Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 97 in total

  1. Chong PL, Singh AK, Kok SL
    PLoS One, 2019;14(6):e0218758.
    PMID: 31237903 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218758
    Electrical energy can be harvested from the living plants as a new potential renewable energy source. Characterization of the electrical signal is needed to enable an optimum energy harvesting setup condition. In the present paper, an investigation is conducted to analyze the characteristic of Aloe Barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) leaves in terms of electrical energy generation under specific experimental setups. The experimental results show that 1111.55uW electrical power can be harvested from the Aloe Vera with 24 pairs of electrodes and this energy is capable to be stored in a capacitor. This energy has a high potential to be used to power up a low power consumption device.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism
  2. ul Hassan MN, Zainal Z, Ismail I
    Plant Biotechnol J, 2015 Aug;13(6):727-39.
    PMID: 25865366 DOI: 10.1111/pbi.12368
    Plants have evolved numerous constitutive and inducible defence mechanisms to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. These stresses induce the expression of various genes to activate defence-related pathways that result in the release of defence chemicals. One of these defence mechanisms is the oxylipin pathway, which produces jasmonates, divinylethers and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) through the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). GLVs have recently emerged as key players in plant defence, plant-plant interactions and plant-insect interactions. Some GLVs inhibit the growth and propagation of plant pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. In certain cases, GLVs released from plants under herbivore attack can serve as aerial messengers to neighbouring plants and to attract parasitic or parasitoid enemies of the herbivores. The plants that perceive these volatile signals are primed and can then adapt in preparation for the upcoming challenges. Due to their 'green note' odour, GLVs impart aromas and flavours to many natural foods, such as vegetables and fruits, and therefore, they can be exploited in industrial biotechnology. The aim of this study was to review the progress and recent developments in research on the oxylipin pathway, with a specific focus on the biosynthesis and biological functions of GLVs and their applications in industrial biotechnology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism*
  3. Xiao Y, Sloan J, Hepworth C, Fradera-Soler M, Mathers A, Thorley R, et al.
    New Phytol, 2023 Jan;237(2):441-453.
    PMID: 36271620 DOI: 10.1111/nph.18564
    Leaf structure plays an important role in photosynthesis. However, the causal relationship and the quantitative importance of any single structural parameter to the overall photosynthetic performance of a leaf remains open to debate. In this paper, we report on a mechanistic model, eLeaf, which successfully captures rice leaf photosynthetic performance under varying environmental conditions of light and CO2 . We developed a 3D reaction-diffusion model for leaf photosynthesis parameterised using a range of imaging data and biochemical measurements from plants grown under ambient and elevated CO2 and then interrogated the model to quantify the importance of these elements. The model successfully captured leaf-level photosynthetic performance in rice. Photosynthetic metabolism underpinned the majority of the increased carbon assimilation rate observed under elevated CO2 levels, with a range of structural elements making positive and negative contributions. Mesophyll porosity could be varied without any major outcome on photosynthetic performance, providing a theoretical underpinning for experimental data. eLeaf allows quantitative analysis of the influence of morphological and biochemical properties on leaf photosynthesis. The analysis highlights a degree of leaf structural plasticity with respect to photosynthesis of significance in the context of attempts to improve crop photosynthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism
  4. Yusof NA, Isha A, Ismail IS, Khatib A, Shaari K, Abas F, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2015 Sep;95(12):2533-43.
    PMID: 25371390 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6987
    The metabolite changes in three germplasm accessions of Malaysia Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees, viz. 11265 (H), 11341 (P) and 11248 (T), due to their different harvesting ages and times were successfully evaluated by attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and translated through multivariate data analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). This present study revealed the feasibility of ATR-FTIR in detecting the trend changes of the major metabolites - andrographolide and neoandrographolide - functional groups in A. paniculata leaves of different accessions. The harvesting parameter was set at three different ages of 120, 150 and 180 days after transplanting (DAT) and at two different time sessions of morning (7:30-10:30 am) and evening (2:30-5.30 pm).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism
  5. Tomimatsu H, Iio A, Adachi M, Saw LG, Fletcher C, Tang Y
    Tree Physiol., 2014 Sep;34(9):944-54.
