Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 88 in total

  1. Rajendran S, Blanco A, Gnanasekaran L, Jalil AA, Chen WH, Gracia F
    Chemosphere, 2023 Dec;345:140418.
    PMID: 37844702 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.140418
    Carbon-integrated binary metal oxide semiconductors have gained prominence in the last decade as a better material for photocatalytic wastewater treatment technology. In this regard, this research describes the investigation of the binary metal oxide TiO2@Fe3O4 embedded on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets synthesized through a combination of sol-gel, chemical precipitation, and Hummer's processes. Besides, the catalyst is applied for the photocatalytic degradation of organic chlorophenol pollutants. The characterized diffraction results showed the peak broadening of the rGO-TiO2@Fe3O4 composite formed with tetragonal and cubic structures having small crystallite sizes. The TEM observation shows an enormous miniature of TiO2@Fe3O4 nanospheres spread on the folded 2D-rGO nanosheets with a large BET surface area. The XPS result holds the mixed phases of Fe3O4 and Fe2O3. Finally, the catalyst demonstrated a low band gap with extended light absorption towards visible light irradiation. The synergistic interactions between Fe3+ and Fe2+ improved the visible light activity due to the incorporation of rGO, and also possessed good recycling capacity. The increased mobility of electrons at the interfaces of TiO2 and Fe3O4 due to the mixing of rGO results in the separation of charge carriers by elevating the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of chlorophenol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry
  2. Kalantari K, Ahmad MB, Masoumi HR, Shameli K, Basri M, Khandanlou R
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(7):12913-27.
    PMID: 25050784 DOI: 10.3390/ijms150712913
    Fe3O4/talc nanocomposite was used for removal of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Experiments were designed by response surface methodology (RSM) and a quadratic model was used to predict the variables. The adsorption parameters such as adsorbent dosage, removal time, and initial ion concentration were used as the independent variables and their effects on heavy metal ion removal were investigated. Analysis of variance was incorporated to judge the adequacy of the models. Optimal conditions with initial heavy metal ion concentration of 100, 92 and 270 mg/L, 120 s of removal time and 0.12 g of adsorbent amount resulted in 72.15%, 50.23%, and 91.35% removal efficiency for Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The predictions of the model were in good agreement with experimental results and the Fe3O4/talc nanocomposite was successfully used to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry
  3. Zhu T, Chong MN, Chan ES
    ChemSusChem, 2014 Nov;7(11):2974-97.
    PMID: 25274424 DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402089
    The recent developments of nanostructured WO3 thin films synthesized through the electrochemical route of electrochemical anodization and cathodic electrodeposition for the application in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting are reviewed. The key fundamental reaction mechanisms of electrochemical anodization and cathodic electrodeposition methods for synthesizing nanostructured WO3 thin films are explained. In addition, the effects of metal oxide precursors, electrode substrates, applied potentials and current densities, and annealing temperatures on size, composition, and thickness of the electrochemically synthesized nanostructured WO3 thin films are elucidated in detail. Finally, a summary is given for the general evaluation practices used to calculate the energy conversion efficiency of nanostructured WO3 thin films and a recommendation is provided to standardize the presentation of research results in the field to allow for easy comparison of reported PEC efficiencies in the near future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry*
  4. Gan DKW, Loy ACM, Chin BLF, Yusup S, Unrean P, Rianawati E, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2018 Oct;265:180-190.
    PMID: 29894912 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.06.003
    Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of catalytic pyrolysis of rice hull (RH) pyrolysis using two different types of renewable catalysts namely natural limestone (LS) and eggshells (ES) using thermogravimetric analysis (TG) approach at different heating rates of 10-100 K min-1 in temperature range of 323-1173 K are investigated. Catalytic pyrolysis mechanism of both catalysts had shown significant effect on the degradation of RH. Model free kinetic of iso-conversional method (Flynn-Wall-Ozawa) and multi-step reaction model (Distributed Activation Energy Model) were employed into present study. The average activation energy was found in the range of 175.4-177.7 kJ mol-1 (RH), 123.3-132.5 kJ mol-1 (RH-LS), and 96.1-100.4 kJ mol-1 (RH-ES) respectively. The syngas composition had increased from 60.05 wt% to 63.1 wt% (RH-LS) and 63.4 wt% (RH-ES). However, the CO2 content had decreased from 24.1 wt% (RH) to 20.8 wt% (RH-LS) and 19.9 wt% (RH-ES).
