An emerging biofilm immobilization method has enabled effortless biomass harvesting and promoted economic feasibility. The current limitation towards the adaptation of this technology is the inadequate understanding of the biofilm interaction towards microporous membrane. Cell adhesion is recognized as the most important step towards the immobilized cultivation of microalgae. Cell attachment kinetic was studied in a short-term batch culture of three marine diatoms, Amphora coffeaeformis, Cylindrotheca fusiformis and Navicula incerta over 96 h on submerged commercial polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane under swirling motion of culture medium. Both the evolution of cell adhesion intensity and compositional changes of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) released were quantified throughout the cultivation period. To delve into the cell-substratum interactions, existing thermodynamics and colloidal extended Derjaguin, Landau, Vervey, and Overbeek (XDLVO) theory were employed. As a result, A. coffeaeformis and N. incerta recorded a higher cell colonization percentage than C. fusiformis being the lowest about 2.16±0.17% cell colonization due to their respective species-dependent EPS variation. Polysaccharide contents were at least two times higher than protein contents for both C. fusiformis and N. incerta except for A. coffeaeformis depicting a lower polysaccharide-to-protein ratio whereby the protein contents were maximized at 1.03 × 103 ± 64.14 pg m-2 cell-1 at 6th h. From the surface free energy point of view, both thermodynamics and XDLVO model elucidated that cells adhered reversibly in the secondary energy minimum and ranked C. fusiformis the lowest adhesion tendency among three. These findings establish fundamental knowledge about biofilm formation in porous substrate bioreactors.
Inorganic and synthetic flocculants are widely investigated for removing harmful microalgae, such as Microcystis aeruginosa. However, their toxicity and non-biodegradability are shortcomings. Bioflocculants based on extracellular polysaccharides have attracted much attention as alternative flocculants. However, its high production cost is a limiting factor for applying bioflocculants. Here, we investigate the potential of the dead cells of a marine filamentous bacterium, Aureispira sp. CCB-QB1, as a novel flocculant on M. aeruginosa cells. The removal efficiency of M. aeruginosa cells by the dead cells was measured by mixing and shaking both components in a buffer with 5 mM CaCl2 in different incubation times and concentrations of the dead cells. After that, the minimum effective concentration of CaCl2 was determined. The combination effect of FeCl3 and the dead cells on the removal efficiency was tested. The structure of cell aggregates consisted of the dead cells and M. aeruginosa cells were also observed using a scanning electron microscope. The maximum removal efficiency (75.39%) was reached within 3 min in the presence of CaCl2 when 5 mg/ml of the dead cells (wet cells) were added. The optimal concentration of CaCl2 was 5 mM. The combination of the dead cells and a low concentration of FeCl3 (10 mg/L) with 5 mM of CaCl2 significantly improved the removal efficiency by about 1.2 times (P
The anti-hyperpigmentation effect and tyrosinase inhibitory mechanism of cinnamon polysaccharides have not been reported. The current study focused on the extraction of polysaccharides from Cinnamomum cassia bark using microwave-assisted approach and optimization of the extraction process (i.e., microwave power, irradiation time and buffer-to-sample ratio) by Box-Behnken design to obtain a high yield of polysaccharides with high sun protection factor (SPF), anti-hyperpigmentation and antioxidant activities. The extracted pectic-polysaccharides had low molecular weight and degree of esterification. The optimal extraction process had polysaccharides characterized by (a) monophenolase inhibitory activity = 97.5 %; (b) diphenolase inhibitory activity = 99.4 %; (c) ferric reducing antioxidant power = 4.4 mM; (d) SPF = 6.1; (e) yield = 13.7 %. The SPF, tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activities were primarily contributed by the polysaccharides. In conclusion, the polysaccharides from C. cassia could be an alternative therapeutic source for skin hyperpigmentation treatment.
Microalgal biofilm is a popular platform for algal production, nutrient removal and carbon capture; however, it suffers from significant biofilm exfoliation under shear force exposure. Hence, a biologically-safe coating made up of algal extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was utilized to secure the biofilm cell retention and cell loading on commercial microporous membrane (polyvinylidene fluoride), making the surfaces more hydrophobic (contact angle increase up to 12°). Results demonstrated that initial cell adhesion of three marine microalgae (Amphora coffeaeformis, Cylindrotheca fusiformis and Navicula incerta) was enhanced by at least 1.3 times higher than that of pristine control within only seven days with minimized biofilm exfoliation issue due to uniform distribution of sticky transparent exopolymer particles. Bounded extracellular polysaccharide gathered was approximately 23% higher on EPS-coated membranes to improve the biofilm's hydraulic resistance, whereas bounded extracellular protein would only be substantially elevated after the attached cells re-accommodate themselves onto the EPS pre-coating of themselves. In accounting the rises of hydrophobic protein content, biofilm was believed to be more stabilized, presumably via hydrophobic interactions. EPS biocoating would generate a groundswell of interest for bioprocess intensifications though there are lots of inherent technical and molecular challenges to be further investigated in future.
