biodiesel properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry
  2. Puah CW, Choo YM, Ma AN, Chuah CH
    Lipids, 2006 Mar;41(3):305-8.
    PMID: 16711607
    Some unidentified minor compounds have been observed in the residue from short-path distillation of transesterified palm oil that are not detected in the original palm oil. A method combining short-path distillation to enrich the unknowns with fractionation using solid-phase extraction is described. The fractionated components were identified using GC coupled with MS. The transesterified palm oil was found to contain methyl esters of up to C32 carbon atoms. In the very long chain FAME with carbon numbers > or = 20, both even and odd carbon numbers accounted for 0.26 wt%, with C24 and C26 being the major ones present in the residue after short-path distillation of transesterified palm oil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry*
  3. Thilakarathna RCN, Siow LF, Tang TK, Chan ES, Lee YY
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2023 Jan;92:106280.
    PMID: 36587443 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2022.106280
    Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UAE) was applied to extract underutilized Madhuca longifolia seed oil. The effect of extraction time, temperature, solvent type, solvent/sample ratio, and amplitude on the oil yield and recovery were investigated. Approximately 56.97% of oil yield and 99.54% of oil recovery were attained using mild conditions of 35 min, 35 °C, 40% amplitude, isopropanol to acetone (1:1), and solvent to sample (20 mL/g). UAE oil yield and recovery were comparable with Soxhlet extraction (SXE) whilst mechanical pressing (ME) yielded 
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry
  4. Yung YL, Lakshmanan S, Chu CM, Kumaresan S, Tham HJ
    PMID: 37549246 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2023.2235608
    The rising concern about the presence of 3-monochloropropane 1,2 diol ester (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl ester (GE) in food has prompted much research to be conducted. Some process modifications and the use of specific chemicals have been employed to mitigate both 3-MCPDE and GE. Alkalisation using NaOH, KOH, alkali metals or alkaline earth metals and post sparging with steam or ethanol and short path distillation have shown simultaneous mitigation of 51-91% in 3-MCPDE and of 13-99% in GE, both contaminants achieved below 1000 µg/kg. Some of the mitigation methods have resulted in undesirable deterioration in other parameters of the refined oil. When the processed oil is used in food processing, it results in changes to 3-MCPDE and GE. Repeated deep frying above 170 °C in the presence of NaCl and baking at 200 °C with flavouring (dried garlic and onion), resulted in increased 3-MCPDE. Repeated frying in the presence of antioxidants (TBHQ, rosemary and phenolics) decreased 3-MCPDE in processed food. The GE content in foods tends to decline with time, indicating instability of GE's epoxide ring.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry
  5. Mohamad Aziz NA, Yunus R, Kania D, Abd Hamid H
    Molecules, 2021 Feb 03;26(4).
    PMID: 33546303 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26040788
    Biodiesels and biolubricants are synthetic esters produced mainly via a transesterification of other esters from bio-based resources, such as plant-based oils or animal fats. Microwave heating has been used to enhance transesterification reaction by converting an electrical energy into a radiation, becoming part of the internal energy acquired by reactant molecules. This method leads to major energy savings and reduces the reaction time by at least 60% compared to a conventional heating via conduction and convection. However, the application of microwave heating technology alone still suffers from non-homogeneous electromagnetic field distribution, thermally unstable rising temperatures, and insufficient depth of microwave penetration, which reduces the mass transfer efficiency. The strategy of integrating multiple technologies for biodiesel and biolubricant production has gained a great deal of interest in applied chemistry. This review presents an advanced transesterification process that combines microwave heating with other technologies, namely an acoustic cavitation, a vacuum, ionic solvent, and a supercritical/subcritical approach to solve the limitations of the stand-alone microwave-assisted transesterification. The combined technologies allow for the improvement in the overall product yield and energy efficiency. This review provides insights into the broader prospects of microwave heating in the production of bio-based products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry*
  6. Zamiri R, Zakaria A, Ahangar HA, Sadrolhosseini AR, Mahdi MA
    Int J Mol Sci, 2010;11(11):4764-70.
    PMID: 21151470 DOI: 10.3390/ijms11114764
    In this study we used a laser ablation technique for preparation of silver nanoparticles. The fabrication process was carried out by ablation of a silver plate immersed in palm oil. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm was used for ablation of the plate at different times. The palm coconut oil allowed formation of nanoparticles with very small and uniform particle size, which are dispersed very homogeneously within the solution. The obtained particle sizes for 15 and 30 minute ablation times were 2.5 and 2 nm, respectively. Stability study shows that all of the samples remained stable for a reasonable period of time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry
  7. Tan CP, Man YC
    Phytochem Anal, 2002 May-Jun;13(3):129-41.
