Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Seneviratne SL, Perera J, Wijeyaratne C
    PMID: 17539267
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology*
  2. Lopez CG
    Malays J Pathol, 1985 Aug;7:7-10.
    PMID: 3843253
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
  3. Saraswathy TS, Az-Ulhusna A, Asshikin RN, Suriani S, Zainah S
    PMID: 21710852
    The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections through antenatal screening data and the association of this virus with obstetric complications. Serum samples from 125 apparently healthy pregnant women sent for antenatal screening from various hospitals in Malaysia between January 2007 and December 2008, were examined for CMV specific IgM and IgG antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Of the 125 pregnant women tested, anti-CMV IgG antibody was found in 105 (84%) of the cases and anti-CMV IgM in 9 cases (7.2%). Both CMV IgM and IgG were also found in another 37 women whose serum samples were sent for investigation of various obstetric complications: 17 cases of spontaneous abortions, 15 cases of fetal anomalies detected during ultrasound examination, 1 case of incomplete abortion, 3 cases with premature delivery of infant with congenital anomalies and 1 case of infertility. Our preliminary data which only represented a small study group has shown the prevalence of CMV infection among the local population and the association of CMV in obstetric complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology*
  4. Tan PC, Rajasingam G, Devi S, Omar SZ
    Obstet Gynecol, 2008 May;111(5):1111-7.
    PMID: 18448743 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31816a49fc
    To estimate prevalence rate of recent dengue infection in parturients, as well as the vertical transmission rate, and to compare pregnancy outcomes among infected women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology*
  5. Graham DY, Yamaoka Y, Malaty HM
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2007 Sep;101(9):849-51.
    PMID: 17658569
    Helicobacter pylori is one of the few remaining major pathogens that accompanied humans on their travels from Africa. A recently published study reports the unexpected finding of a low H. pylori prevalence among pregnant women in Zanzibar (Farag, T.H., Stolzfus, R.J., Khalfan, S.S., Tielsch, J.M., 2007. Unexpectedly low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among pregnant women on Pemba Island, Zanzibar. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 101). The apparent epidemiology of higher prevalence with higher socioeconomic status and decrease with age are unprecedented. As with many 'unexpected' events, a search of the literature reveals evidence of low prevalence populations in Java and Malaysia, with clues dating back to the mid-twentieth century. Why some populations apparently lost H. pylori infection remains an open question. However, the tools needed to resolve the dilemma are readily available and we hope investigators will soon rise to the challenge.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology*
  6. Chua KB, Lam SK, Hooi PS, Chua BH, Lim CT
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Sep;55(3):299-303.
    PMID: 11200707
    A retrospective review of rubella serological results carried out in the Virus Diagnostic Unit, University Hospital Kuala Lumpur (UHKL) from January 1993 to September 1999 showed the presence of rubella infection annually which appeared to increase periodically every two to three years. There was no statistical significant difference in the rubella positive rate between male and female population aged 14 to 48 years. Congenital rubella infections (CRI) occurred in babies delivered in UHKL yearly from 1993 to 1998 with an average incidence rate of 48 per 100,000 deliveries. Peaks of rubella cases appeared to be followed by an increase in incidence of CRI cases 6 to 9 months later. The study showed that only 50.8% clinically diagnosed rubella was confirmed by laboratory finding. This study also showed an increase of rubella activity for the months of July, August and September 1999 and this may herald an increase of CRI cases in the coming millennium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
  7. Lim CT, Koh MT, Sivanesaratnam V
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Jun;50(2):131-5.
    PMID: 7565181
    Between February 1990 and May 1993, 13 cases of early congenital syphilis (ECS) were managed in the Paediatrics Unit, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Twelve mothers were unbooked with 10 inborn babies. Only one mother had antenatal booking at this hospital but she defaulted antenatal follow-up. Several risk factors associated with ECS were identified: inadequate or no prenatal care (5/13), failure to repeat a serological test for syphilis in the third trimester when it was tested negative at first booking (5/13), sexual promiscuity, substance abuse and a past history of contracting sexually transmitted disease. All 10 mothers who had their serological test repeated at delivery were found to have a positive VDRL and TPHA. Adequate antenatal care early referral of infected, expectant mothers for treatment, and a repeat serological test for syphilis could have prevented these cases of ECS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
  8. Goh TH, Ngeow YF, Teoh SK
    Sex Transm Dis, 1981 4 1;8(2):67-9.
    PMID: 7256495
    Screening by culture of endocervical specimens revealed four cases of gonorrhea among 744 pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic at the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The observed prevalence of gonorrhea (0.54%) in pregnant women is similar to that in Great Britain (0.2-0.7%), but lower than the prevalences reported for North America (2.5-7.5%) and Thailand (11.9%). The results indicate that routine screening of pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Malaysia would aid in the control of gonorrhea in that country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology*
  9. Ngeow YF, Soo-Hoo TS
    Mycoses, 1989 Nov;32(11):563-7.
    PMID: 2615779
