Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Rockell JE, Venn BJ, Lambert A, Todd J, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2008 Mar;62(3):373-8.
    PMID: 17342165
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the vitamin D status of women living in two Asian cities,--Jakarta (6 degrees S) and Kuala-Lumpur (2 degrees N), to examine the association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, and to determine a threshold for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D above which there is no further suppression of PTH. Also, to determine whether dietary calcium intake influences the relationship between PTH and 25-hydroxyvitamin D.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

    SETTING: Jakarta, Indonesia and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 504 non-pregnant women 18-40 years.

    MAIN MEASURES: Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH.

    RESULTS: The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 48 nmol/l. Less than 1% of women had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration indicative of vitamin D deficiency (<17.5 nmol/l); whereas, over 60% of women had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration indicative of insufficiency (<50 nmol/l). We estimate that 52 nmol/l was the threshold concentration for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D above which no further suppression of PTH occurred. Below and above this concentration the slopes of the regression lines were -0.18 (different from 0; P=0.003) and -0.01 (P=0.775), respectively. The relation between vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone concentration did not differ between women with low, medium or high calcium intakes (P=0.611); however, even in the highest tertile of calcium intake, mean calcium intake was only 657 mg/d.

    CONCLUSION: On the basis of maximal suppression of PTH we estimate an optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of approximately 50 nmol/l. Many women had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D below this concentration and may benefit from improved vitamin D status.

    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood*
  2. Chin KY, Nirwana SI, Ngah WZ
    Clin Interv Aging, 2015;10:1377-80.
    PMID: 26346636 DOI: 10.2147/CIA.S90233
    Previous reports of patients undergoing parathyroidectomy and of patients receiving teriparatide as antiosteoporotic treatment have suggested a plausible relationship between parathyroid hormone (PTH) and uric acid. However, similar data at population level were lacking. The current study aimed to determine the relationship between PTH and uric acid in a group of apparently healthy Malaysian men.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood*
  3. Singh HJ, Mohammad NH, Nila A
    J Matern Fetal Med, 1999 May-Jun;8(3):95-100.
    PMID: 10338062
    To ascertain the calcium status in normal pregnant Malay women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood*
  4. Nurbazlin M, Chee WS, Rokiah P, Tan AT, Chew YY, Nusaibah AR, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2013;22(3):391-9.
    PMID: 23945409 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.3.15
    Ultraviolet B sunlight exposure is a primary source of vitamin D. There have been reports of low vitamin D status amongst the Malaysian population despite it being a tropical country. This study was conducted to determine the influence of sun exposure on 25(OH)D concentrations in urban and rural women in Malaysia and factors predicting 25(OH)D concentrations. Women aged above 45 years were recruited from urban (n=107) and rural areas (n=293). Subjects were interviewed regarding their outdoor activities and usual outdoor attire over the previous week. 25(OH)D concentrations were analyzed using the vitamin D3 (25-OH) electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Median (Q1-Q3) age of the participants was 57 (53-61) years old. Median (Q1-Q3) 25(OH)D concentration of rural women was significantly higher [69.5 (59.0-79.1) nmol/L] compared to urban women [31.9 (26.1- 45.5) nmol/L] (p<0.001). Rural women spent more time in the sun compared to urban women (7.83 (3.67-14.7) vs 2.92 (1.17-4.92) hours, p<0.001), although the fraction of body surface area (BSA) exposed to sunlight was significantly higher in the urban group [0.21 (0.21-0.43) vs 0.12 (0.07-0.17), p<0.001]. The calculated sun index (hours of sun exposure per week × fraction of BSA) was significantly higher in rural [0.89 (0.42-1.83)] compared to urban women [0.72 (0.26-1.28)], p=0.018. In the stepwise linear regression, rural dwelling increased the serum 25(OH)D by 31.74 nmol/L and 25(OH)D concentrations increased by 1.93 nmol/L for every unit increment in sun index. Urban women in Malaysia had significantly lower vitamin D status compared to rural women. Rural dwelling and sun index were key factors influencing vitamin D status in Malaysian women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood
  5. Davis TM, Singh B, Choo KE, Ibrahim J, Sulaiman SA, Kadir ZA, et al.
    J Intern Med, 1998 May;243(5):349-54.
    PMID: 9651556
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dynamic parathyroid response to rapidly induced, sustained hypocalcaemia in patients with acute malaria and in healthy volunteers.