Cell adhesion is always the first step in biofilm development. With the emergence of attached cultivation systems, this study aims to promote a cost-effective approach for sustainable cultivation of microalgae, Navicula incerta, by pre-coating the main substrates, commercial polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with its own washed algal cells and self-produced soluble extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) for strengthened biofilm development. The effects of pH value (6 to 9), cell suspension volume (10 to 30 mL), and EPS volume (10 to 50 mL) were statistically optimized by means of response surface methodology toolkit. Model outputs revealed good agreement with cell adhesion data variation less than 1% at optimized pre-coating conditions (7.20 pH, 30 mL cell suspension volume, and 50 mL EPS volume). Throughout long-term biofilm cultivation, results demonstrated that EPS pre-coating substantially improved the attached microalgae density by as high as 271% than pristine PVDF due to rougher surface and the presence of sticky exopolymer particles. Nutrients absorbed via the available EPS coating from the bulk medium made the immobilized cells to release less polysaccharides on an average of 30% less than uncoated PVDF. This work suggests that adhesive polymer binders derived from organic sources can be effectively integrated into the development of high-performance novel materials as biocoating for immobilized microalgae cultivation.
Ganoderma is a well-known medicinal macrofungal genus, of which several species have been thoroughly studied from the medicinal perspective, but most species are rarely involved in. In this study, we focus on the polysaccharides extracted from Ganoderma boninense and their antioxidant activity. Ganoderma boninense is a serious pathogen of oil palms that are cultivated commercially in Southeast Asia. Response surface methodology was conducted to optimize the liquid medium composition, and the mycelia biomass reached 7.063 g/L, that is, 1.4-fold compared with the seed medium. The crude and purified polysaccharides extracted from the fermentation broth showed well 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging abilities, and the scavenging abilities of purified polysaccharides reached 94.47 % and 99.88 %, respectively. Six fractions of polysaccharides were extracted and purified from fruiting bodies, mycelia and fermentation broth separately with the elution buffers of distilled water and 0.1 M NaCl solution. Generally, the polysaccharides from fruiting bodies showed stronger protective effect on H2O2-induced HepG2 cell oxidative damage than other fractions. A total of five to seven monosaccharides were identified in the six fractions of polysaccharides. The correlation analysis revealed that the content of fucose was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides, while xylose showed negative correlation results. In summary, the polysaccharides from G. boninense have a potential to be used as natural antioxidants.
Carbon and nitrogen sources in culture medium of Antrodia cinnamomea were optimized to eliminate the interference of exterior macromolecules on exopolysaccharide (EPS) yield by submerged fermentation. The results suggested that culture medium containing 50 g/L of glucose and 20 g/L of yeast extract as the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources could produce 1.03 g/L of exopolysaccharides. After purification, two heteropolysaccharides (AC-EPS1 and AC-EPS2) were obtained and characterized to provide the basic structure information. As the main component of the produced EPS, AC-EPS2 (accounting for 89.63%) was mainly composed of galactose (87.42%) with Mw (molecular weight) and R.M.S. (root-mean-square) radius of 1.18 × 105 g/mol and 25.3 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the spherical and flexible chain morphologies of EPS were observed in different solvents by TEM. The structural and morphological information of purified EPS were significant for further study on their structure-activity relationship and related applications.
The current treatment strategies for diabetic wound care provide only moderate degree of effectiveness; hence new and improved therapeutic techniques are in great demand. Diabetic wound healing is a complex physiological process that involves synchronisation of various biological events such as haemostasis, inflammation, and remodelling. Nanomaterials like polymeric nanofibers (NFs) offer a promising approach for the treatment of diabetic wounds and have emerged as viable options for wound management. Electrospinning is a powerful and cost-effective method to fabricate versatile NFs with a wide array of raw materials for different biological applications. The electrospun NFs have unique advantages in the development of wound dressings due to their high specific surface area and porosity. The electrospun NFs possess a unique porous structure and biological function similar to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM), and are known to accelerate wound healing. Compared to traditional dressings, the electrospun NFs are more effective in healing wounds owing to their distinct characteristics, good surface functionalisation, better biocompatibility and biodegradability. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the electrospinning procedure and its operating principle, with special emphasis on the role of electrospun NFs in the treatment of diabetic wounds. This review discusses the present techniques applied in the fabrication of NF dressings, and highlights the future prospects of electrospun NFs in medicinal applications.