    PMID: 12099103
    The melting curves of 11 vegetable oils have been characterised. Vegetable oil samples that were cooled at a constant rate (5 degrees C/min) from the melt showed between one and seven melting endotherms upon heating at four different heating rates (1, 5, 10 and 20 degrees C/min) in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles and iodine value analyses were used to complement the DSC data. Generally, the melting transition temperature shifted to higher values with increased rates of heating. The breadth of the melting endotherm and the area under the melting peak also increased with increasing heating rate. Although the number of endothermic peaks was dependent on heating rate, the melting curves of the oil samples were not straightforward in that there was no correlation between the number of endothermic peaks and heating rates. Multiple melting behaviour in DSC experiments with different heating rates could be explained by: (1) the melting of TAG populations with different melting points; and (2) TAG crystal reorganisation effects. On the basis of the corollary results obtained, vegetable oils and fats may be distinguished from their offset-temperature (Toff) values in the DSC melting curves. The results showed that Toff values of all oil samples were significantly (p < 0.01) different in the melting curves scanned at four different scanning rates. These calorimetric results indicate that DSC is a valuable technique for studying vegetable oils.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry*
  8. Khairi MHA, Fatah AYA, Mazlan SA, Ubaidillah U, Nordin NA, Ismail NIN, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Aug 21;20(17).
    PMID: 31438576 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20174085
    The existing mold concept of fabricating magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) tends to encounter several flux issues due to magnetic flux losses inside the chamber. Therefore, this paper presents a new approach for enhancing particle alignment through MRE fabrication as a means to provide better rheological properties. A closed-loop mold, which is essentially a fully guided magnetic field inside the chamber, was designed in order to strengthen the magnetic flux during the curing process with the help of silicone oil (SO) plasticizers. The oil serves the purpose of softening the matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology of the fabricated MRE samples. The field-dependent dynamic properties of the MREs were measured several ways using a rheometer, namely, strain sweep, frequency sweep, and magnetic field sweep. The analysis implied that the effectiveness of the MRE was associated with the use of the SO, and the closed-loop mold helped enhance the absolute modulus up to 0.8 MPa. The relative magnetorheological (MR) effects exhibited high values up to 646%. The high modulus properties offered by the MRE with SO are believed to be potentially useful in industry applications, particularly as vibration absorbers, which require a high range of stiffness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Oils/chemistry*
  9. Siwayanan P, Chin LZ, Parthiban A, Ayodele OB, Hong BZ
    J Oleo Sci, 2024;73(4):479-487.
    PMID: 38556282 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess23121
    Global demand for epoxidized vegetable oil has been steadily growing. Epoxidized vegetable oils are typically produced using a two-pot synthesis process in which the oxidation and epoxidation reactions are carried out sequentially. This two-pot synthesis method, however, has a major drawback in industrialscale production, particularly when it comes to operational and process safety issues. A laboratory-scale one-pot synthesis method was attempted in this study with the aim to safely synthesize epoxidized Moringa Oleifera oil (eMOo) by avoiding the occurrence of undesired exothermic runaway reaction. The oil extracted from Moringa Oleifera oil seed kernel (MOo) was used as a starting component due to its high degree of unsaturation and also because the Moringa Oleifera plant can be freely grown in any soil conditions. Two parallel oxidation and epoxidation reactions were carried out simultaneously in this one-pot synthesis method to produce eMOo. The effect of five different mole ratios of MOo, acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (1:1:1, 1:1:2, 1:1.5:2, 1:1.75:2 and 1:2:2, respectively) on reaction mechanism was investigated at the controlled temperature range of 43 - 55°C and reaction time of 0 - 120 min. The physicochemical properties of MOo as well as the oxirane oxygen content (OOC) of the resulting eMOo were characterized. In addition, GC-MS and FTIR analysis were performed to verify the molecular composition of MOo and also to identify the epoxy group of the resulting eMOo respectively. Among the five different mole ratios studied, the 1:1.5:2 mole ratio has the highest unsaturation conversion of 79.57% and OOC of 4.12%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry
  10. Lahijani P, Zainal ZA, Mohamed AR, Mohammadi M
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Apr;158:193-200.
    PMID: 24607454 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.02.015
    CO2 gasification of oil palm shell (OPS) char to produce CO through the Boudouard reaction (C + CO2 ↔ 2CO) was investigated under microwave irradiation. A microwave heating system was developed to carry out the CO2 gasification in a packed bed of OPS char. The influence of char particle size, temperature and gas flow rate on CO2 conversion and CO evolution was considered. It was attempted to improve the reactivity of OPS char in gasification reaction through incorporation of Fe catalyst into the char skeleton. Very promising results were achieved in our experiments, where a CO2 conversion of 99% could be maintained during 60 min microwave-induced gasification of iron-catalyzed char. When similar gasification experiments were performed in conventional electric furnace, the superior performance of microwave over thermal driven reaction was elucidated. The activation energies of 36.0, 74.2 and 247.2 kJ/mol were obtained for catalytic and non-catalytic microwave and thermal heating, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry*
  11. Syam AM, Hamid HA, Yunus R, Rashid U
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:268385.