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry*
  5. Abbasi Pirouz A, Abedi Karjiban R, Abu Bakar F, Selamat J
    Toxins (Basel), 2018 09 06;10(9).
    PMID: 30200553 DOI: 10.3390/toxins10090361
    A novel magnetic graphene oxide modified with chitosan (MGO-CTS) was synthesised as an adsorbent aimed to examine the simultaneous removal of mycotoxins. The composite was characterised by various procedures, namely Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adsorption evaluation was considered via pH effects, initial mycotoxin concentration, adsorption time and temperature. Adsorption isotherm data and kinetics experiments were acquired at the optimum pH 5 fit Freundlich isotherm as well as pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The thermodynamic results indicated that the adsorption of the mycotoxins was spontaneous, endothermic and favourable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry*
  6. Muthoosamy K, Bai RG, Abubakar IB, Sudheer SM, Lim HN, Loh HS, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:1505-19.
    PMID: 25759577 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S75213
    PURPOSE: A simple, one-pot strategy was used to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets by utilizing an easily available over-the-counter medicinal and edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum.

    METHODS: The mushroom was boiled in hot water to liberate the polysaccharides, the extract of which was then used directly for the reduction of graphene oxide. The abundance of polysaccharides present in the mushroom serves as a good reducing agent. The proposed strategy evades the use of harmful and expensive chemicals and avoids the typical tedious reaction methods.

    RESULTS: More importantly, the mushroom extract can be easily separated from the product without generating any residual byproducts and can be reused at least three times with good conversion efficiency (75%). It was readily dispersible in water without the need of ultrasonication or any surfactants; whereas 5 minutes of ultrasonication with various solvents produced RGO which was stable for the tested period of 1 year. Based on electrochemical measurements, the followed method did not jeopardize RGO's electrical conductivity. Moreover, the obtained RGO was highly biocompatible to not only colon (HT-29) and brain (U87MG) cancer cells, but was also viable towards normal cells (MRC-5).

    CONCLUSION: Besides being eco-friendly, this mushroom based approach is easily scalable and demonstrates remarkable RGO stability and biocompatibility, even without any form of functionalization.

    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry*
  7. Mahmoudian MR, Basirun WJ, Woi PM, Sookhakian M, Yousefi R, Ghadimi H, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Feb;59:500-508.
    PMID: 26652401 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.10.055
    The present study examines the synthesis of Co3O4 ultra-nanosheets (Co3O4 UNSs) and Co3O4 ultra-nanosheet-Ni(OH)2 (Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2) via solvothermal process and their application as non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors for glucose detection. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results confirmed the Co3O4 UNS deposition on Ni(OH)2 surface. The presence of Co3O4 UNSs on Ni (OH) 2 surface improved the sensitivity of glucose detection, from the increase of glucose oxidation peak current at the Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2/glassy carbon electrode (current density: 2000μA·cm(-2)), compared to the Co3O4 UNSs. These results confirmed that Ni(OH)2 on glassy carbon electrode is a sensitive material for glucose detection, moreover the Co3O4 UNSs can increase the interaction and detection of glucose due to their high surface area. The estimated limit of detection (S/N=3) and limit of quantification (S/N=10) of the linear segment (5-40μM) are 1.08μM and 3.60μM respectively. The reproducibility experiments confirmed the feasibility of Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2 for the quantitative detection of certain concentration ranges of glucose.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxides/chemistry*; Oxides/chemistry*
  8. Muhd Julkapli N, Bagheri S, Bee Abd Hamid S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:692307.
    PMID: 25054183 DOI: 10.1155/2014/692307
    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry
  9. Azman NZ, Siddiqui SA, Low IM
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2013 Dec 1;33(8):4952-7.