This study highlights the use of red palm oil (RPO) as an alternative to dairy fat in a hard ice cream sample in the presence of different stabilizers; maltodextrin (MALTOD) and modified starch (MSTARCH). No stabilizer was added in the control sample (CO), while the different ratios of RPO to each stabilizer were 4:1, 3:2, and 2:3, coded as MALTOD1, MALTOD2, MALTOD3 for maltodextrin, and MSTARCH1, MSTARCH2, and MSTARCH3 for modified starch, respectively. These samples were compared regarding overrun, physical, and sensory properties. For MALTOD, sample MALTOD3 had the highest overrun (49.31±13.78%), while MALTOD2 had the highest viscosity (7.90±0.03 Pa.s) and hardness (1.09±0.07 kg), and MALTOD1 had the lowest melting properties (61.10±0.20%). For MSTARCH, sample MSTARCH1 had the highest hardness (3.39±0.07 kg), MSTARCH2 had the highest overrun (67.64±2.27%), and MSTARCH3 had the highest viscosity (8.19±0.24 Pa.s) and the lowest melting properties (39.83±0.20%). Samples MALTOD3 and MSTARCH1 were selected for comparison with commercial samples in terms of sensory acceptance and preference. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the sensory acceptability of MALTOD3 and MSTARCH1. However, both samples received a significantly lower (p < 0.05) ranking than the commercial samples in terms of appearance, texture, flavour, meltability, and overall acceptance. Future studies are recommended to improve the RPO-based ice cream sample, particularly in terms of its sensory properties.
The concept of zero waste discharge has been gaining importance in recent years towards attaining a sustainable environment. Fruit processing industries generate millions of tons of byproducts like fruit peels and seeds, and their disposal poses an environmental threat. The concept of extracting value-added bioactive compounds from bio-waste is an excellent opportunity to mitigate environmental issues. To date, significant research has been carried out on the extraction of essential biomolecules, particularly polysaccharides from waste generated by fruit processing industries. In this review article, we aim to summarize the different extraction methodologies, characterization methods, and biomedical applications of polysaccharides extracted from seeds and peels of different fruit sources. The review also focuses on the general scheme of extraction of polysaccharides from fruit waste with special emphasis on various methods used in extraction. Also, the various types of polysaccharides obtained from fruit processing industrial wastes are explained in consonance with the important techniques related to the structural elucidation of polysaccharides obtained from seed and peel waste. The use of seed polysaccharides as pharmaceutical excipients and the application of peel polysaccharides possessing biological activities are also elaborated.
Fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs) offer a range of beneficial properties as important nutrients in human nutrition. However, the high susceptibility to environmental conditions such as high temperature, light, and oxygen leads to the degradation of these compounds. This review highlights the different formulations underlying the encapsulation of FSVs in biopolymer (polysaccharide and protein) and lipid-based micro or nanocarriers for potential applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. In particular, the function of these carrier systems in terms of encapsulation efficiency, stability, bioavailability, and bio-accessibility is critically discussed. Recently, tremendous attention has been paid to encapsulating FSVs in commercial applications. According to the chemical nature of the active compound, the vigilant selection of delivery formulation, method of encapsulation, and final application (type of food) are the key important factors to be considered in the encapsulation of FSVs to ensure a high loading capacity, stability, bioavailability, and bio-accessibility. Future studies are recommended on the effect of different vitamin types and micro and nano encapsulate sizes on bioaccessibility and biocompatibility through in vitro/in vivo studies. Moreover, the toxicity and safety evaluation of encapsulated FSVs in human health should be evaluated before commercial application in food and pharmaceuticals.
