Broiler meat is the largest and cheapest protein source in Malaysia. Using the policy analysis matrix (PAM), this study examines the comparative advantage of broiler production in Peninsular Malaysia. Three hundred and ten farms in Peninsular Malaysia were involved in a field survey. The results of the domestic resource cost (DRC) show that Malaysia has a comparative advantage in all scales of broiler production. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the changes in input prices have a significant effect on comparative advantage. Nonetheless, the industry should reduce its dependence on corn-based feed, which is expensive and has an unstable price, to increase competitiveness in further securing its comparative advantage.
Cities are complex adaptive systems whose responses to policy initiatives emerge from feedback interactions between their parts. Urban policy makers must routinely deal with both detail and dynamic complexity, coupled with high levels of diversity, uncertainty and contingency. In such circumstances, it is difficult to generate reliable predictions of health-policy outcomes. In this paper we explore the potential for low-order system dynamics (LOSD) models to make a contribution towards meeting this challenge. By definition, LOSD models have few state variables (≤5), illustrate the non-linear effects caused by feedback and accumulation, and focus on endogenous dynamics generated within well-defined boundaries. We suggest that experience with LOSD models can help practitioners to develop an understanding of basic principles of system dynamics, giving them the ability to 'see with new eyes'. Because efforts to build a set of LOSD models can help a transdisciplinary group to develop a shared, coherent view of the problems that they seek to tackle, such models can also become the foundations of 'powerful ideas'. Powerful ideas are conceptual metaphors that provide the members of a policy-making group with the a priori shared context required for effective communication, the co-production of knowledge, and the collaborative development of effective public health policies.
Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a mathematical programming for evaluating the relative efficiency of decision making units (DMUs). The first DEA model (CCR model) assumed for exact data, later some authors introduced the applications of DEA which the data was imprecise. In imprecise data envelopment analysis (IDEA) the data can be ordinal, interval and fuzzy. Data envelopment analysis also can be used for the future programming of organizations and the response of the different policies, which is related to the target setting and resource allocation. The existing target model that conveys performance based targets in line with the policy making scenarios was defined for exact data. In this paper we improved the model for imprecise data such as fuzzy, ordinal and interval data. To deal with imprecise data we first established an interval DEA model. We used one of the methods to convert fuzzy and ordinal data into the interval data. A numerical experiment is used to illustrate the application to our interval model.
Despite the high costs involved and the lack of definitive evidence of sustained effectiveness, many low- and middle-income countries had begun to strengthen their health information system using information and communication technology in the past few decades. Following this international trend, the Malaysian Ministry of Health had been incorporating Telehealth (National Telehealth initiatives) into national health policies since the 1990s. Employing qualitative approaches, including key informant interviews and document review, this study examines the agenda-setting processes of the Telehealth policy using Kingdon's framework. The findings suggested that Telehealth policies emerged through actions of policy entrepreneurs within the Ministry of Health, who took advantage of several simultaneously occurring opportunities--official recognition of problems within the existing health information system, availability of information and communication technology to strengthen health information system and political interests surrounding the national Multimedia Super Corridor initiative being developed at the time. The last was achieved by the inclusion of Telehealth as a component of the Multimedia Super Corridor.
The women's rights movement and the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) movement have been actively involved in ensuring that the gains (on sexual and reproductive health, reproductive rights and women's sexuality) made during the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo and the 1995 fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing are maintained and captured in the new development framework. International processes, especially the United Nations Population Fund's ICPD Beyond 2014 work, have proven essential platforms for this. However, the current geopolitical scenario provides a challenging environment to ensure that the comprehensive Cairo+20 agenda is given the due attention and place it deserves and requires. This article aims to articulate the critical gaps in political discourse and commitment to the ICPD agenda from 1994 to the time of ICPD beyond 2014. Governments' potential lack of commitment to crucial issues of SRHR is also examined and discussed in the first section. In the second section, the article looks at progress and gaps regarding specific and commonly used measures of SRHR as an indicator of where discourse and commitment are required. In the third section, as a follow-up to the previous one, the article discusses the need to and the possibilities of articulating and positioning the rights discourse more clearly within the current complex global discourse as a necessary step in the movement's political discourse. In the last section, some key challenges and opportunities, as well as identified recommendations, are discussed with regard to the way ahead for the SRHR agenda in the 2014 and beyond.