    PMID: 25187569 DOI: 10.1093/treephys/tpu066
    Understory plants in tropical forests often experience a low-light environment combined with high CO2 concentration. We hypothesized that the high CO2 concentration may compensate for leaf carbon loss caused by the low light, through increasing light-use efficiency of both steady-state and dynamic photosynthetic properties. To test the hypothesis, we examined CO2 gas exchange in response to an artificial lightfleck in Dipterocarpus sublamellatus Foxw. seedlings under contrasting CO2 conditions: 350 and 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) air in a tropical rain forest, Pasoh, Malaysia. Total photosynthetic carbon gain from the lightfleck was about double when subjected to the high CO2 when compared with the low CO2 concentration. The increase of light-use efficiency in dynamic photosynthesis contributed 7% of the increased carbon gain, most of which was due to reduction of photosynthetic induction to light increase under the high CO2. The light compensation point of photosynthesis decreased by 58% and the apparent quantum yield increased by 26% at the high CO2 compared with those at the low CO2. The study suggests that high CO2 increases photosynthetic light-use efficiency under both steady-state and fluctuating light conditions, which should be considered in assessing the leaf carbon gain of understory plants in low-light environments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism
  6. Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZ
    Molecules, 2011 May 04;16(5):3761-77.
    PMID: 21544039 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16053761
    A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF) and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO₂ enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO₂ enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO₂ levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose). TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol⁻¹. Net photosynthesis (A) and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) were also enhanced as CO₂ increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism*
  7. Kurokawa H, Nakashizuka T
    Ecology, 2008 Sep;89(9):2645-56.
    PMID: 18831185
    There is accumulating evidence that similar suites of plant traits may affect leaf palatability and leaf litter decomposability. However, the possible association between leaf herbivory and litter decomposition rates across species in species-diverse natural ecosystems such as tropical rain forests remains unexplored, despite its importance in estimating the herbivory effects on carbon and nutrient cycling of ecosystems. We found no strong association between leaf herbivory and litter decomposition rates across 40 tree species in a Malaysian tropical rain forest, even though the leaf and litter traits were tightly correlated. This is because the leaf and litter traits related to herbivory and decomposition rates in the field were inconsistent. Leaf toughness accounted for only a small part of the variation in the herbivory rate, whereas a number of litter traits (the leaf mass per area, lignin to nitrogen ratio, and condensed tannin concentration) accurately predicted the decomposition rate across species. These results suggest that herbivory rate across species may not be strongly related to single leaf traits, probably because plant-herbivore interactions in tropical rain forests are highly diverse; on the other hand, plant-decomposer interactions are less specific and can be governed by litter chemicals. We also investigated two factors, phylogeny and tree functional types, that could affect the relationship between herbivory and decomposition across species. Phylogenetic relatedness among the species did not affect the relationship between herbivory and decomposition. In contrast, when the plants were segregated according to their leaf emergence pattern, we found a significant positive relationship between herbivory and decomposition rates for continuous-leafing species. In these species, the condensed tannin to N ratios in leaves and litter were related to herbivory and decomposition rates, respectively. However, we did not observe a similar trend for synchronous-leafing species. These results suggest that the relationship between herbivory and decomposition may be more greatly affected by functional types than by phylogenetic relatedness among species. In conclusion, our results suggest that well-defended leaves are not necessarily less decomposable litter in a tropical rain forest community, implying that herbivory may not generate positive feedback for carbon and nutrient cycling in this type of ecosystem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism*
  8. Hussain H, Mustafa Kamal M, Al-Obaidi JR, Hamdin NE, Ngaini Z, Mohd-Yusuf Y
    Protein J, 2020 02;39(1):62-72.