    PMID: 24094209 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2013.08.023
    Characteristics of X-ray transmissions were investigated for epoxy composites filled with 2-10 vol% WO3 loadings using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at 10-40 keV. The results obtained were used to determine the equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of mammography and radiology machines. The results confirmed the superior attenuation ability of nano-sized WO3-epoxy composites in the energy range of 10-25 keV when compared to their micro-sized counterparts. However, at higher synchrotron radiation energies (i.e., 30-40 keV), the X-ray transmission characteristics were similar with no apparent size effect for both nano-sized and micro-sized WO3-epoxy composites. The equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of the mammography unit (25-49 kV) were in the range of 15-25 keV. Similarly, for a radiology unit operating at 40-60 kV, the equivalent energy range was 25-40 keV, and for operating voltages greater than 60 kV (i.e., 70-100 kV), the equivalent energy was in excess of 40 keV. The mechanical properties of epoxy composites increased initially with an increase in the filler loading but a further increase in the WO3 loading resulted in deterioration of flexural strength, modulus and hardness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry*
  10. Bahari HR, Sidek HA, Adikan FR, Yunus WM, Halimah MK
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(7):8609-14.
    PMID: 22942723 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13078609
    Heavy metal oxide glasses, containing bismuth and/or lead in their glass structure are new alternatives for rare eart (RE) doped hosts. Hence, the study of the structure of these vitreous systems is of great interest for science and technology. In this research work, GeO(2)-PbO-Bi(2)O(3) glass host doped with Er(3+)/Yb(3+) ions was synthesized by a conventional melt quenching method. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results showed that PbO and Bi(2)O(3) participate with PbO(4) tetragonal pyramids and strongly distort BiO(6) octahedral units in the glass network, which subsequently act as modifiers in glass structure. These results also confirmed the existence of both four and six coordination of germanium oxide in glass matrix.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry*
  11. Zaid MH, Matori KA, Aziz SH, Zakaria A, Ghazali MS
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(6):7550-8.
    PMID: 22837711 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13067550
    This manuscript reports on the physical properties and optical band gap of five samples of soda lime silicate (SLS) glass combined with zinc oxide (ZnO) that were prepared by a melting and quenching process. To understand the role of ZnO in this glass structure, the density, molar volume and optical band gaps were investigated. The density and absorption spectra in the Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-Visible) region were recorded at room temperature. The results show that the densities of the glass samples increased as the ZnO weight percentage increased. The molar volume of the glasses shows the same trend as the density: the molar volume increased as the ZnO content increased. The optical band gaps were calculated from the absorption edge, and it was found that the optical band gap decreased from 3.20 to 2.32 eV as the ZnO concentration increased.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry*
  12. Huang NM, Lim HN, Chia CH, Yarmo MA, Muhamad MR
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:3443-8.
    PMID: 22267928 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S26812
    Graphene has attracted much attention from researchers due to its interesting mechanical, electrochemical, and electronic properties. It has many potential applications such as polymer filler, sensor, energy conversion, and energy storage devices. Graphene-based nanocomposites are under an intense spotlight amongst researchers. A large amount of graphene is required for preparation of such samples. Lately, graphene-based materials have been the target for fundamental life science investigations. Despite graphene being a much sought-after raw material, the drawbacks in the preparation of graphene are that it is a challenge amongst researchers to produce this material in a scalable quantity and that there is a concern about its safety. Thus, a simple and efficient method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is greatly desired to address these problems. In this work, one-pot chemical oxidation of graphite was carried out at room temperature for the preparation of large-area GO with ~100% conversion. This high-conversion preparation of large-area GO was achieved using a simplified Hummer's method from large graphite flakes (an average flake size of 500 μm). It was found that a high degree of oxidation of graphite could be realized by stirring graphite in a mixture of acids and potassium permanganate, resulting in GO with large lateral dimension and area, which could reach up to 120 μm and ~8000 μm(2), respectively. The simplified Hummer's method provides a facile approach for the preparation of large-area GO.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry
  13. Rizwan Z, Zakaria A, Ghazali MS
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(3):1625-32.