Formulation of effective sustainability indicators for national assessment demands a comprehensive understanding of the utilisation, diffusion and dissemination of information in policy processes. To illustrate the dynamic of sustainability assessment within the context of policy processes, this paper uses a case study of national sustainability indicators development in Malaysia. Subsequently, this paper ascribes the limited achievement of national sustainability assessment in Malaysia to four types of constraints: meta-policy issues; technical capacities; communication concerns; and the inherent knowledge gaps within the indicator developer community vis-a-vis their theoretical limitations. It is proposed that such constraints will be encountered in many countries. Drawing from the literature on public policy, this paper outlines a framework for investigating indicator behaviour within policy processes based on well-established concepts such as knowledge utilisation and policy learning. I conclude this paper by elaborating on the corresponding future challenges that must be addressed before effective integration of sustainability indicators within policy systems can occur.
Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops--rubber and oil palm plantations--has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900--1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s--1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s--1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country's "health" and sustainability. The final section outlines the usefulness of landscape analysis in the policy-making process to prevent further fragmentation of the landscape and forest loss in Malaysia in the face of rapid economic development.
Health is a fundamental right, not a commodity to be sold at a profit, argues Irene Fernandez in the second Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture delivered on 8 July 2002 to the XIV International AIDS Conference in Barcelona. Ms Fernandez had to obtain a special permit from the Malaysian government to attend the Conference because she is on trial for having publicly released information about abuse, torture, illness, corruption, and death in Malaysian detention camps for migrants. This article, based on Ms Fernandez' presentation, describes how the policies of the rich world have failed the poor world. According to Ms Fernandez, the policies of globalization and privatization of health care have hindered the ability of developing countries to respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The article decries the hypocrisy of the industrialized nations in increasing subsidies to farmers while demanding that the developing world open its doors to Western goods. It points out that the rich nations have failed to live up their foreign aid commitments. The article concludes that these commitments--and the other promises made in the last few years, such as those in the United Nations' Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS--can only become a reality if they are translated into action.
Critical to the successful implementation of a national medicines strategy is evaluation of the policy and ongoing monitoring of medicine use. Methods for monitoring medicines use within countries vary depending on the country and its stage of medicines policy development and implementation. In this paper, we provide four case studies on monitoring medicines use to support national medicines policy development and implementation. Cases come from Bhutan, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Republic of Korea.
Understanding cities comprehensively as systems is a costly challenge and is typically not feasible for policy makers. Nevertheless, focusing on some key systemic characteristics of cities can give useful insights for policy to advance health and well-being outcomes. Moreover, if we take a coevolutionary systems view of cities, some conventional assumptions about the nature of urban development (e.g. the growth in private vehicle use with income) may not stand up. We illustrate this by examining the coevolution of urban transport and land use systems, and institutional change, giving examples of policy implications. At a high level, our concern derives from the need to better understand the dynamics of urban change, and its implications for health and well-being. At a practical level, we see opportunities to use stylised findings about urban systems to underpin policy experiments. While it is now not uncommon to view cities as systems, policy makers appear to have made little use so far of a systems approach to inform choice of policies with consequences for health and well-being. System insights can be applied to intelligently anticipate change - for example, as cities are subjected to increasing natural system reactions to climate change, they must find ways to mitigate and adapt to it. Secondly, systems insights around policy cobenefits are vital for better informing horizontal policy integration. Lastly, an implication of system complexity is that rather than seeking detailed, 'full' knowledge about urban issues and policies, cities would be well advised to engage in policy experimentation to address increasingly urgent health and climate change issues.
This editorial to the special issue of Sexual Health on antiretroviral-based prevention of HIV infection is dedicated to showcasing research and practice in this area. It aims to promote debate regarding the potential of new antiretroviral-based prevention approaches and the challenges encountered in moving prevention innovations into the community. This special issue covers the breadth of innovative HIV prevention research, including that undertaken in the fields of epidemiology, clinical research, social and behavioural science, public health and policy analysis, and with special emphasis on Asia and the Pacific region. Most importantly, it provides an indication of how the region is progressing towards embracing new prevention approaches to combat HIV epidemics across the region.