    PMID: 24363616 DOI: 10.1155/2013/268385
    Many kinetics studies on methanolysis assumed the reactions to be irreversible. The aim of the present work was to study the dynamic modeling of reversible methanolysis of Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) to biodiesel. The experimental data were collected under the optimal reaction conditions: molar ratio of methanol to JCO at 6 : 1, reaction temperature of 60°C, 60 min of reaction time, and 1% w/w of catalyst concentration. The dynamic modeling involved the derivation of differential equations for rates of three stepwise reactions. The simulation study was then performed on the resulting equations using MATLAB. The newly developed reversible models were fitted with various rate constants and compared with the experimental data for fitting purposes. In addition, analysis of variance was done statistically to evaluate the adequacy and quality of model parameters. The kinetics study revealed that the reverse reactions were significantly slower than forward reactions. The activation energies ranged from 6.5 to 44.4 KJ mol⁻¹.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry*
  12. Latip RA, Lee YY, Tang TK, Phuah ET, Tan CP, Lai OM
    Food Chem, 2013 Dec 15;141(4):3938-46.
    PMID: 23993569 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.05.114
    The stearin fraction of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAGS) was produced from dry fractionation of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG). Bakery shortening blends were produced by mixing PDAGS with either palm mid fraction, PMF (PDAGS/PMF), palm olein, POL(PDAGS/POL) or sunflower oil, SFO (PDAGS/SFO) at PDAGS molar fraction of XPDAGS=0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%. The physicochemical results obtained indicated that C16:0 and C18:1 were the dominant fatty acids for PDAGS/PMF and PDAGS/POL, while C18:1 and C18:2 were dominant in the PDAGS/SFO mixtures. SMP and SFC of the PDAGS were reduced with the addition of PMF, POL and SFO. Binary mixtures of PDAGS/PMF had better structural compatibility and full miscibility with each other. PDAGS/PMF and PDAGS/SFO crystallised in β'+β polymorphs in the presence of 0.4-0.5% PDAGS while PDAGS/POL resulted in β polymorphs crystal. The results gave indication that PDAGS: PMF at 50%:50% and 60%:40% (w/w) were the most suitable fat blend to be used as bakery shortening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry*
  13. Ahmad Tarmizi AH, Niranjan K, Gordon M
    Food Chem, 2013 Jan 15;136(2):902-8.
    PMID: 23122143 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.08.001
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of atmospheric frying followed by drainage under vacuum on the stability of oil, compared to similar frying with drainage at atmospheric pressure. Changes in the oil were assessed by the free fatty acid (FFA) content, p-anisidine value (AnV), colour, viscosity, fatty acid profile and concentration of tocols. The rate of FFA formation in the case of vacuum drainage was found to be about half that of atmospheric drainage. Oil deterioration by oxidation and polymerisation was also reduced by the use of vacuum drainage. The AnV of the oil after vacuum drainage was lower by about 12%, the total colour difference was improved by 14% and viscosity was slightly reduced after 5 days of frying, compared to the values for oil that had been drained at atmospheric pressure. There was a reduction in the loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the case of vacuum drainage after 5 days of frying but differences in retention of tocols were only evident in the first two days of frying.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry*
  14. Din MF, Mohanadoss P, Ujang Z, van Loosdrecht M, Yunus SM, Chelliapan S, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Nov;124:208-16.
    PMID: 22989648 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.08.036
    High PHA production and storage using palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated using a laboratory batch Bio-PORec® system under aerobic-feeding conditions. Results showed that maximum PHA was obtained at a specific rate (q(p)) of 0.343 C-mol/C-molh when air was supplied at 20 ml/min. The PHA yield was found to be 0.80 C-mol/C-mol acetic acid (HAc) at microaerophilic condition and the mass balance calculation showed that PHA production increased up to 15.68±2.15 C-mmol/cycle. The experiments showed that short feeding rate, limited requirements for electron acceptors (e.g. O(2), NO(3)) and nutrients (N and P) showed lower tendency of glycogen accumulation and contributed more to PHA productivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry*
  15. Tang SY, Sivakumar M, Nashiru B
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2013 Feb 1;102:653-8.