Fucoidan is a sulphated polysaccharide, made up mainly of l-fucose, which is found in brown seaweeds. Its chemical structure is diverse and depends on maturity, species and geographical location. The objective of this study was to elucidate the chemical structure of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus harvested in Japan. The fucoidan was subject to purification prior to monosaccharide profiling, sulphate content determination, and linkage analysis. Our results showed that Japanese Cladosiphon okamuranus fucoidan contained 70.13 ± 0.22 wt% fucose and 15.16 ± 1.17 wt% sulphate. Other minor monosaccharides found were d-xylose, d-galactose, d-mannose, d-glucose, d-arabinose, d-rhamnose and d-glucuronic acid. Linkage analysis revealed that fucopyranoside units along the backbone are linked, through α-1,3-glycosidic bonds, with fucose branching at C-2, and one sulphate group at C-4 per every three fucose units, i.e. the structure of fucoidan from Japanese Cladosiphon okamuranus is [→3)-α-fuc(1→]0.52[→3)-α-fuc-4-OSO3-(1→]0.33[→2)-α-fuc]0.14.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a pathogen associated with various infection types, which often exhibits multiple antibiotic resistance. Phages, or bacterial viruses, have an ability to specifically target and destroy K. pneumoniae, offering a potential means of combatting multidrug-resistant infections. Phage enzymes are another promising therapeutic agent that can break down bacterial capsular polysaccharide, which shields K. pneumoniae from the immune response and external factors. In this study, Klebsiella phage K5 was isolated; this phage is active against Klebsiella pneumoniae with the capsular type K21. It was demonstrated that the phage can effectively lyse the host culture. The adsorption apparatus of the phage has revealed two receptor-binding proteins (RBPs) with predicted polysaccharide depolymerising activity. A recombinant form of both RBPs was obtained and experiments showed that one of them depolymerised the capsular polysaccharide K21. The structure of this polysaccharide and its degradation fragments were analysed. The second receptor-binding protein showed no activity on capsular polysaccharide of any of the 31 capsule types tested, so the substrate for this enzyme remains to be determined in the future. Klebsiella phage K5 may be considered a useful agent against Klebsiella infections.
The pollen of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a strong allergen and causes severe pollinosis in Malaysia and Singapore. In the previous study (Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 64, 820-827 (2002)), from the oil palm pollens, we purified an antigenic glycoprotein (Ela g Bd 31 K), which is recognized by IgE from palm pollinosis patients. In this report, we describe the structural analysis of sugar chains linked to palm pollen glycoproteins to confirm the ubiquitous occurrence of antigenic N-glycans in the allergenic pollen. N-Glycans liberated from the pollen glycoprotein mixture by hydrazinolysis were labeled with 2-aminopyridine followed by purification with a combination of size-fractionation HPLC and reversed-phase HPLC. The structures of the PA-sugar chains were analyzed by a combination of two-dimensional sugar chain mapping, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and tandem MS analysis, as well as exoglycosidase digestions. The antigenic N-glycan bearing alpha1-3 fucose and/or beta1-2 xylose residues accounts for 36.9% of total N-glycans: GlcNAc2Man3Xyl1Fuc1GlcNAc2 (24.6%), GlcNAc2Man3Xyl1GlcNAc2 (4.4%), Man3Xyl1Fuc1-GlcNAc2 (1.1%), GlcNAc1Man3Xyl1Fuc1GlcNAc2 (5.6%), and GlcNAc1Man3Xyl1GlcNAc2 (1.2%). The remaining 63.1% of the total N-glycans belong to the high-mannose type structure: Man9GlcNAc2 (5.8%), Man8GlcNAc2 (32.1%), Man7GlcNAc2 (19.9%), Man6GlcNAc2 (5.3%).
Polysaccharides (PS) represent a broad class of polymer-based compounds that have been extensively researched as therapeutics and excipients for drug delivery. As pharmaceutical carriers, PS have mostly found their use as adsorbents, suspending agents, as well as cross-linking agents for various formulations such as liposomes, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, nano lipid carriers, microspheres etc. This is due to inherent properties of PS such as porosity, steric stability and swellability, insolubility in pH. There have been emerging reports on the use of PS as therapeutic agent due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties for various diseases. In particular, for Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and inflammatory bowel disease. However, determining the dosage, treatment duration and effective technology transfer of these therapeutic moieties have not occurred. This is due to the fact that PS are still at a nascent stage of development to a full proof therapy for a particular disease. Recently, a combination of polysaccharide which act as a prebiotic and a probiotic have been used as a combination to treat various intestinal and colorectal (CRC) related diseases. This has proven to be beneficial, has shown good in vivo correlation and is well reported. The present review entails a detailed description on the role of PS used as a therapeutic agent and as a formulation pertaining to gastrointestinal diseases.