    DESIGN: Serum intact parathormone (PTH) concentrations were measured on samples taken before and during a variable-rate tri-sodium citrate infusion designed to 'clamp' the whole blood ionised calcium concentration 0.20 mmol L-1 below baseline for 120 min.

    SUBJECTS: Six Malaysian patients aged 17-42 years with acute malaria, four of whom were restudied in convalescence, and 12 healthy controls aged 19-36 years.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whole-blood ionised calcium and serum intact PTH concentrations.

    RESULTS: The mean (SD baseline ionised calcium was lower in the malaria patients than in controls (1.09 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.18 +/- 0.03 mmol L-1, respectively; P = 0.01) but PTH concentrations were similar (3.0 +/- 1.8 vs. 3.3 +/- 1.3 pmol L(-1); P = 0.33). Target whole-blood ionised calcium concentrations were achieved more rapidly in the controls than the patients (within 15 vs. 30 min) despite significantly more citrate being required in the patients (area under the citrate infusion-time curve 0.95 (0.25 vs. 0.57 +/- 0.09 mmol kg-1; P < 0.01). The ratio of the change in serum PTH to that in ionised calcium (delta PTH/ delta Ca2+), calculated to adjust for differences in initial rate of fall of ionised calcium, was similar during the first 5 min of the clamp (132 +/- 75 x 10(-6) vs. 131 +/- 43 x 10(-6) in patients and controls, respectively, P > 0.05), as were steady-state serum PTH levels during the second hour (7.0 +/- 2.2 pmol L-1 in each case). Convalescent patients had normal basal ionised calcium levels but the lowest serum intact PTH levels before and during the clamp, consistent with an increase in skeletal PTH sensitivity after treatment.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is a decreased ionised calcium 'set point' for basal PTH secretion but a normal PTH response to acute hypocalcaemia in malaria. Skeletal resistance may attenuate the effects of the PTH response but patients with malaria appear relatively resistant to the calcium chelating effects of citrated blood products.