    A total of 2,153 high vaginal swabs were processed for the presence of yeasts. The specimens were obtained from pregnant and non-pregnant Malaysian women with and without vaginitis. The yeast species most commonly isolated were Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. famata and C. parapsilosis. C. albicans was isolated from 27% of pregnant women with vaginitis, 14% of pregnant women with no overt vaginitis, 15% of non-pregnant women with vaginitis, and 3% of non-pregnant women with no vaginitis. The significant difference of the isolation rates from women with and without vaginitis indicates that C. albicans is likely to be a vaginal pathogen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology*
  10. Sekawi Z, Muizatul WMN, Marlyn M, Jamil MAY, Ilina I
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Aug;60(3):345-8.
    PMID: 16379190 MyJurnal
    In many developed countries, the incidence of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is considered to be negligible due to the availability of an effective vaccine. However, in Malaysia, several CRS cases are seen every year. This casts doubt on the effectiveness of the rubella vaccination programme. Very few seroprevalence studies were done over the years, making it difficult to discuss the effectiveness of the vaccination programme. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a local teaching hospital. The hospital database on rubella immunity was assessed retrospectively from August 2001 to June 2002. A cross-sectional study of interviewed method as well as determination of rubella immunity by laboratory tests were carried out in July 2002. A total of 414 women were included, of whom 134 women were interviewed. The rubella immunity status was 92.3%. Based on this figure, rubella vaccination programme in Malaysia is a success despite the presence of CRS cases. Malaysia must ensure rubella vaccine coverage among target groups is high in order to minimise CRS cases.
    Study site: Antenatal clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology*
  11. Ong HC
    Trop Geogr Med, 1974 Dec;26(4):384-8.
    PMID: 4456697
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
  12. Shamsuddin K, Marmuji LZ
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Oct;51(10):800-5.
    PMID: 21103816
    Several strategies have been developed to reduce hepatitis B infections. These include antenatal screening, universal immunisation of newborns and immunoglobulin therapy for babies who are at risk. Antenatal screening for hepatitis B is not routinely performed, but all newborns in Malaysia are immunised against hepatitis B. We assessed the prevalence of hepatitis B and the factors associated with it among antenatal mothers in Ipoh. This information is useful in decision-making for future hepatitis B screening programmes for antenatal mothers, allowing for immunoglobulin therapies for newborns if their mother's hepatitis B virus (HBV) status is known.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
  13. Indirani B, Raman R, Omar SZ
    J Laryngol Otol, 2013 Sep;127(9):876-81.
    PMID: 23954035 DOI: 10.1017/S0022215113001692
    To investigate the aetiology of rhinitis occurring in pregnancy, by (1) describing the relationship between pregnancy rhinitis and serum oestrogen, progesterone, placental growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor, and (2) assessing the prevalence of pregnancy rhinitis among Malaysian women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology*
  14. Mohammad M, Mahdy ZA, Omar J, Maan N, Jamil MA
    PMID: 12693594
    A total of 1,661 pregnant women aged between 13 and 45 years were screened for bacteriuria by urine culture. Of the 1,661 culture results, 615 (37%) yielded no growth; 728 (43.8%) yielded no significant growth (presence of <10(5) organisms/ml urine of one or more types of bacteria); 286 (17.2%) yielded mixed growth (presence of >10(5) organisms/ml urine of more than one type of bacteria) and only 32 (1.9%) showed significant growth (presence of >10(5) organisms/ml urine of a single bacterium). Urine microscopy was also conducted. Two hundred and twenty-four (13.5%) specimens had >10 white blood cells/ml urine, of which 66 had >100 white blood cells; 13 were from the significant growth group. Three hundred and seventy-four (22.5%) specimens showed the presence of bacteria, 42 (2.5%) had red blood cells, 370 (22.3%) had epithelial cells, 58 (3.5%) had crystals, and 14 (0.8%) had yeasts. The most common bacterium isolated was Escherichia coli (12; 40%); the others included group B Streptococcus (5; 15%), Klebsiella spp (5; 15%), Diphtheroids (2), and Candida albicans (2). Fifty-two percent of tested strains were sensitive to ampicillin; 24 of 28 strains (85.7%) were sensitive to ciprofloxacin; all 7 strains tested were sensitive to nitrofurantoin and all 20 strains tested were sensitive to cotrimoxazole; 14/20 (70%) and 16/17 (94.1%) were sensitive to cephalexin and cefuroxime respectively. This study shows that asymptomatic bacteriuria does occur in pregnant women, albeit at a very low rate in an urban setting like Cheras. Urine microscopy is not specific and only serves as a guide to bacteriuria. The commonest causative organisms are those from the gastrointestinal tract and vagina. The antibiogram showed that cefuroxime and cephalexin are likely to be effective in treating bacteriuria: ampicillin must be reserved for Gram-negative organisms. For Gram-positive organisms, of which Group B Streptococcus is important, ampicillin is still effective in vitro. Nitrofurantion and cotrimoxazole have excellent activity in vitro and should be considered for therapy. 17.2% of the urine culture yielded mixed growth: likely to indicate that contamination of urine specimens still happens despite the strict instructions given to patients about the collection of a midstream urine specimen. Proper collection, appropriate transport, and the early processing of urine specimens remain essential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
  15. Amar HS, Ho JJ, Mohan AJ
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1999 Feb;35(1):63-6.
    PMID: 10234638
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the community prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in women at the time of delivery in a Malaysian setting.

