METHOD: A systematic search was conducted employing PubMed, Cochrane and ScienceDirect from inception until May 2021. The quality of four CPGs were evaluated by two appraisers independently using the AGREE II checklist.
RESULTS: Four international CPGs that fulfilled the criteria were included in this review; all scored over 50% according to the AGREE II tool. Applying a modified categorisation standard, CPGs were considered as either 'recommended' or 'recommended with modifications'.
DISCUSSION: The synthesis of all four CPGs suggested similar management strategies for HG, with minor differences. Medical practitioners could use the guiding principles of management on the basis of the needs of individual patients.
METHODS: CPGs were identified by searching MEDLINE, Cochrane-Library, National Guideline Clearinghouse and Web sites of relevant societies/organizations producing and/or endorsing CPGs.
RESULTS: The definition of AGE varies among the 15 CPGs identified. The parameters most frequently recommended to assess dehydration are skin turgor and sunken eyes (11/15, 73.3%), general appearance (11/15, 66.6%), capillary refill time, and mucous membranes appearance (9/15, 60%). Oral rehydration solution is universally recognized as first-line treatment. The majority of CPGs recommend hypo-osmolar (Na 45-60 mmol/L, 11/15, 66.6 %) or low-osmolality (Na 75 mmol/L, 9/15, 60%) solutions. In children who fail oral rehydration, most CPGs suggest intravenous rehydration (66.6%). However, nasogastric tube insertion for fluid administration is preferred according by 5/15 CPGs (33.3%). Changes in diet and withdrawal of food are discouraged by all CPGs, and early refeeding is strongly recommended in 13 of 15 (86.7%). Zinc is recommended as an adjunct to ORS by 10 of 15 (66.6%) CPGs, most of them from low-income countries. Probiotics are considered by 9 of 15 (60%) CPGs, 5 from high-income countries. Antiemetics are not recommended in 9 of 15 (60%) CPGs. Routine use of antibiotics is discouraged.
CONCLUSIONS: Key recommendations for the management of AGE in children are similar in CPGs. Together with accurate review of evidence-base this may represent a starting point for developing universal recommendations for the management of children with AGE worldwide.
METHOD: A literature search for acne CPGs published between January 2008 and September 2013 was conducted. Two reviewers independently applied the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument. METHODological quality was evaluated by ranking in AGREE II domains and the highest number of items scoring above the neutral threshold score.
RESULTS: Four CPGs fulfilled the selection criteria, and the highest ranked were the European and Malaysian. Highest scores achieved by the former were for scope/purpose, stakeholder involvement, and rigor of development and by the latter were for scope/purpose, clarity of presentation, and applicability. Applicability was the lowest scoring of all domains for all CPGs.
CONCLUSION: European and Malaysian acne CPGs were ranked highest for methodological quality and may serve to inform clinical practice and guideline adaptation.
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTINGS: The Online Randomized Controlled Trials of Health Information Database was used as the sampling frame to identify a subset of self-recruited online trials of self-management interventions. The authors cataloged what these online trials were assessing, appraised study quality, extracted information on how trials were run, and assessed the potential for bias. We searched out how public and patient participation was integrated into online trial design and how this was reported. We recorded patterns of use for registration, reporting, settings, informed consent, public involvement, supplementary materials, and dissemination planning.
RESULTS: The sample included 41 online trials published from 2002 to 2015. The barriers to replicability and risk of bias in online trials included inadequate reporting of blinding in 28/41 (68%) studies; high attrition rates with incomplete or unreported data in 30/41 (73%) of trials; and 26/41 (63%) of studies were at high risk for selection bias as trial registrations were unreported. The methods for (23/41, 56%) trials contained insufficient information to replicate the trial, 19/41 did not report piloting the intervention. Only 2/41 studies were cross-platform compatible. Public involvement was most common for advisory roles (n = 9, 22%), and in the design, usability testing, and piloting of user materials (n = 9, 22%).
CONCLUSION: This study catalogs the state of online trials of self-management in the early 21st century and provides insights for online trials development as early as the protocol planning stage. Reporting of trials was generally poor and, in addition to recommending that authors report their trials in accordance with CONSORT guidelines, we make recommendations for researchers writing protocols, reporting on and evaluating online trials. The research highlights considerable room for improvement in trial registration, reporting of methods, data management plans, and public and patient involvement in self-recruited online trials of self-management interventions.
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