Carbon and nitrogen sources in culture medium of Antrodia cinnamomea were optimized to eliminate the interference of exterior macromolecules on exopolysaccharide (EPS) yield by submerged fermentation. The results suggested that culture medium containing 50 g/L of glucose and 20 g/L of yeast extract as the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources could produce 1.03 g/L of exopolysaccharides. After purification, two heteropolysaccharides (AC-EPS1 and AC-EPS2) were obtained and characterized to provide the basic structure information. As the main component of the produced EPS, AC-EPS2 (accounting for 89.63%) was mainly composed of galactose (87.42%) with Mw (molecular weight) and R.M.S. (root-mean-square) radius of 1.18 × 105 g/mol and 25.3 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the spherical and flexible chain morphologies of EPS were observed in different solvents by TEM. The structural and morphological information of purified EPS were significant for further study on their structure-activity relationship and related applications.
Fucoidan is a sulphated polysaccharide, made up mainly of l-fucose, which is found in brown seaweeds. Its chemical structure is diverse and depends on maturity, species and geographical location. The objective of this study was to elucidate the chemical structure of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus harvested in Japan. The fucoidan was subject to purification prior to monosaccharide profiling, sulphate content determination, and linkage analysis. Our results showed that Japanese Cladosiphon okamuranus fucoidan contained 70.13 ± 0.22 wt% fucose and 15.16 ± 1.17 wt% sulphate. Other minor monosaccharides found were d-xylose, d-galactose, d-mannose, d-glucose, d-arabinose, d-rhamnose and d-glucuronic acid. Linkage analysis revealed that fucopyranoside units along the backbone are linked, through α-1,3-glycosidic bonds, with fucose branching at C-2, and one sulphate group at C-4 per every three fucose units, i.e. the structure of fucoidan from Japanese Cladosiphon okamuranus is [→3)-α-fuc(1→]0.52[→3)-α-fuc-4-OSO3-(1→]0.33[→2)-α-fuc]0.14.
The pollen of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a strong allergen and causes severe pollinosis in Malaysia and Singapore. In the previous study (Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 64, 820-827 (2002)), from the oil palm pollens, we purified an antigenic glycoprotein (Ela g Bd 31 K), which is recognized by IgE from palm pollinosis patients. In this report, we describe the structural analysis of sugar chains linked to palm pollen glycoproteins to confirm the ubiquitous occurrence of antigenic N-glycans in the allergenic pollen. N-Glycans liberated from the pollen glycoprotein mixture by hydrazinolysis were labeled with 2-aminopyridine followed by purification with a combination of size-fractionation HPLC and reversed-phase HPLC. The structures of the PA-sugar chains were analyzed by a combination of two-dimensional sugar chain mapping, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and tandem MS analysis, as well as exoglycosidase digestions. The antigenic N-glycan bearing alpha1-3 fucose and/or beta1-2 xylose residues accounts for 36.9% of total N-glycans: GlcNAc2Man3Xyl1Fuc1GlcNAc2 (24.6%), GlcNAc2Man3Xyl1GlcNAc2 (4.4%), Man3Xyl1Fuc1-GlcNAc2 (1.1%), GlcNAc1Man3Xyl1Fuc1GlcNAc2 (5.6%), and GlcNAc1Man3Xyl1GlcNAc2 (1.2%). The remaining 63.1% of the total N-glycans belong to the high-mannose type structure: Man9GlcNAc2 (5.8%), Man8GlcNAc2 (32.1%), Man7GlcNAc2 (19.9%), Man6GlcNAc2 (5.3%).
Recovery of cellulose fibres from paper mill effluent has been studied using common polysaccharides or biopolymers such as Guar gum, Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum as flocculent. Guar gum is commonly used in sizing paper and routinely used in paper making. The results have been compared with the performance of alum, which is a common coagulant and a key ingredient of the paper industry. Guar gum recovered about 3.86mg/L of fibre and was most effective among the biopolymers. Settling velocity distribution curves demonstrated that Guar gum was able to settle the fibres faster than the other biopolymers; however, alum displayed the highest particle removal rate than all the biopolymers at any of the settling velocities. Alum, Guar gum, Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum removed 97.46%, 94.68%, 92.39% and 92.46% turbidity of raw effluent at a settling velocity of 0.5cm/min, respectively. The conditions for obtaining the lowest sludge volume index such as pH, dose and mixing speed were optimised for guar gum which was the most effective among the biopolymers. Response surface methodology was used to design all experiments, and an optimum operational setting was proposed. The test results indicate similar performance of alum and Guar gum in terms of floc settling velocities and sludge volume index. Since Guar gum is a plant derived natural substance, it is environmentally benign and offers a green treatment option to the paper mills for pulp recycling.