    PMID: 31863255 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-019-09878-9
    Metroxylon sagu Rottb. or locally known as sago palm is a tropical starch crop grown for starch production in commercial plantations in Malaysia, especially in Sarawak, East Malaysia. This plant species accumulate the highest amount of edible starch compared to other starch-producing crops. However, the non-trunking phenomenon has been observed to be one of the major issues restricting the yield of sago palm starch. In this study, proteomics approach was utilised to discover differences between trunking and non-trunking proteomes in sago palm leaf tissues. Total protein from 16 years old trunking and non-trunking sago palm leaves from deep peat area were extracted with PEG fractionation extraction method and subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE). Differential protein spots were subjected to MALDI-ToF/ToF MS/MS. Proteomic analysis has identified 34 differentially expressed proteins between trunking and non-trunking sago samples. From these protein spots, all 19 proteins representing different enzymes and proteins have significantly increased in abundance in non-trunking sago plant when subjected to mass spectrometry. The identified proteins mostly function in metabolic pathways including photosynthesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis, carbon utilization and oxidative stress. The current study indicated that the several proteins identified through differentially expressed proteome contributed to physical differences in trunking and non-trunking sago palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism*
  9. Ahmadi F, Akmar Abdullah SN, Kadkhodaei S, Ijab SM, Hamzah L, Aziz MA, et al.
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2018 Jun;127:320-335.
    PMID: 29653435 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.04.004
    Oil palm is grown in tropical soils with low bioavailability of Pi. A cDNA clone specifically expressed under phosphate-starvation condition in oil palm roots was identified as a high-affinity phosphate transporter (EgPHT1). The deduced amino acid sequence has 6 transmembrane domains each at the N- and C-termini separated by a hydrophilic linker. Comparison of promoter motifs within 1500 bp upstream of ATG of 10 promoters from high- and low-affinity phosphate transporter from both dicots and monocots including EgPHT1 was performed. The EgPHT1 promoter was fused to β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and its activity was analysed by histochemical and fluorometric GUS assays in transiently transformed oil palm tissues and T3 homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In response to Pi-starvation, no GUS activity was detected in oil palm leaves, but a strong inducible activity was observed in the roots (1.4 times higher than the CaMV35S promoter). GUS was specifically expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis roots under Pi deficiency and starvation of the other macronutrients (N and K) did not induce GUS activity. Eight motifs including ABRERATCAL (abscisic-acid responsive), RHERPATEXPA7 (root hair-specific), SURECOREATSULTR11 (sulfur-deficiency response), LTRECOREATCOR15 (temperature-stress response), MYB2CONSENSUSAT and ACGTATERD1 (water-stress response) as well as two novel motifs, 3 (TAAAAAAA) and 26 (TTTTATGT) identified through pattern discovery, occur at significantly higher frequency (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism
  10. Liu K, Fadzly N, Mansor A, Zakaria R, Ruppert N, Lee CY
    Plant Signal Behav, 2017 Oct 03;12(10):e1371890.
    PMID: 28841358 DOI: 10.1080/15592324.2017.1371890
    Amorphophallus bufo is a rarely studied plant in Malaysian tropical rainforests. We measured the spectral reflectance of different developmental stages of A. bufo (seedlings, juveniles and adults), background soil/ debris and leaves from other neighboring plant species. Results show that the leaves of A. bufo seedling have a similar reflectance curve as the background soil and debris. Adults and juveniles of A. bufo are similar to other neighboring plants' leaf colors. We hypothesize that the cryptic coloration of A. bufo seedlings plays an important role in camouflage and that the numerous black spots on the surface of the petioles and rachises, may serve as a defensive mimicry against herbivores.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism*
  11. Fadzly N, Zuharah WF, Mansor A, Zakaria R
    Plant Signal Behav, 2016 07 02;11(7):e1197466.
    PMID: 27315145 DOI: 10.1080/15592324.2016.1197466
    Macaranga bancana is considered as a successful pioneer plant species. Usually found in disturbed and open areas, most of the current research focused on its relations with ants. One of the unique feature of the plants is that the seedling leaves are red, resembling and almost matching the background. Using a portable spectrometer, we measured the color reflectance of M. bancana seedlings (less than 20 cm in height). We also measured the leaf litter reflectance, adult M. bancana leaves and also seedlings of several other species found in the vicinity of M. bancana seedlings. The reflectances of M. bancana seedlings are very similar to that of the leaf litter background. We suggest that this cryptic coloration is crucial during the early stages of the plant when it still cannot rely on the protection of ants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism
  12. Poobathy R, Zakaria R, Murugaiyah V, Subramaniam S
    PLoS One, 2018;13(4):e0195642.