    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood*
  6. Ralph AP, Rashid Ali MRS, William T, Piera K, Parameswaran U, Bird E, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2017 04 27;17(1):312.
    PMID: 28449659 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2314-z
    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency (low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25D] concentration) is often reported in tuberculosis. Adjunctive vitamin D has been tested for its potential to improve treatment outcomes, but has proven largely ineffective. To better understand vitamin D in tuberculosis, we investigated determinants of 25D and its immunologically active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), their inter-relationship in tuberculosis, longitudinal changes and association with outcome.
    METHODS: In a prospective observational study of adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Sabah, Malaysia, we measured serial 25D, 1,25D, vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP), albumin, calcium, parathyroid hormone, chest x-ray, week 8 sputum smear/culture and end-of-treatment outcome. Healthy control subjects were enrolled for comparison.
    RESULTS: 1,25D was elevated in 172 adults with tuberculosis (mean 229.0 pmol/L, 95% confidence interval: 215.4 - 242.6) compared with 95 controls (153.9, 138.4-169.4, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood
  7. Sulaiman S, Adeeb N, Muslim N, Adeeb N, Ho CM
    Singapore Med J, 1995 Dec;36(6):637-40.
    PMID: 8781637
    Determinations of total calcium, total magnesium, calcium ion, parathyroid hormone and 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1 alpha levels were carried out on 84 blood samples from 4 groups of women categorised as non-pregnant normotensive (NNP), pregnant normotensive (NP), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and pre-eclampsia (PE). PIH was clinically diagnosed when the diastolic pressure was more than 90 mmHg and was only hypertensive during pregnancy while PE was with additional proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Compared to NNP women, total calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were of lower levels (p < 0.05) in NP women while in PIH women, total calcium and 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1 alpha levels were also lowered (p < 0.05). Compared to NNP women, PE women's levels of total calcium, calcium ion and 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1 alpha decreased (p < 0.05) while parathyroid hormone level increased (p < 0.05). When compared to the NP women, PE women had decreased levels (p < 0.05) of total calcium as well as calcium ion and increased level (p < 0.05) of parathyroid hormone. Calcium ion was found to be negatively correlated (NNP : r = -0.883, p = 0.008/NP : r = -0.931, p = 0.000) while parathyroid hormone was positively correlated (NNP : r = 0.904, p = 0.013/NP : r = 0.913, p = 0.000) with mean arterial pressure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood*
  8. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S, Ibrahim S, Mohamed IN, Wan Ngah WZ
    Nutrients, 2014 Nov 26;6(12):5419-33.
    PMID: 25431881 DOI: 10.3390/nu6125419
    Vitamin D insufficiency is a global health problem. The data on vitamin D status in Malaysian men is insufficient. This study aimed to investigate vitamin D status among Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia and its associating factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 383 men aged 20 years and above, residing in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their age, ethnicity, body anthropometry and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) were recorded. Their fasting blood was collected for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), intact parathyroid (PTH), total calcium and inorganic phosphate assays. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)D level <30 nmol/L and insufficiency as a serum 25(OH)D level between 30 and 50 nmol/L. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 0.5%, and insufficiency was 22.7%. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were more prevalent in the Malays compared to the Chinese. Being Chinese, older in age, having lower body mass index (BMI) and a high physical activity status were associated significantly with a higher serum 25(OH)D level (p < 0.05). The serum PTH level was inversely associated with the serum 25(OH)D level (p < 0.05). As a conclusion, a significant proportion of Malaysian men have vitamin D insufficiency, although deficiency is uncommon. Steps should be taken to correct the vitamin D status of these men.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood
  9. Norazlina M, Chua CW, Ima-Nirwana S
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Dec;59(5):623-30.
    PMID: 15889565
    Vitamin E deficiency has been found to impair bone calcification. This study was done to determine the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on parathyroid hormone, i.e. the hormone involved in bone regulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) normal rat chow (RC), 2) vitamin E deficiency (VED), vitamin E deficient rats supplemented with 3) 60 mg/kg alpha-tocotrienol (ATT) and 4) 60 mg/kg (alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatment was carried out for 3 months. Vitamin E deficiency caused hypocalcaemia during the first month of the treatment period, increased the parathyroid hormone level in the second month and decreased the bone calcium content in the 4th lumbar bone at the end of the treatment. Vitamin E supplementation (ATT and ATF) failed to improve these conditions. The bone formation marker, osteocalcin, and the bone resorption marker, deoxypyridinoline did not change throughout the study period. In conclusion vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcium homeostasis with subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism and vertebral bone loss. Replacing the vitamin E with pure ATF or pure ATT alone failed to correct the changes seen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood
  10. Tan KM, Saw S, Sethi SK
    J Clin Lab Anal, 2013 Jul;27(4):301-4.
    PMID: 23852789 DOI: 10.1002/jcla.21602
    BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to determine the normal ranges of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D(3) (25-OHD(3)), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and the markers of bone turnover, procollagen type 1 N propeptide (P1NP) and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), in normal healthy women in Singapore, and to explore the relationship between vitamin D, PTH, and these markers of bone turnover in the women.

    METHODS: One hundred and ninety-seven healthy women, aged 25 to 60, were selected from a hospital staff health screening program; 68% were Chinese, 18% Malay, and 14% Indian. P1NP, CTX, and 25-OHD(3) were measured using the Roche Cobas® electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Serum PTH was measured using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur® immunoassay.

    RESULTS: Sixty-five percent had 25-OHD(3) concentrations <50 nmol/l. Vitamin D insufficiency (25-OHD(3) < 50 nmol/l) was more prevalent in Malays (89%) and Indians (82%) compared to Chinese (56%). There was no correlation between vitamin D and age. PTH positively correlated with age, and Malays and Indians had higher PTH concentrations than Chinese. There was an inverse correlation between PTH and 25-OHD(3), but no threshold of 25-OHD(3) concentrations at which PTH plateaued. The bone turnover markers P1NP and CTX inversely correlated with age but were not different between ethnic groups. CTX and P1NP exhibited good correlation, however, there was no significant correlation between 25-OHD(3) or PTH concentrations and the bone turnover markers P1NP and CTX.

    CONCLUSIONS: Healthy women in Singapore have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in Malays and Indians compared to Chinese.