    PMID: 21673911 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12031625
    Photopyroelectric (PPE) spectroscopy is a nondestructive tool that is used to study the optical properties of the ceramics (ZnO + 0.4MnO(2) + 0.4Co(3)O(4) + xV(2)O(5)), x = 0-1 mol%. Wavelength of incident light, modulated at 10 Hz, was in the range of 300-800 nm. PPE spectrum with reference to the doping level and sintering temperature is discussed. Optical energy band-gap (E(g)) was 2.11 eV for 0.3 mol% V(2)O(5) at a sintering temperature of 1025 °C as determined from the plot (ρhυ)(2)versushυ. With a further increase in V(2)O(5), the value of E(g) was found to be 2.59 eV. Steepness factor 'σ(A)' and 'σ(B)', which characterize the slope of exponential optical absorption, is discussed with reference to the variation of E(g). XRD, SEM and EDAX are also used for characterization of the ceramic. For this ceramic, the maximum relative density and grain size was observed to be 91.8% and 9.5 μm, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry*
  14. Ahmad A, Ghufran R, Abd Wahid Z
    J Hazard Mater, 2011 Dec 30;198:40-8.
    PMID: 22047724 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.10.008
    The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO-CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO-CKD at doses of 1.5-20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35°C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO-CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5-65.5 g-CODg/l at an OLR of 4.5-12.5 kg-COD/m(3)d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS) and volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic sludge in the UASB reactor decreased significantly after long-term operation due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the granules. Granulation and methanogenesis decreased with an increase in the influent CaO-CKD concentration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry*
  15. Rosli AN, Zabidi NA, Kassim HA, Shrivastava KN
    PMID: 21571582 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2011.04.051
    We have calculated the vibrational frequencies of clusters of atoms from the first principles by using the density-functional theory in the local density approximation (LDA). We are also able to calculate the electronic binding energy for all of the clusters of atoms from the optimized structure. We have made clusters of BanOm (n, m=1-6) and have determined the bond lengths, vibrational frequencies as well as intensities in each case. We find that the peroxide cluster BaO2 occurs with the O-O vibrational frequency of 836.3 cm(-1). We also find that a glass network occurs in the material which explains the vibrational frequency of 67 cm(-1). The calculated values agree with those measured from the Raman spectra of barium peroxide and Ba-B-oxide glass. We have calculated the vibrational frequencies of BaO4, GeO4 and SiO4 each in tetrahedral configuration and find that the vibrational frequencies in these systems depend on the inverse square root of the atomic mass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry*
  16. Wan Z, Hameed BH
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Feb;102(3):2659-64.
    PMID: 21109428 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.10.119
    In this study, methyl ester (ME) was produced by transesterification of palm oil (CPO) (cooking grade) using activated carbon supported calcium oxide as a solid base catalyst (CaO/AC). Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the effect of reaction time, molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature and catalyst amount on the transesterification process. The optimum condition for CPO transesterification to methyl ester was obtained at 5.5 wt.% catalyst amount, 190°C temperature, 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio and 1 h 21 min reaction time. At the optimum condition, the ME content was 80.98%, which is well within the predicted value of the model. Catalyst regeneration studies indicate that the catalyst performance is sustained after two cycles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry*
  17. Boey PL, Maniam GP, Hamid SA
    J Oleo Sci, 2009;58(10):499-502.
    PMID: 19745576
    Aquaculture activity has increased the population of crab, hence increasing the generation of related wastes, particularly the shell. In addition, the number of molting process in crabs compounds further the amount of waste shell generated. As such, in the present work, the application of the waste crab shell as a source of CaO in transesterification of palm olein to biodiesel (methyl ester) was investigated. Preliminary XRD results revealed that thermally activated crab shell contains mainly CaO. Parametric study has been investigated and optimal conditions were found to be methanol/oil mass ratio, 0.5:1; catalyst amount, 4 wt. %; and reaction temperature, 338 K. As compared to laboratory CaO, the catalyst from waste crab shell performs well, thus creating another low-cost catalyst source for producing biodiesel as well as adding value to the waste crab shell. Reusability of crab shell CaO has also been studied and the outcome confirmed that the catalyst is capable to be reutilized up to 11 times, without any major deterioration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry
  18. Matori KA, Wah LC, Hashim M, Ismail I, Zaid MH
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(12):16812-21.