    PMID: 29649288 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195642
    Anoectochilus sp. and Ludisia discolor are known as Jewel orchids. Both species are terrestrial wild orchids that grow in shaded areas of forests. The Jewel orchids are renowned for the beauty of their leaves, which are dark-green laced with silvery or golden veins. The orchids are used as a cure in various parts of Asia. Overharvesting and anthropogenic disturbances threaten the existence of the Jewel orchids in the wild, necessitating human intervention in their survival. An understanding of the structure and adaptations of a plant may assist in its survival when propagated outside of its habitat. In this study, ex vitro leaves of Anoectochilus sp. and L. discolor were subjected to freehand sectioning, and then inspected through brightfield and fluorescence microscopy. The study indicated that all parts of both plants presented typical monocotyledonous characteristics except the leaves. The leaves displayed dorsiventrality with distinct palisade and spongy mesophyll layers. The spongy mesophyll layer contained cells which fluoresced a bright red when exposed to ultraviolet, blue, and green light wavelengths, hinting at the presence of anthocyanins for photoprotection. Cyanidin was detected in the leaves of L. discolor, as enumerated through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The observations indicated that Anoectochilus sp. and L. discolor are well-adapted to live under shaded conditions with minimal exposure to light.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism
  13. Chong PL, Singh AK, Kok SL
    PLoS One, 2019;14(12):e0227153.
    PMID: 31881078 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227153
    It is well proven that electrical energy can be harvested from the living plants which can be used as a potential renewable energy source for powering wireless devices in remote areas where replacing or recharging the battery is a difficult task. Therefore, harvesting electrical energy from living plants in remote areas such as in farms or forest areas can be an ideal source of energy as these areas are rich with living plants. The present paper proposes a design of a power management circuit that can harness, store and manage the electrical energy which is harvested from the leaves of Aloe Barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) plants to trigger a transmitter load to power a remote sensor. The power management circuit consists of two sections namely; an energy storage system that acts as an energy storage reservoir to store the energy harvested from the plants as well as a voltage regulation system which is used to boost and manage the energy in accordance to a load operation. The experimental results show that the electrical energy harvested from the Aloe Vera under a specific setup condition can produce an output of 3.49 V and 1.1 mA. The harvested energy is being channeled to the power management circuit which can boost the voltage to 10.9 V under no load condition. The harvested energy from the plants boosted by the power management circuit can turn ON the transmitter automatically to activate a temperature and humidity sensor to measure the environmental stimuli periodically with a ton of 1.22 seconds and toff of 0.46 seconds. This proves that this new source of energy combined with a power management circuit can be employed for powering the wireless sensor network for application in the Internet of Things (IoT).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism*
  14. Boyero L, Graça MAS, Tonin AM, Pérez J, J Swafford A, Ferreira V, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 09 05;7(1):10562.
    PMID: 28874830 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-10640-3
    Plant litter represents a major basal resource in streams, where its decomposition is partly regulated by litter traits. Litter-trait variation may determine the latitudinal gradient in decomposition in streams, which is mainly microbial in the tropics and detritivore-mediated at high latitudes. However, this hypothesis remains untested, as we lack information on large-scale trait variation for riparian litter. Variation cannot easily be inferred from existing leaf-trait databases, since nutrient resorption can cause traits of litter and green leaves to diverge. Here we present the first global-scale assessment of riparian litter quality by determining latitudinal variation (spanning 107°) in litter traits (nutrient concentrations; physical and chemical defences) of 151 species from 24 regions and their relationships with environmental factors and phylogeny. We hypothesized that litter quality would increase with latitude (despite variation within regions) and traits would be correlated to produce 'syndromes' resulting from phylogeny and environmental variation. We found lower litter quality and higher nitrogen:phosphorus ratios in the tropics. Traits were linked but showed no phylogenetic signal, suggesting that syndromes were environmentally determined. Poorer litter quality and greater phosphorus limitation towards the equator may restrict detritivore-mediated decomposition, contributing to the predominance of microbial decomposers in tropical streams.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism*
  15. Hasan M, Mokhtar AS, Mahmud K, Berahim Z, Rosli AM, Hamdan H, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2022 Nov 15;12(1):19602.