In this study, oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was treated with superheated steam (SHS) in order to modify its characteristics for biocomposite applications. Treatment was conducted at temperatures 190-230 °C for 1, 2 and 3 h. SHS-treated OPMF was evaluated for its chemical composition, thermal stability, morphology and crystallinity. OPMF treated at 230 °C exhibited lower hemicellulose content (9%) compared to the untreated OPMF (33%). Improved thermal stability of OPMF was found after the SHS treatment. Moreover, SEM and ICP analyses of SHS-treated OPMF showed that silica bodies were removed from OPMF after the SHS treatment. XRD results exhibited that OPMF crystallinity increased after SHS treatment, indicating tougher fiber properties. Hemicellulose removal makes the fiber surface more hydrophobic, whereby silica removal increases the surface roughness of the fiber. Overall, the results obtained herewith suggested that SHS is an effective treatment method for surface modification and subsequently improving the characteristics of the natural fiber. Most importantly, the use of novel, eco-friendly SHS may contribute to the green and sustainable treatment for surface modification of natural fiber.
Protein glycosylation, particularly N-linked glycosylation, is a complex posttranslational modification (PTM), which plays an important role in protein folding and conformation, regulating protein stability and activity, cell-cell interaction, and cell signaling pathways. This review focuses on analytical techniques, primarily MS-based techniques, to qualitatively and quantitatively assess N-glycosylation while successfully characterizing compositional, structural, and linkage features with high specificity and sensitivity. The analytical techniques explored in this review include LC-ESI-MS/MS and MALDI time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF-MS), which have been used to analyze clinical samples, such as serum, plasma, ascites, and tissue. Targeting the aberrant N-glycosylation patterns observed in MALDI-MS imaging (MSI) offers a platform to visualize N-glycans in tissue-specific regions. The studies on the intra-patient (i.e., a comparison of tissue-specific regions from the same patient) and inter-patient (i.e., a comparison of tissue-specific regions between different patients) variation of early- and late-stage ovarian cancer (OC) patients identify specific N-glycan differences that improve understanding of the tumor microenvironment and potentially improve therapeutic strategies for the clinic.
Bamboo shoot crude polysaccharides (BSCP) extracted from the shoots of Gigantochloa levis gave about 3.27 ± 0.18% on dry basis and a very minute percentage of protein (0.02 ± 0.01%). The molecular weight of BSCP estimated by gel chromatography was found to be around 7.49 × 103 Da, while the molecular weights of purified fractions (F1 to F5) were around 1550.96, 1471.63, 1685.78, 1691.61 and 1551.67 Da, respectively. The FTIR spectrum of BSCP revealed the possibility that the extract contains β-glucan, which can be considered a valuable compound for the medical and food industries. These relate to the resistance of BSCP towards artificial human gastric juice which is more than 99%. Prebiotic activity tested using BSCP as a carbon source showed significant increase in the growth of B. animalis ATCC 1053, B. longum BB 536 and L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 as compared to the use of FOS. Survivality of S. choleraesuis JCM 6977 was found to be slower in both BSCP and FOS. Study conducted reflects a good sign for the BSCP to be exploited as a promising prebiotic.
Hemicelluloses from oil palm frond (OPF) were extracted using 3 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) for 4 h at 40 degrees C with stirring at 400 rpm to obtain hemicelluloses A and B. The total yield of the hemicellulose isolated from OPF was 33% (dry weight). Both hemicelluloses A and B were then subjected to hydrothermal treatment at 121 degrees C and 1.03 x 10(5) Pa for 10, 30, and 50 min. Physicochemical characterizations of hydrothermally treated hemicelluloses, such as Klason lignin content and reducing sugar content, were performed to study the effect of autohydrolysis processing on OPF-derived hemicelluloses. It was shown that Klason lignin content in hemicellulose A was higher than that in hemicellulose B and decreased after hydrothermal treatment. Hydrothermal treatment enhanced the solubility of hemicelluloses, which reflects their higher reducing sugar content. Monosaccharide analysis using HPLC showed that xylose was the predominant monosaccharide for both hemicelluloses A and B.