    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood
  11. Loh HH, Yee A, Loh HS
    Minerva Endocrinol., 2019 Dec;44(4):387-396.
    PMID: 30482008 DOI: 10.23736/S0391-1977.18.02867-5
    INTRODUCTION: Recent studies showed a possible association between hyperaldosteronism and secondary hyperparathyroidism leading to reduced bone health, however results are conflicting.

    EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between primary aldosteronism (PA) with bone biochemical markers and to assess bone mineral density in patients with primary aldosteronism.

    EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: A total of 939 subjects were examined (37.5% with PA). Patients with PA had significantly higher serum parathyroid hormone, lower serum calcium, higher urine calcium excretion and higher serum alkaline phosphatase compared to patients without PA, with no significant difference in serum vitamin D between both groups. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine, femoral neck and total neck of femur were similar between two groups. With PA treatment, there was a significant increment in serum calcium and reduction in serum parathyroid hormone.

    CONCLUSIONS: PA is associated with hypercalciuria with subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism. This potentially affects bone health. We recommend this to be part of complication screening among patients with PA.

    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood
  12. Toussaint ND, Pedagogos E, Lioufas NM, Elder GJ, Pascoe EM, Badve SV, et al.
    J Am Soc Nephrol, 2020 11;31(11):2653-2666.
    PMID: 32917784 DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2020040411
    BACKGROUND: Hyperphosphatemia is associated with increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), arterial calcification, and cardiovascular mortality. Effects of phosphate-lowering medication on vascular calcification and arterial stiffness in CKD remain uncertain.

    METHODS: To assess the effects of non-calcium-based phosphate binders on intermediate cardiovascular markers, we conducted a multicenter, double-blind trial, randomizing 278 participants with stage 3b or 4 CKD and serum phosphate >1.00 mmol/L (3.10 mg/dl) to 500 mg lanthanum carbonate or matched placebo thrice daily for 96 weeks. We analyzed the primary outcome, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, using a linear mixed effects model for repeated measures. Secondary outcomes included abdominal aortic calcification and serum and urine markers of mineral metabolism.

    RESULTS: A total of 138 participants received lanthanum and 140 received placebo (mean age 63.1 years; 69% male, 64% White). Mean eGFR was 26.6 ml/min per 1.73 m2; 45% of participants had diabetes and 32% had cardiovascular disease. Mean serum phosphate was 1.25 mmol/L (3.87 mg/dl), mean pulse wave velocity was 10.8 m/s, and 81.3% had abdominal aortic calcification at baseline. At 96 weeks, pulse wave velocity did not differ significantly between groups, nor did abdominal aortic calcification, serum phosphate, parathyroid hormone, FGF23, and 24-hour urinary phosphate. Serious adverse events occurred in 63 (46%) participants prescribed lanthanum and 66 (47%) prescribed placebo. Although recruitment to target was not achieved, additional analysis suggested this was unlikely to have significantly affected the principle findings.

    CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stage 3b/4 CKD, treatment with lanthanum over 96 weeks did not affect arterial stiffness or aortic calcification compared with placebo. These findings do not support the role of intestinal phosphate binders to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with CKD who have normophosphatemia.

    CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12610000650099.

    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood
  13. Rahman SA, Chee WS, Yassin Z, Chan SP
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2004;13(3):255-60.
    PMID: 15331337
    Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) were determined in 276 (103 Malays and 173 Chinese) postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 65 years. The level of 25 (OH) D was significantly lower in the postmenopausal Malay women (44.4 +/-10.6 nmol/L) compared to the Chinese women (68.8 +/- 15.7 nmol/L) (P<0.05). There were 27% Malay women with serum 25 (OH) D in the range of 50 - 100 nmol/L (defined as lowered vitamin D status, or hypovitaminosis D) and 71% with levels in the range of 25 - 50 nmol/L (defined as vitamin D insufficiency) compared to 87% and 11% Chinese women respectively. Serum 25 (OH) D was found to significantly correlate with BMI, fat mass and PTH level. Multivariate analyses showed that race has a strong association with vitamin D status. The high prevalence of inadequate levels of serum vitamin D found in our study may have important public health consequences and warrants the development of a strategy to correct this problem in the older adult Malaysian population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood
  14. Kruger MC, Chan YM, Lau LT, Lau CC, Chin YS, Kuhn-Sherlock B, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2018 Dec;57(8):2785-2794.
    PMID: 28975432 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-017-1544-6
    PURPOSE: In Malaysia, hip fracture incidence is higher in Chinese women than other ethnic groups. This study compared the effects of a high-calcium vitamin D fortified milk with added FOS-inulin versus regular milk over 1 year on aspects of bone health in Chinese postmenopausal women in Malaysia.