    PMID: 36379972 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-24144-2
    WeedLock is a broad-spectrum plant-based bioherbicide that is currently on the market as a ready-to-use formulation. In this study, we investigated the physiological and biochemical effects of WeedLock (672.75 L ha-1) on Ageratum conyzoides L., Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn, Zea mays L., and Amaranthus gangeticus L. at four different time points. WeedLock caused significant reductions in chlorophyll pigment content and disrupted photosynthetic processes in all test plants. The greatest inhibition in photosynthesis was recorded in A. conyzoides at 24 h post-treatment with a 74.88% inhibition. Plants treated with WeedLock showed increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline production, which is indicative of phytotoxic stress. Remarkably, MDA contents of all treated plants increased by more than 100% in comparison to untreated. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) was elevated following treatment with WeedLock. Significant increases were observed in the SOD activity of A. conyzoides ranging from 69.66 to 118.24% from 6 to 72 h post-treatment. Our findings confirm that WeedLock disrupts the normal physiological and biochemical processes in plants following exposure and that its mode of action is associated with ROS (reactive oxygen species) production, similar to that of PPO (protoporphyrinogen oxidase) inhibitors, although specific site-of-action of this novel bioherbicide warrants further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism
  16. Veeramohan R, Zamani AI, Azizan KA, Goh HH, Aizat WM, Razak MFA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2023;18(3):e0283147.
    PMID: 36943850 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0283147
    The fresh leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. have been traditionally consumed for centuries in Southeast Asia for its healing properties. Although the alkaloids of M. speciosa have been studied since the 1920s, comparative and systematic studies of metabolite composition based on different leaf maturity levels are still lacking. This study assessed the secondary metabolite composition in two different leaf stages (young and mature) of M. speciosa, using an untargeted liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-TOF-MS) metabolite profiling. The results revealed 86 putatively annotated metabolite features (RT:m/z value) comprising 63 alkaloids, 10 flavonoids, 6 terpenoids, 3 phenylpropanoids, and 1 of each carboxylic acid, glucoside, phenol, and phenolic aldehyde. The alkaloid features were further categorised into 14 subclasses, i.e., the most abundant class of secondary metabolites identified. As per previous reports, indole alkaloids are the most abundant alkaloid subclass in M. speciosa. The result of multivariate analysis (MVA) using principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear separation of 92.8% between the young and mature leaf samples, indicating a high variance in metabolite levels between them. Akuammidine, alstonine, tryptamine, and yohimbine were tentatively identified among the many new alkaloids reported in this study, depicting the diverse biological activities of M. speciosa. Besides delving into the knowledge of metabolite distribution in different leaf stages, these findings have extended the current alkaloid repository of M. speciosa for a better understanding of its pharmaceutical potential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism
  17. Talei D, Valdiani A, Rafii MY, Maziah M
    PLoS One, 2014;9(11):e112907.
    PMID: 25423252 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112907
    Separation of proteins based on the physicochemical properties with different molecular weight and isoelectric points would be more accurate. In the current research, the 45-day-old seedlings were treated with 0 (control) and 12 dS m(-1) of sodium chloride in the hydroponic system. After 15 days of salt exposure, the total protein of the fresh leaves and roots was extracted and analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis system (2-DE). The analysis led to the detection of 32 induced proteins (19 proteins in leaf and 13 proteins in the root) as well as 12 upregulated proteins (four proteins in leaf and eight proteins in the root) in the salt-treated plants. Of the 44 detected proteins, 12 were sequenced, and three of them matched with superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate oxygenase whereas the rest remained unknown. The three known proteins associate with plants response to environmental stresses and could represent the general stress proteins in the present study too. In addition, the proteomic feedback of different accessions of A. paniculata to salt stress can potentially be used to breed salt-tolerant varieties of the herb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism*
  18. Kumar A, Hegde G, Manaf SA, Ngaini Z, Sharma KV
    Chem Commun (Camb), 2014 Oct 28;50(84):12702-5.