Most democratic countries hold inquiries into disasters. One of their key functions is to establish the cause of an event and to learn lessons in order to prevent a recurrence. In addition, they offer an opportunity for communal catharsis, permitting the public to vent anger, distress and frustration and to exert pressure for policy changes. Malaysia has experienced six landmark socio-technical disasters since 1968, which resulted in the proposal or amendment of various safety/emergency acts and regulations. The authors used a grounded theory approach utilising a constant comparative method to analyse the recommendations made by the inquiries into these events. Data indicate that social and technical recommendations comprise 85 and 15 per cent, respectively, of the total recommendations made by the inquiry committees. This paper offers suggestions for improving the management of inquiry tribunals, as they will remain a valuable source of information for society and corporations to learn from past incidents.
Logistics development of Malaysian Armed Forces (ATM) involving the Malaysian Army (TDM),
Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) and Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) have been developed since
1957. Since the 1990s, ATM has been through the process of modernization which is can seen through
the rapid and strong capabilities in logistics aspect. Defense policy development has involved the
development of the logistical aspects of ATM. Purchasing of defense equipments such as the most
modern warship in Armed Force in 1990, Scorpene submarines, fighter aircraft which is used by the
developed countries such as the MiG-29, FA/18 Hornet and Sukhoi 30MKM, battle tanks from Poland
and so on with the transfer package technology is essential to ensure that the principle of self-reliance
defense ATM can be achieved. This process has force the government to allocate a large amount of
money in providing modern logistics equipments so it can be used to the maximum by the defense forces. In fact, the development of the defense and Malaysian Armed Forces (ATM) also growing
along with the development of technology, defense policy, doctrine of current world logistics. However
the logistics development has raised questions because of the capabilty of logistic and Malaysian
Armed Forces (ATM) itself which are caused various accidents and issues affecting ATM.
Various pharmacy services are offered in public health facilities, ranging from distributive activities (dispensing) to patient-oriented services (pharmaceutical care). These activities are monitored through indicators established at the national level. In Malaysia, the indicators have not been transformed into a measurement of hospital pharmacy service efficiency. The main objectives of this study were to assess the relative performance of hospital pharmacy services and to investigate the factors that may affect the performance levels. Double-bootstrap data envelopment analysis was applied to measure the technical efficiency levels of 124 public hospital pharmacies in 2014. An input-oriented variable returns to scale model was adopted in the study, while bootstrap truncated regression was conducted to identify the factors that may explain the differences in the efficiency levels. The average bias-corrected technical efficiency score varies according to the hospital size (0.84, 0.78 and 0.82 in small, medium and large hospitals, respectively). The hospital size, hospital age, urban location and information technology are important determinants of the efficiency levels. The study contributes to establishing baseline technical efficiency information for public hospital pharmacy services in Malaysia. The measurement of hospital pharmacy efficiency can guide future policy making to improve performance and ensure the optimum level of available resources.
Hypertension is a condition associated with adverse vascular complications. Its
prevalence is on the increase globally and same is true for Nigeria. Very few studies
have assessed the prevalence, awareness, treatment and blood pressure control
among hypertensive patients in Nigeria. The few available studies generally show
figures less than 50% for all the three indicators of success with regards to
hypertension. These studies are however deficient in their coverage, country
representativeness and methodology, and as such, they fail to provide the evidence
for which conclusions can be drawn. There is need to intensify blood pressure
screening at both hospital and community levels. More comprehensive research with
wider coverage and sound methodologies are also needed to determine those
associated factors and to discover better treatment options for hypertension in
Nigeria. These findings would guide health promotion activities and policy making.
Failure to stem trends of ecological disruption and associated loss of ecosystem services worldwide is partly due to the inadequate integration of the human dimension into environmental decision-making. Decision-makers need knowledge of the human dimension of resource systems and of the social consequences of decision-making if environmental management is to be effective and adaptive. Social scientists have a central role to play, but little guidance exists to help them influence decision-making processes. We distil 348 years of cumulative experience shared by 31 environmental experts across three continents into advice for social scientists seeking to increase their influence in the environmental policy arena. Results focus on the importance of process, engagement, empathy and acumen and reveal the importance of understanding and actively participating in policy processes through co-producing knowledge and building trust. The insights gained during this research might empower a science-driven cultural change in science-policy relations for the routine integration of the human dimension in environmental decision making; ultimately for an improved outlook for earth's ecosystems and the billions of people that depend on them.