Oscillatory and steady shear rheology of gellan (G) and dextran (D) solution individually, and in blends (G/D ratio 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 w/v) with a total hydrocolloid concentration of 3 % (w/v) were studied at 25 °C. Individually, 1.5 % dextran and 1.5 % gellan in solution exhibited Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior, respectively. A blend of equal proportion of dextran and gellan (G/D = 1:1) exhibits a distinct gel point (G' = G″), and further addition of dextran in the blend (G/D = 1:2 and 1:3) resulted predominating liquid-like (G″ > G') behavior. A plot of G' vs G″ distinctly showed the gradual transition of the blend. Shear stress (τ)-shear rate ([Formula: see text]) data fitted well the Herschel-Bulkley model. The G/D blend exhibited shear thinning behavior with flow behavior index less than unity. The Cox-Merz rule did not fit well for the complex shear viscosity (η*) and apparent viscosity (η) of the blend.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of xanthan gum and carrageenan on the
oil uptake and acceptability of banana (Musa acuminate) fritters during repeated deep fat
frying. Banana namely ‘Pisang Awak’ at maturity stage 6 were peeled, cut and dipped into 3
batter formulations containing 1% carrageenan, 1% xanthan gum and a control. The bananas
were deep fried at 170±5°C for 3 minutes in 2.5L cooking oil without oil replenishment for
3 consecutive days. The moisture, oil content, texture, colour and acceptability of the banana
fritters were evaluated at first and every 10th frying cycles. Results indicated that the oil and
moisture content of fried bananas were dependent on frying cycles. The oil content increased
while the moisture decreased with increased in frying cycles. There was significant reduction
(p0.05) in terms of overall acceptance between
treated and untreated. Hence, 1% xanthan gum was effective in reducing oil absorption of
banana fritters without affecting the overall sensory acceptability
The emulsifying properties of extracted okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) mucilage at different maturity indices (1, 2 and 3) were studied. The okra mucilage was prepared using water extraction method and was determined their viscosity at different temperature (10, 30, 50 and 70°C), water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), as well as their emulsion capacity (EC) and emulsion stability (ES). Results found that okra with maturity index 2 produced the highest percentage yield of mucilage (1.46%) and followed by index 1 (1.10%) and index 3 (0.31%) (p
The objective of this work was to study the effects of trehalose and maltodextrin on Chinese
steamed bread (CSB) prepared from frozen dough. Trehalose (0.1 and 0.2% w/w) and
maltodextrin (1 and 2% w/w) were added and CSB prepared from the fresh dough and the
frozen dough was characterized in terms of spread ratio, specific volume, staling index and
stress relaxation properties. Upon frozen storage, spread ratio and specific volume of CSB,
and elasticity of the bread crumb were reduced. The extend of deterioration was significantly
reduced with the addition of 0.1% trehalose and 2% maltodextrin. Excessive addition of
trehalose and maltodextrin was found to cause detrimental effects to CSB quality.
The advent of green technology has flourished biomolecule applications in medical, pharmaceutical and food products. Unlike synthetic materials, gelatin-polysaccharide matrixes are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Gelatin-polysaccharide complexes are currently being utilized for the development of nano- and micro-particles, hydrogel, aerogel and films. Gelatin-polysaccharide based materials have offered improved characteristics depending on the type and concentration of polysaccharide and crosslinking agent. Gelatin-polysaccharide based materials function as bioactive compounds entrapment and encapsulation and anti-bacteria. This review provides concise information on the theory and technological applications of gelatin-polysaccharides based materials.
The chemical composition and anatomical characteristics on lignin distribution of rattan waste were analyzed to determine its suitability to be used in binderless board fabrication. The chemical composition was analyzed by using TAPPI methods. Observation and determination of lignin distribution and board structure were executed by using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). High amount of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin content found in rattan waste chemical composition is seen to help in binderless board fabrication. The micrographs revealed that the rattan has fine structural construction that helps in producing good qualities of binderless boards with particular manufacturing parameters.