    PMID: 25100105 DOI: 10.1039/c4cc04378b
    Porous Carbon Nanoparticles (PCNs) with well-developed microporosity were obtained from bio-waste oil palm leaves (OPL) using single step pyrolysis in nitrogen atmosphere at 500-600 °C in tube-furnace without any catalysis support. The key approach was using silica (SiO2) bodies of OPL as a template in the synthesis of microporous carbon nanoparticles with very small particle sizes of 35-85 nm and pore sizes between 1.9-2 nm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism
  19. Zain NA, Ismail MR, Mahmood M, Puteh A, Ibrahim MH
    Molecules, 2014;19(2):1795-819.
    PMID: 24504074 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19021795
    The use of periodical water stress and potassium fertilization may enhance rice tolerance to drought stress and improve the crop's instantaneous water use efficiency without much yield reduction. This study was conducted to assess the effects of different periodical water stress combined with potassium fertilization regimes on growth, yield, leaf gas exchanges and biochemical changes in rice grown in pots and compare them with standard local rice grower practices. Five treatments including (1) standard local grower's practice (control, 80CF = 80 kg K2O/ha + control flooding); (2) 120PW15 = 120 kg K2O/ha + periodical water stress for 15 days; (3) 120DS15V = 120 kg K2O/ha + drought stress for 15 days during the vegetative stage; (4) 120DS25V = 120 kg K2O/ha + drought stress for 25 days and (5) 120DS15R = 120 kg K2O/ha + drought stress for 15 days during the reproductive stage, were evaluated in this experiment. Control and 120PW15 treatments were stopped at 100 DAS, and continuously saturated conditions were applied until harvest. It was found that rice under 120PW15 treatment showed tolerance to drought stress evidenced by increased water use efficiency, peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT) and proline levels, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm) and lower minimal fluorescence (fo), compared to other treatments. Path coefficient analysis revealed that most of parameters contribute directly rather than indirectly to rice yield. In this experiment, there were four factors that are directly involved with rice yield: grain soluble sugar, photosynthesis, water use efficiency and total chlorophyll content. The residual factors affecting rice yield are observed to be quite low in the experiment (0.350), confirming that rice yield was mostly influenced by the parameters measured during the study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism
  20. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ
    Molecules, 2013 May 21;18(5):5965-79.
    PMID: 23698049 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18055965
    The effect of foliar salicylic acid (SA) applications (10⁻³ and 10⁻⁵ M) on activities of nitrate reductase, guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT) and proline enzymes and physiological parameters was evaluated in two ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) under greenhouse conditions. In both varieties, tested treatments generally enhanced photosynthetic rate and total dry weight. Photosynthetic rate increases were generally accompanied by increased or unchanged stomatal conductance levels, although intercellular CO₂ concentrations of treated plants were typically lower than in controls. Lower SA concentrations were generally more effective in enhancing photosynthetic rate and plant growth. Exogenous application of SA increased antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content; the greatest responses were obtained in plants sprayed with 10⁻⁵ M SA, with significant increases observed in CAT (20.1%), POD (45.2%), SOD (44.1%) and proline (43.1%) activities. Increased CAT activity in leaves is naturally expected to increase photosynthetic efficiency and thus net photosynthesis by maintaining a constant CO₂ supply. Our results support the idea that low SA concentrations (10⁻⁵ M) may induce nitrite reductase synthesis by mobilizing intracellular NO³⁻ and can provide protection to nitrite reductase degradation in vivo in the absence of NO³⁻. Observed positive correlations among proline, SOD, CAT and POD activities in the studied varieties suggest that increased SOD activity was accompanied by increases in CAT and POD activities because of the high demands of H₂O₂ quenching.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/metabolism*
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