    METHODS: One-hundred and twenty-one women (mean age 59 (± 4) years) were randomized into two groups: control (n = 60; regular milk, 428 mg calcium per day) or intervention (n = 61; fortified milk at 1200 mg calcium, 96 mg magnesium, 2.4 mg zinc, 15 μg vitamin D and 4 g FOS-inulin per day). At baseline, weeks 12, 24, 36 and 52, parathyroid hormone (PTH), C-Telopeptide of Type I Collagen (CTx-1), Procollagen I Intact N-Terminal propeptide (PINP) and vitamin D levels were assessed. Bone density (BMD) was measured at baseline and week 52 using a GE Lunar iDXA.

    RESULTS: Body mass index, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD did not differ between groups at baseline. Over 52 weeks, mean plasma 25 (OH) D3 levels increased to 74.8 nmol/L (intervention group) or remained at 63.1 nmol/L (control group) (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood
  15. Ngai M, Lin V, Wong HC, Vathsala A, How P
    Clin. Nephrol., 2014 Oct;82(4):231-9.
    PMID: 25161115 DOI: 10.5414/CN108182
    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism and mineral and bone disorder (MBD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency, and the association between vitamin D status and MBD in a multi-ethnic CKD population in Southeast Asia.

    METHODS: Predialysis CKD patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Patient demographics, medical/medication histories, and laboratory parameters (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), creatinine, phosphate (P), calcium, albumin, and intact-PTH (i-PTH)) were collected and compared among patients with various CKD stages. The association between 25(OH)D and these parameters was determined by multiple linear regression.

    RESULTS: A total of 196 patients with mean ± SD eGFR of 26.4 ± 11.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 was included. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D concentration < 15 ng/mL) and insufficiency (25(OH)D concentration 16 - 30 ng/mL) was found in 29.1% and 57.7% of the patients, respectively. Mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D was 20.8 ± 9.3 ng/mL. Female patients had lower vitamin D concentrations than males (16.9 ng/mL vs. 23.9 ng/mL; p < 0.001). Vitamin D levels were also higher in Chinese (22.3 ng/mL) than Malay (17.3 ng/mL) and Indian (13.1 ng/mL) patients (p < 0.05). Nonadjusted analyses showed higher i-PTH concentration in vitamin D deficient patients (p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Despite being a sun-rich country all year round, the majority (86.8%) of predialysis CKD patients in Singapore have suboptimal vitamin D status. Lower vitamin D concentrations were found in females and in those with darker skin tone. Vitamin D deficient patients also tended to have higher i-PTH levels.