This study was to investigate the effects of optimised alginate coating combined with repetitive pulsed light (RPL) on cell wall composition of fresh-cut cantaloupes during chilled storage. Fresh-cut cantaloupes were coated with alginate (1.86%, w/v) followed by RPL treatment (0.9 J cm-2 at every 48 h up to 26 days) during storage of 36 days. Cell wall composition of fresh-cut cantaloupes was determined at every 12 days while microscopic analysis was conducted on day 2 and day 36. Alginate was effective in maintaining high pectin fractions of fresh-cut cantaloupes while RPL showed greater contribution in maintaining hemicellulose fraction. However, the combination of alginate and RPL was the most effective treatment to maintain the overall cell wall fractions that contributed to the cell wall integrity of fresh-cut cantaloupes during storage. The alginate + RPL samples also had the greatest cell turgidity and shape with well-defined cell walls at the end of storage.
Brown seaweeds are rich source of functional polysaccharides that exhibit various bioactivities. However, Malaysian seaweeds are under-utilised, leading to low revenue throughout the supply chain of the seaweed industry. The aims of this study were to extract the functional polysaccharides, namely fucoidan (F), laminaran (L) and alginate (A) from Malaysian brown seaweeds (Sargassum polycystum, Turbinaria ornata and Padina boryana) and subsequently evaluate the properties of the extracted polysaccharides. P. boryana recorded the significantly (p ≤ 0.05) highest carbohydrate content (74.78 ± 1.63%) with highest fucoidan yield (Fpad = 1.59 ± 0.16%) while T. ornata contained significantly (p ≤ 0.05) highest alginate yield (Atur = 105.19 ± 3.45%). Water activities of these extracted polysaccharides varied from 0.63-0.71 with average score of browning indexes (~40). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that the extracted polysaccharides exhibited similar spectral pattern of spectra with the respective standards. Meanwhile, laminaran extracts showed the significantly highest (p ≤ 0.05) total phenolic contents (Lsar = 43.29 ± 0.43 mgGAE/g) and superoxide anion scavenging activity (Lsig = 21.7 ± 3.6%). On the other hand, the significantly highest (p ≤ 0.05) DPPH scavenging activity was recorded in alginate with Asar at 85.3 ± 0.8%. These findings reported the properties and bioactivities of natural polysaccharides from Malaysian brown seaweeds that revealed the potential to develop high-value functional ingredients from Malaysian brown seaweeds.
As a health-beneficial fruit, litchi is widely accepted by people in subtropical and tropical regions. However, the critical chemicals responsible for the health benefits are not clear yet. As a large amount of polysaccharides are present in litchi, they might play an important role in the health benefits. In this work, the main water-soluble polysaccharide (LPPBa) was purified from litchi pulp. The chemical structure was characterized as arabinogalactan by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). NMR data revealed the glycosidic linkages and their locations in backbone and branches. The precise structure was putatively identified as below, and it was different to those commonly occurred arabinogalactans. The molecular weight was determined to be 2.4 × 10(6)Da by gel permeation chromatography.
In this study, the flocculation behavior and mechanism of a cation-independent bioflocculant IH-7 produced by Aspergillus flavus were investigated. Results showed 91.6% was the lowest flocculating rate recorded by IH-7 (0.5 mg L(-1)) at pH range 4-8. Moreover, IH-7 showed better flocculation performance than polyaluminum chloride (PAC) at a wide range of flocculant concentration (0.06-25 mg L(-1)), temperature (5-45 °C) and salinity (10-60% w/w). The current study found that cation addition did not significantly enhance the flocculating rate and IH-7 is a positively charged bioflocculant. These findings suggest that charge neutralization is the main flocculation mechanism of IH-7 bioflocculant. IH-7 was significantly used to flocculate different types of suspended solids such as activated carbons, kaolin clays, soil solids and yeast cells.
Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.
Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was pretreated by Formiline process to overcome biomass recalcitrance and obtain hemicellulosic syrup and lignin. Higher formic acid concentration led to more lignin removal but also higher degree of cellulose formylation. Cellulose digestibility could be well recovered after deformylation with a small amount of lime. After digested by enzyme loading of 15 FPU+10 CBU/g solid for 48 h, the polysaccharide conversion could be over 90%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) results demonstrated that ethanol concentration reached 83.6 g/L with approximate 85% of theoretic yield when performed at an initial dry solid consistency of 20%. A mass balance showed that via Formiline pretreatment 0.166 kg of ethanol could be produced from 1 kg of dry EFB with co-production of 0.14 kg of high-purity lignin and 5.26 kg hemicellulosic syrup containing 2.8% xylose. Formiline pretreatment thus can be employed as an entry for biorefining of EFB.