Recovery of cellulose fibres from paper mill effluent has been studied using common polysaccharides or biopolymers such as Guar gum, Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum as flocculent. Guar gum is commonly used in sizing paper and routinely used in paper making. The results have been compared with the performance of alum, which is a common coagulant and a key ingredient of the paper industry. Guar gum recovered about 3.86mg/L of fibre and was most effective among the biopolymers. Settling velocity distribution curves demonstrated that Guar gum was able to settle the fibres faster than the other biopolymers; however, alum displayed the highest particle removal rate than all the biopolymers at any of the settling velocities. Alum, Guar gum, Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum removed 97.46%, 94.68%, 92.39% and 92.46% turbidity of raw effluent at a settling velocity of 0.5cm/min, respectively. The conditions for obtaining the lowest sludge volume index such as pH, dose and mixing speed were optimised for guar gum which was the most effective among the biopolymers. Response surface methodology was used to design all experiments, and an optimum operational setting was proposed. The test results indicate similar performance of alum and Guar gum in terms of floc settling velocities and sludge volume index. Since Guar gum is a plant derived natural substance, it is environmentally benign and offers a green treatment option to the paper mills for pulp recycling.
In this study, oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was treated with superheated steam (SHS) in order to modify its characteristics for biocomposite applications. Treatment was conducted at temperatures 190-230 °C for 1, 2 and 3 h. SHS-treated OPMF was evaluated for its chemical composition, thermal stability, morphology and crystallinity. OPMF treated at 230 °C exhibited lower hemicellulose content (9%) compared to the untreated OPMF (33%). Improved thermal stability of OPMF was found after the SHS treatment. Moreover, SEM and ICP analyses of SHS-treated OPMF showed that silica bodies were removed from OPMF after the SHS treatment. XRD results exhibited that OPMF crystallinity increased after SHS treatment, indicating tougher fiber properties. Hemicellulose removal makes the fiber surface more hydrophobic, whereby silica removal increases the surface roughness of the fiber. Overall, the results obtained herewith suggested that SHS is an effective treatment method for surface modification and subsequently improving the characteristics of the natural fiber. Most importantly, the use of novel, eco-friendly SHS may contribute to the green and sustainable treatment for surface modification of natural fiber.
Protein glycosylation, particularly N-linked glycosylation, is a complex posttranslational modification (PTM), which plays an important role in protein folding and conformation, regulating protein stability and activity, cell-cell interaction, and cell signaling pathways. This review focuses on analytical techniques, primarily MS-based techniques, to qualitatively and quantitatively assess N-glycosylation while successfully characterizing compositional, structural, and linkage features with high specificity and sensitivity. The analytical techniques explored in this review include LC-ESI-MS/MS and MALDI time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF-MS), which have been used to analyze clinical samples, such as serum, plasma, ascites, and tissue. Targeting the aberrant N-glycosylation patterns observed in MALDI-MS imaging (MSI) offers a platform to visualize N-glycans in tissue-specific regions. The studies on the intra-patient (i.e., a comparison of tissue-specific regions from the same patient) and inter-patient (i.e., a comparison of tissue-specific regions between different patients) variation of early- and late-stage ovarian cancer (OC) patients identify specific N-glycan differences that improve understanding of the tumor microenvironment and potentially improve therapeutic strategies for the clinic.
Research and development in health care industry is in persistence progression. To make it more patient-friendly or to get maximum benefits from it, special attention to different advanced drug delivery system (ADDS) is employed that delivers the drug at the target site and will be able to sustain/control release of drugs. ADDS should be non-toxic, biodegradable, biocompatible along with desirable showing physicochemical and functional properties. These drug delivery systems can be totally based on polymers, either with natural or synthetic polymers. The molecular weight of polymer can be tuned and different groups of polymers can be modified or substituted with other functional groups. Degree of substitution is also tailored. Cationic starch in recent years is exploited in drug delivery, tissue engineering and biomedicine. Due to their abundant availability, low cost, easy chemical modification, low toxicity, biodegradability and biocompatibility, extensive research is now being carried out. Our present discussion will shed light on the usage of cationic starch in health care system.
This study aimed to investigate the role of hydrolysis and guar gum (GG) participation on the emulsification of the duck myofibrillar protein (MP) and the related stability of oil-in-water emulsion in low-salt condition. Emulsions were prepared using one of each or both treatments, and that prepared with trypsin hydrolysis and GG (T-GG) exhibited the highest stability. FTIR analysis confirmed the hydrogen bond interactions between the system components. T-GG treatment improved emulsion properties and decreased oil droplet size. Moreover, CLSM indicated that aggregation of T-GG oil droplets was prevented. Physical stability was assessed such as Turbiscan stability index, creaming index, and rheological properties. The adsorbed percentage for T-GG was the lowest. However, interfacial tension, droplet size, stability, and peroxide value analyses indicated that a denser interfacial membrane structure is formed with T-GG. Thus, T-GG treatment could be applied in the food industry, such as in nutrient delivery systems and fat mimetics.