INTRODUCTION: This study ascertains the minimum level of follow-up exercise required to maintain bone gains induced by an 8-week jumping exercise in rats.
METHODS: Twelve groups of 12-week old rats (n = 10 rats per group) were given either no exercise for 8 (8S) or 32 weeks (32S), or received 8 weeks of standard training program (8STP) that consisted of 200 jumps per week, given at 40 jumps per day for 5 days per week, followed by 24 weeks of exercise at loads of either 40 or 20 or 10 jumps per day, for either 5, or 3, or 1 day/week. Bone mass, strength, and morphometric properties were measured in the right tibia. Data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance.
RESULTS: Bone mass, strength, mid-shaft periosteal perimeter and cortical area were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the rats given 8STP than that in the 8S group. The minimal level of exercise required to maintain the bone gains was 31, 36, 25, and 21 jumps per week for mass, strength, periosteal perimeter and cortical area, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of jumping exercise-induced bone gains could be maintained for a period of 24 weeks with follow-up exercise consisting of 11% to 18% of the initial exercise load.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. Modified Hyrax expanders were placed across the midsagittal sutures and secured with miniscrew implants with the following activations: group 1 (control), 0.5 mm expansion/day for 12 days; group 2, 1 mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm expansion/day for 10 days; group 3, 2.5 mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm expansion/day for 7 days; and group 4, 4 mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm expansion/day for 4 days. After 6 weeks, sutural expansion and new bone formation were evaluated histomorphometrically. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman's rho correlation (p
OBJECTIVE: The study examines the effect of F. deltoidea on bone histomorphometric parameters, oxidative stress, and turnover markers in diabetic rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 animals per group) received one of the following treatments via gavage for 8 weeks: saline (diabetic control), metformin (1000 mg/kg bwt), and methanol leaves extract of F. deltoidea (1000 mg/kg bwt). A group of healthy rats served as normal control. The femoral bones were excised and scanned ex vivo using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for histomorphometric analysis. The serum levels of insulin, oxidative stress, and bone turnover markers were determined by ELISA assays.
RESULTS: Treatment of diabetic rats with F. deltoidea could significantly increase bone mineral density (BMD) (from 526.98 ± 11.87 to 637.74 ± 3.90). Higher levels of insulin (2.41 ± 0.08 vs. 1.58 ± 0.16), osteocalcin (155.66 ± 4.11 vs. 14.35 ± 0.97), and total bone n-3 PUFA (2.34 ± 0.47 vs. 1.44 ± 0.18) in parallel with the presence of chondrocyte hypertrophy were also observed following F. deltoidea treatment compared to diabetic control.
CONCLUSIONS: F. deltoidea could prevent diabetic osteoporosis by enhancing osteogenesis and inhibiting bone oxidative stress. These findings support the potential use of F. deltoidea for osteoporosis therapy in diabetes.
METHODS: Three segments of the whole UC, each 3 cm in length, were identified anatomically as the maternal, middle and fetal segments. The hWJMSCs from the different segments were analyzed via trypan blue exclusion assay to determine the growth kinetics and cell viability, flow cytometry for immunophenotyping and immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for expression of stromal cell transcriptional factors. Furthermore, the trilineage differentiation potential (osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic) of these cells was also assessed.
RESULTS: hWJMSCs isolated from the maternal and fetal segments displayed greater viability and possessed a significantly higher proliferation rate compared with cells from the middle segment. Immunophenotyping revealed that hWJMSCs derived from all three segments expressed the MSC markers CD105, CD73, CD90, CD44, CD13 and CD29, as well as HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, but were negative for hematopoietic markers CD14, CD34 and CD45. Analysis of the embryonic markers showed that all three segments expressed Nanog and Oct 3/4, but only the maternal and fetal segments expressed SSEA 4 and TRA-160. Cells from all three segments were able to differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineages with the middle segments showing much lower differentiation potential compared with the other two segments.
CONCLUSIONS: hWJMSCs derived from the maternal and fetal segments of the UC are a good source of MSCs compared with cells from the middle segment because of their higher proliferation rate and viability. Fetal and maternal segments are the preferred cell source for bone regeneration.
MATERIALS AND RESULTS: Thirty-five paraffin-embedded ameloblastoma cases, ameloblastoma-derived cell lines (AM-1), and primary cultures of ameloblastoma stromal fibroblasts (ASF) were used. Immunohistochemistry, MTT assay, Western blotting, and RT-PCR were performed on these samples. Parenchyma-stromal CCN2 overexpression correlated significantly with fibrous-type stroma, but not with myxoid-type stroma, suggesting a role of CCN2 in fibrosis (P < 0.05). Recombinant CCN2 induction of enhanced ASF proliferation in AM-1 medium supports this view. Conversely, BMP4 and TGF-β were expressed in myxoid-type fibroblasts, but little expression was found in parenchyma. RANKL-positive and CD68-positive stromal cell populations were significantly greater in myxoid-type tumor areas than in fibrous-type tumor areas, while a higher Ki-67 labeling index was recorded in ameloblastoma with fibrous-type stroma. These data suggest that stromal properties influence bone resorption-related activities and growth rates, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the effects of secreted growth factors are governed by ameloblastoma parenchyma-stromal interactions. CCN2 promotes fibrogenesis independent of TGF-β signaling. Absence of CCN2 expression is associated with a phenotypic switch to a myxoid-type microenvironment that is conducive for TGF-β/BMP4 signaling to promote osteoclastogenesis.