    METHODOLOGY: Cord blood samples from a pilot screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism in 1995 at Ipoh city and surrounding district hospitals were screened anonymously for HIV 1 and 2. HIV status was determined using chemiluminescent technology. Positive samples were retested using the Genelavia Mixt assay.

    RESULTS: A total of 4927 samples were tested. The ethnic breakdown included 51.7% Malays, 18.9% Chinese, 14.3% Indian, 2.3% Others and 12.9% unknown. The geographical distribution of samples was 73.9% urban, 24.2% rural and 1.9% unknown. The seroprevalence of HIV positivity was 3.25 per 1000 deliveries (95% CI: 1.92-5.16). Seroprevalence was higher for samples from rural and Malay mothers.

    CONCLUSION: The high seroprevalence in this study suggests that the spread of HIV is far wider than that anticipated by mandatory national reporting. It also supports antenatal screening and the use of antiretroviral therapy as an important strategy to reduce perinatal transmission.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology*
  16. Ong HC
    PMID: 1221499
    This study presents clinical observations in pregnancy made on aborigines of the deep jungle and "outside" populations. Migration out of the jungle results in lowered nutritional status as a result of low socio-economic status in the "outside" aborigine. This, together with food habits, increased family size and higher incidence of helminthic infestations, results in lower mean values of Hb, PVC and MCHC and a higher prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in the migrant aborigine. A higher population density in the "outside" population resulting in frequent intermingling and increased chances of cross-contamination probably explains the increased vaginal bacterial growth in the "outside" Aborigine women. A higher prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in the "outside" aborigine woman is probably related to exposure to oral contraceptives and broad-spectrum antibiotics. On the other hand, better medical and obstetrical services become more readily available to the "outside" aborigine and this results in a favourable influence on perinatal health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology*
  17. Nhidza AF, Naicker T, Stray-Pedersen B, Gumbo F, Chisango T, Sibanda E, et al.
    Afr J Reprod Health, 2018 Sep;22(3):43-50.
    PMID: 30381931 DOI: 10.29063/ajrh2018/v22i3.5
    This study aimed at investigating the maternal characteristics that in turn influence the immunological status of infants in asymptomatic enteric pathogen carriers in mother baby pairs (MBPs) in a high HIV burdened population in Harare, Zimbabwe. BIOPLEX immunoassay was used to analyse serum samples from 39 MBPs for 27 cytokines and 6 immunoglobulins. The MBP were purposively selected based on HIV infection and Entamoeba histolytica carriage. Logistic regression was used to identify any link between maternal demographic and clinical data with infant cytokine and immunoglobulin levels. Maternal E. histolytica carriers were more likely to have infants with low levels of IL-12p70, FGF-basic, GM-CSF and TNF-α cytokines (OR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.03-0.79) and high levels of IgA immunoglobulin (OR: 8.1; 95% CI: 1.45-45.06). HIV infected mothers were more likely to have infants with low levels of IgG2 (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.06-1.00) and IgA (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.05-0.90) immunoglobulins. Notably, it was highly likely to deliver infants with low IgG4 levels (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.06-1.02) for maternal mean age above 30.38 years (Standard deviation 6.09) though not significant (p=0.05). Maternal E. histolytica asymptomatic carriage, and HIV-infection status result in low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12p70, FGF-basic, GM-CSF and TNF-α and immunoglobulins IgG2, IgG4 and IgA on their infants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
  18. Zhang L, Tao Y, Woodring J, Rattana K, Sovannarith S, Rathavy T, et al.
    Int J Epidemiol, 2019 08 01;48(4):1327-1339.
    PMID: 30879066 DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz037
    BACKGROUND: The Regional Framework for Triple Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission (EMTCT) of HIV, Hepatitis B (HBV) and Syphilis in Asia and the Pacific 2018-30 was endorsed by the Regional Committee of WHO Western Pacific in October 2017, proposing an integrated and coordinated approach to achieve elimination in an efficient, coordinated and sustainable manner. This study aims to assess the population impacts and cost-effectiveness of this integrated approach in the Cambodian context.