    PMID: 23107943 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2012.08.036
    The present investigation focuses in investigating the effect of osmotic pressure, gelling on the mean droplet diameter, polydispersity index, droplet size stability of the developed novel Aspirin containing water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) nano multiple emulsion. The aspirin-loaded nano multiple emulsion formulation was successfully generated using two-stage ultrasonic cavitational emulsification which had been reported in author's previous study. The osmotic behavior of ultrasonically prepared nano multiple emulsions were also examined with different glucose concentrations both in the inner and outer aqueous phases. In addition, introducing gelatin into the formulation also observed to play an important role in preventing the interdroplet coalescence via the formation of interfacial rigid film. Detailed studies were also made on the possible mechanisms of water migration under osmotic gradient which primarily caused by the permeation of glucose. Besides, the experimental results have shown that the interfacial tension between the two immiscible phases decreases with varying the composition of organic phase. Although the W/O/W emulsion prepared with the inner/outer glucose weight ratio of 1-0.5% (w/w) showed an excellent droplet stability, the formulation containing 0.5% (w/w) glucose in the inner aqueous phase appeared to be the most stable with minimum change in the mean droplet size upon one-week storage period. Based on the optimization, nano multiple emulsion droplets with the mean droplet diameter of around 400 nm were produced using 1.25% (w/w) Span 80 and 0.5% Cremophore EL. Overall, our investigation makes a pathway in proving that the use of ultrasound cavitation is an efficient yet promising approach in the generation of stable and uniform nano multiple emulsions and could be used in the encapsulation of various active pharmaceutical ingredients in the near future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oils/chemistry*
  16. Han NS, Basri M, Abd Rahman MB, Abd Rahman RN, Salleh AB, Ismail Z
    J Cosmet Sci, 2012 Sep-Oct;63(5):333-44.
    PMID: 23089355
    Oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions play an important key role in transporting bioactive compounds into a range of cosmeceutical products to the skin. Small droplet sizes have an inherent stability against creaming, sedimentation, flocculation, and coalescence. O/W emulsions varying in manufacturing process were prepared. The preparation and characterization of O/W nanoemulsions with average diameters of as low as 62.99 nm from palm oil esters were carried out. This was achieved using rotor-stator homogenizer and ultrasonic cavitation. Ultrasonic cell was utilized for the emulsification of palm oil esters and water in the presence of mixed surfactants, Tween 80 and Span 80 emulsions with a mean droplet size of 62.99 nm and zeta potential value at -37.8 mV. Results were comparable with emulsions prepared with rotor-stator homogenizer operated at 6000 rpm for 5 min. The stability of the emulsions was evaluated through rheology measurement properties. This included non-Newtonian viscosity, elastic modulus G', and loss modulus G″. A highly stable emulsion was prepared using ultrasonic cavitation comprising a very small particle size with higher zeta potential value and G' > G″ demonstrating gel-like behavior.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oils/chemistry
  17. Sirat HM, Jani NA
    Nat Prod Res, 2013;27(16):1468-70.
    PMID: 22946537 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2012.718772
    Hydrodistillation of the fresh leaves of Alpinia mutica afforded 0.005% colourless essential oil. GC and GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 33 components accounting for 92.9% of the total oil, dominated by 20 sesquiterpenes (76.7%) and 10 monoterpenes (8.3%). The major constituent was found to be β-sesquiphellandrene which was 29.2% of the total oil. Soxhlet extraction, followed by repeated column chromatography of the dried leaves yielded two phenolic compounds, identified as 5,6-dehydrokawain and aniba dimer A, together with one amide assigned as auranamide. The structures of these compounds were determined by using spectroscopic analysis. Antibacterial screening of the essential oil, the crude and isolated compounds showed weak to moderate inhibitory activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry
  18. Sadrolhosseini AR, Moksin MM, Nang HL, Norozi M, Yunus WM, Zakaria A
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(4):2100-11.
    PMID: 21731429 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12042100
    In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C(16:0) content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry
  19. Sirat HM, Basar N, Jani NA
    Nat Prod Res, 2011 Jun;25(10):982-6.
    PMID: 21644178 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2010.529079
    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the rhizomes of Alpinia aquatica Rosc. syn. Alpinia melanocarpa and Alpinia malaccensis Roscoe were analysed by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eighteen compounds, representing 98.4% of the essential oil were identified in A. aquatica rhizome oil, with β-sesquiphellandrene in 36.5% being the major constituent, while 20 compounds representing 99.7% of the rhizome oil of A. malaccensis were identified, among which methyl (E)-cinnamate (78.2%) was the major constituent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry*
  20. Rohman A, Man YB, Riyanto S
    Phytochem Anal, 2011 Sep-Oct;22(5):462-7.
    PMID: 22033916 DOI: 10.1002/pca.1304
    Red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam) is endemic plant of Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The price of its oil (red fruit oil, RFO) is 10-15 times higher than that of common vegetable oils; consequently, RFO is subjected to adulteration with lower price oils. Among common vegetable oils, canola oil (CaO) and rice bran oil (RBO) have similar fatty acid profiles to RFO as indicated by the score plot of principal component analysis; therefore, CaO and RBO are potential adulterants in RFO.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Oils/chemistry*
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