    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood
  16. Ong LM, Narayanan P, Goh HK, Manocha AB, Ghazali A, Omar M, et al.
    Nephrology (Carlton), 2013 Mar;18(3):194-200.
    PMID: 23311404 DOI: 10.1111/nep.12029
    The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral paricalcitol with oral calcitriol for treating secondary hyperparathyroidism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood
  17. Chee WS, Suriah AR, Chan SP, Zaitun Y, Chan YM
    Osteoporos Int, 2003 Oct;14(10):828-34.
    PMID: 12915959
    Dietary studies often report low calcium intake amongst post-menopausal Malaysian women and calcium deficiency has been implicated as part of the etiology of age-related bone loss leading to osteoporosis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of high calcium skimmed milk (Anlene Gold, New Zealand Milk, Wellington, New Zealand) to reduce bone loss in Chinese postmenopausal women. Two hundred subjects aged 55-65 years and who were more than 5 years postmenopausal were randomized to a milk group and control group. The milk group consumed 50 g of high calcium skimmed milk powder daily, which contained 1200 mg calcium (taken as two glasses of milk a day). The control group continued with their usual diet. Using repeated measures ANCOVA, the milk supplement was found to significantly reduce the percentage of bone loss at the total body compared to the control group at 24 months (control -1.04%, milk -0.13%; P<0.001). At the lumbar spine, the percentage of bone loss in the control group was significantly higher (-0.90%) when compared to the milk (-0.13%) supplemented group at 24 months (P<0.05). Similarly, milk supplementation reduced the percentage of bone loss at the femoral neck (control -1.21%, milk 0.51%) (P<0.01) and total hip (control -2.17%, milk -0.50%) (P<0.01). The supplemented group did not experience any significant weight gain over the 24 months. The serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level improved significantly (P<0.01) from 69.1 +/- 16.1 nmol/l at baseline to 86.4 +/- 22.0 nmol/l at 24 months in the milk group. In conclusion, ingestion of high calcium skimmed milk was effective in reducing the rate of bone loss at clinically important lumbar spine and hip sites in postmenopausal Chinese women in Malaysia. Supplementing with milk had additional benefits of improving the serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D status of the subjects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood
  18. Jamaluddin EJ, Gafor AH, Yean LC, Cader R, Mohd R, Kong NC, et al.
    Clin Exp Nephrol, 2014 Jun;18(3):507-14.
    PMID: 23903802 DOI: 10.1007/s10157-013-0844-2
    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is common in end-stage renal disease. Our primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of oral paricalcitol versus oral calcitriol on serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and mineral bone parameters in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with SHPT. The secondary objective was to analyze highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and peritoneal membrane function in both groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood
  19. Kruger MC, Chan YM, Kuhn-Sherlock B, Lau LT, Lau C, Chin YS, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2016 Aug;55(5):1911-21.
    PMID: 26264387 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-1007-x
    PURPOSE: To compare the effects of a high-calcium vitamin D-fortified milk with added FOS-inulin versus regular milk on serum parathyroid hormone, and bone turnover markers in premenopausal (Pre-M) and postmenopausal (PM) women over 12 weeks.

    METHODS: Premenopausal women (n = 136, mean age 41 (±5) years) and postmenopausal women [n = 121, mean age 59 (±4) years] were recruited, and each age group randomised into two groups to take two glasses per day of control = regular milk (500 mg calcium per day) or intervention (Int) = fortified milk (1000 mg calcium for pre-M women and 1200 mg calcium for PM women, 96 mg magnesium, 2.4 mg zinc, 15 µg vitamin D, 4 g FOS-inulin per day). At baseline, week 4 and week 12 serum minerals and bone biochemical markers were measured and bone density was measured at baseline.

    RESULTS: Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) vitamin D3] levels among groups were between 49 and 65 nmol/L at baseline, and over the 12 weeks of supplementation, the fortified milk improved vitamin D status in both Int groups. CTx-1 and PINP reduced significantly in both Pre-M and PM groups over the 12 weeks, with the changes in CTx-1 being significantly different (P Parathyroid hormone levels were significantly reduced in all groups over time, except for control PM group where levels increased at 12 weeks.

    CONCLUSION: The overall pattern of responses indicates that while both regular milk and fortified milk reduce bone resorption in young and older women, fortified milk is measurably more effective.

    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood
  20. Fong CY, Kong AN, Noordin M, Poh BK, Ong LC, Ng CC
    Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol., 2018 Jan;22(1):155-163.
    PMID: 29122496 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2017.10.007
    INTRODUCTION: Children with epilepsy on long-term antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at risk of low bone mineral density (BMD). The aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of low BMD among Malaysian children with epilepsy.

    METHOD: Cross-sectional study of ambulant children with epilepsy on long-term AEDs for >1 year seen in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from 2014 to 2015. Detailed assessment of anthropometric measurements; environmental lifestyle risk factors; serum vitamin D, calcium and parathyroid hormone levels; genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes in vitamin D and calcium metabolism; and lumbar spine BMD were obtained. Low BMD was defined as BMD Z-score ≤ -2.0 SD.

    RESULTS: Eighty-seven children with mean age of 11.9 years (56 males) participated in the study. The prevalence of low lumbar BMD was 21.8% (19 patients). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified polytherapy >2 AEDs (OR: 7.86; 95% CI 1.03-59.96), small frame size with wrist breadth of <15th centile (OR 14.73; 95% CI 2.21-98.40), and body mass index Z-score 2 AEDs, underweight or with small frame size as they are at higher risk of having low BMD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Parathyroid Hormone/blood
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