    METHODS: Based on existing frameworks for the EMTCT for each individual infection, an integrated framework that combines infection prevention procedures with routine antenatal care was constructed. Using decision tree analyses, population impacts, cost-effectiveness and the potential reduction in required resources of the integrated approach as a result of resource pooling and improvements in service coverage and coordination, were evaluated. The tool was assessed using simulated epidemiological data from Cambodia.

    RESULTS: The current prevention programme for 370,000 Cambodian pregnant women was estimated at USD$2.3 ($2.0-$2.5) million per year, including the duration of pregnancy and up to 18 months after delivery. A model estimate of current MTCT rates in Cambodia was 6.6% (6.2-7.1%) for HIV, 14.1% (13.1-15.2%) for HBV and 9.4% (9.0-9.8%) for syphilis. Integrating HIV and syphilis prevention into the existing antenatal care framework will reduce the total time required to provide this integrated care by 19% for health care workers and by 32% for pregnant women, resulting in a net saving of $380,000 per year for the EMTCT programme. This integrated approach reduces HIV and HBV MTCT to 6.1% (5.7-6.5%) and 13.0% (12.1-14.0%), respectively, and substantially reduces syphilis MCTC to 4.6% (4.3-5.0%). Further introduction of either antiviral treatment for pregnant women with high viral load of HBV, or hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) to exposed newborns, will increase the total cost of EMTCT to $4.4 ($3.6-$5.2) million and $3.3 ($2.7-$4.0) million per year, respectively, but substantially reduce HBV MTCT to 3.5% (3.2-3.8%) and 5.0% (4.6-5.5%), respectively. Combining both antiviral and HBIG treatments will further reduce HBV MTCT to 3.4% (3.1-3.7%) at an increased total cost of EMTCT of $4.5 ($3.7-$5.4) million per year. All these HBV intervention scenarios are highly cost-effective ($64-$114 per disability-adjusted life years averted) when the life benefits of these prevention measures are considered.

    CONCLUSIONS: The integrated approach, using antenatal, perinatal and postnatal care as a platform in Cambodia for triple EMTCT of HIV, HBV and syphilis, is highly cost-effective and efficient.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
  19. Balami AD, Said SM, Zulkefli NAM, Bachok N, Audu B
    Malar J, 2019 Feb 20;18(1):41.
    PMID: 30786906 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-019-2676-3
    BACKGROUND: The levels of insecticide-treated net use among pregnant women and uptake of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy, have been sub-optimal in Nigeria. Previous studies have reported positive correlations between knowledge, attitude and practice of malaria preventive measures. It has also been reported that information and motivation, act through a mediator (behavioural skills), to cause a health behaviour change. The aim of this study was as such to develop, implement, and assess the effects of a health educational intervention based on the information-motivation-behavioural skills (IMB) model on the levels of knowledge, motivation, and behavioural skills for ITN use and IPTp uptake among pregnant women in a hospital in north-eastern Nigeria.

    METHODS: This was a randomized controlled parallel-group trial in which 372 antenatal care attendees were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group after collecting baseline data using a structured questionnaire. The intervention group received a 4-h health education on malaria, guided by a module developed based on the IMB theory, while the control group received health education on breastfeeding for a similar duration and by the same facilitator. Follow-up data were subsequently collected at 2 months and at 4 months post-intervention using the same questionnaire. The generalized linear mixed models analysis was used to determine the between-group and within-group effects of the intervention. The intention-to-treat analysis was used after missing data had been replaced. This was followed by a sensitivity analysis, where the analyses were repeated without replacing the missing values.

    RESULTS: The intervention was significant in achieving a 12.75% (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
  20. Ismail R
    Clin Dermatol, 1999 5 20;17(2):127-35; discussion 105-6.
    PMID: 10330595 DOI: 10.1016/s0738-081x(99)00005-x
    Matched MeSH terms: Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
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