    PMID: 23222685 DOI: 10.3390/ijms131216812
    We report on a recycling project in which α-Al(2)O(3) was produced from aluminum cans because no such work has been reported in literature. Heated aluminum cans were mixed with 8.0 M of H(2)SO(4) solution to form an Al(2)(SO(4))(3) solution. The Al(2)(SO(4))(3) salt was contained in a white semi-liquid solution with excess H(2)SO(4); some unreacted aluminum pieces were also present. The solution was filtered and mixed with ethanol in a ratio of 2:3, to form a white solid of Al(2)(SO(4))(3)·18H(2)O. The Al(2)(SO(4))(3)·18H(2)O was calcined in an electrical furnace for 3 h at temperatures of 400-1400 °C. The heating and cooling rates were 10 °C /min. XRD was used to investigate the phase changes at different temperatures and XRF was used to determine the elemental composition in the alumina produced. A series of different alumina compositions, made by repeated dehydration and desulfonation of the Al(2)(SO(4))(3)·18H(2)O, is reported. All transitional alumina phases produced at low temperatures were converted to α-Al(2)O(3) at high temperatures. The X-ray diffraction results indicated that the α-Al(2)O(3) phase was realized when the calcination temperature was at 1200 °C or higher.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry
  19. Rafieerad AR, Bushroa AR, Nasiri-Tabrizi B, Fallahpour A, Vadivelu J, Musa SN, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2016 08;61:182-196.
    PMID: 26874249 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.01.028
    PVD process as a thin film coating method is highly applicable for both metallic and ceramic materials, which is faced with the necessity of choosing the correct parameters to achieve optimal results. In the present study, a GEP-based model for the first time was proposed as a safe and accurate method to predict the adhesion strength and hardness of the Nb PVD coated aimed at growing the mixed oxide nanotubular arrays on Ti67. Here, the training and testing analysis were executed for both adhesion strength and hardness. The optimum parameter combination for the scratch adhesion strength and micro hardness was determined by the maximum mean S/N ratio, which was 350W, 20 sccm, and a DC bias of 90V. Results showed that the values calculated in the training and testing in GEP model were very close to the actual experiments designed by Taguchi. The as-sputtered Nb coating with highest adhesion strength and microhardness was electrochemically anodized at 20V for 4h. From the FESEM images and EDS results of the annealed sample, a thick layer of bone-like apatite was formed on the sample surface after soaking in SBF for 10 days, which can be connected to the development of a highly ordered nanotube arrays. This novel approach provides an outline for the future design of nanostructured coatings for a wide range of applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry*
  20. Tuan DD, Hung C, Da Oh W, Ghanbari F, Lin JY, Lin KA
    Chemosphere, 2020 Dec;261:127552.
    PMID: 32731015 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127552
    As cobalt (Co) represents an effective transition metal for activating Oxone to degrade contaminants, tricobalt tetraoxide (Co3O4) is extensively employed as a heterogeneous phase of Co for Oxone activation. Since Co3O4 can be manipulated to exhibit various shapes, 2-dimensional plate-like morphology of Co3O4 can offer large contact surfaces. If the large plate-like surfaces can be even porous, forming porous nanoplate Co3O4 (PNC), such a PNC should be a promising catalyst for Oxone activation. Therefore, a facile but straightforward method is proposed to prepare such a PNC for activating Oxone to degrade pollutants. In particular, a cobaltic coordination polymer with a morphology of hexagonal nanoplate, which is synthesized through coordination between Co2+ and thiocyanuric acid (TCA), is adopted as a precursor. Through calcination, CoTCA could be transformed into hexagonal nanoplate-like Co3O4 with pores to become PNC. This PNC also shows different characteristics from the commercial Co3O4 nanoparticle (NP) in terms of surficial reactivity and textural properties. Thus, PNC exhibits a much higher catalytic activity than the commercial Co3O4 NP towards activation of Oxone to degrade a model contaminant, salicylic acid (SA). Specifically, SA was 100% degraded by PNC activating Oxone within 120 min, and the Ea of SA degradation by PNC-activated Oxone is 70.2 kJ/mol. PNC can also remain stable and effective for SA degradation even in the presence of other anions, and PNC could be reused over multiple cycles without significant loss of catalytic activity. These features validate that PNC is a promising and useful Co-based catalyst for Oxone activation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oxides/chemistry*
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