Purified preparations of Getah virus strains have been analysed by sodium-dodecyl-sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to reveal their structural proteins. Two envelope proteins (E1 and E2) and core protein (C) were found with the prototype AMM2021 strain both under reducing and nonreducing conditions, while separation of E1 and E2 was observed only under nonreducing conditions for 3 strains isolated in Japan. Limited digestion by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease revealed difference in the peptide patterns of E1 between AMM2021 and Japanese isolates. Mobility of E1 and E2 was slower for the virus grown in BHK21 cells compared with the virus grown in Aedes albopictus cells, indicating host-controlled modification on the envelope glycoproteins.
Seventeen cases of desmoplastic ameloblastoma were examined immunohistochemically. Immunoperoxidase techniques were applied for detection of keratin, desmin, vimentin and S-100 protein expression in these tumors. The tumor epithelium of desmoplastic ameloblastoma exhibited weak, focal, inconstant keratin staining, weak, variable expression of S-100 protein, desmin immunoreactivity of mild to moderate intensity and vimentin non-reactivity. The pertinent literature on the immunohistochemistry of ameloblastomas is briefly reviewed.
Tropidolaemus wagleri and Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus are venomous pit viper species commonly found in Malaysia. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the crude venoms has detected different proteins in T. wagleri and C. purpureomaculatus. They were classified into 13 venom protein families consisting of enzymatic and nonenzymatic proteins. Enzymatic families detected in T. wagleri and C. purpureomaculatus venom were snake venom metalloproteinase, phospholipase A₂, ʟ-amino acid oxidase, serine proteases, 5'-nucleotidase, phosphodiesterase, and phospholipase B. In addition, glutaminyl cyclotransferase was detected in C. purpureomaculatus. C-type lectin-like proteins were common nonenzymatic components in both species. Waglerin was present and unique to T. wagleri-it was not in C. purpureomaculatus venom. In contrast, cysteine-rich secretory protein, bradykinin-potentiating peptide, and C-type natriuretic peptide were present in C. purpureomaculatus venom. Composition of the venom proteome of T. wagleri and C. purpureomaculatus provides useful information to guide production of effective antivenom and identification of proteins with potential therapeutic applications.
The direct assay of serum progesterone after denaturation of the binding proteins was investigated. 50ul of patients' serum was diluted with 750ul phosphate buffer (0.05M, pH 7.4) and heated to 65 degrees C for 20 minutes. After cooling, 300ul of the treated serum was reacted with a rabbit antiserum to progesterone-11 alpha-hemicuccinyl-bovine serum albumin conjugate (Bioclin, U.K) and 1,2,6,7, tritium labelled progesterone. Separation of bound and free fractions was achieved with dextran coated charcoal. The method correlated well (r = 0.98) with an established method involving ether extraction of progesterone prior to assay. The mean sensitivity was 2.01 nmol/L (range 1.90-2.23nmol/L). The proposed method considerably shortens assay time and removes a tedious and imprecise stage in the conventional method involving extraction of serum.
A gel imaging method was employed to quantitate the GFP that had been subjected to denaturation and degradation treatments. This method is able to differentiate the nativity of GFP by relating the observed changes in the position of fluorescent bands which is unable to be detected using the spectrofluorometric method.
Matched MeSH terms: Green Fluorescent Proteins/analysis*
Calloselasma rhodostoma (CR) and Ophiophagus hannah (OH) are two medically important snakes found in Malaysia. While some studies have described the biological properties of these venoms, feeding and environmental conditions also influence the concentration and distribution of snake venom toxins, resulting in variations in venom composition. Therefore, a combined proteomic approach using shotgun and gel filtration chromatography, analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, was used to examine the composition of venoms from these Malaysian snakes. The analysis revealed 114 proteins (15 toxin families) and 176 proteins (20 toxin families) in Malaysian Calloselasma rhodostoma and Ophiophagus hannah species, respectively. Flavin monoamine oxidase, phospholipase A₂, phosphodiesterase, snake venom metalloproteinase, and serine protease toxin families were identified in both venoms. Aminopeptidase, glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase along with ankyrin repeats were identified for the first time in CR venom, and insulin, c-type lectins/snaclecs, hepatocyte growth factor, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor together with tumor necrosis factor were identified in OH venom for the first time. Our combined proteomic approach has identified a comprehensive arsenal of toxins in CR and OH venoms. These data may be utilized for improved antivenom production, understanding pathological effects of envenoming, and the discovery of biologically active peptides with medical and/or biotechnological value.
Survivin is a 16.5-kDa intracellular protein also known as AP14 or BIRC5. It inhibits apoptosis and regulates cell division and belongs to the inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) gene family. In the majority of neoplasms investigated for survivin expression, high levels of the IAP proteins were predictive of tumour progression, either in terms of disease-free survival or overall survival, thus providing significant prognostic information. Hence, the prognostic value of survivin expression in tumour masses of invasive ductal carcinoma has been investigated. It was found that negative and low expression of survivin correlated significantly with favourable outcomes. Conversely, high expression correlated with unfavourable outcomes. The five-year survival rate was higher among the cases with low and negative survivin expression, compared to those with higher survivin expression. However, this correlation was found to be insignificant statistically. Furthermore, a statistical model has been devised to explain the combined effects of survivin expression and its sub-cellular localisation, p-53 expression and lymph nodal involvement, on the outcomes of these patients.
A fluorescence-based fiber optic toxicity biosensor based on genetically modified Escherichia coli (E. coli) with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was developed for the evaluation of the toxicity of several hazardous heavy metal ions. The toxic metals include Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI), Co(II), Ni(II), Ag(I) and Fe(III). The optimum fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths of the optical biosensor were 400 ± 2 nm and 485 ± 2 nm, respectively. Based on the toxicity observed under optimal conditions, the detection limits of Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI), Co(II), Ni(II), Ag(I) and Fe(III) that can be detected using the toxicity biosensor were at 0.04, 0.32, 0.46, 2.80, 100, 250, 400, 720 and 2600 μg/L, respectively. The repeatability and reproducibility of the proposed biosensor were 3.5%-4.8% RSD (relative standard deviation) and 3.6%-5.1% RSD (n = 8), respectively. The biosensor response was stable for at least five weeks, and demonstrated higher sensitivity towards metal toxicity evaluation when compared to a conventional Microtox assay.
Matched MeSH terms: Green Fluorescent Proteins/analysis*
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumour of uncertain histogenesis which is defined by the translocation t(X;18) that produces the fusion oncogenes SYT-SSX. The emergence of transducer-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) as a new immunohistochemical (IHC) marker for SS has offered an alternative to pathologists in differentiating SS from other histological mimics, especially in the setting of limited molecular facilities. We investigated the utility of IHC TLE1 expression against histomorphological features and other IHC markers in SS and non-SS tumours. Twenty-six cases of histologically diagnosed SS and 7 non-SS (for which SS was in the differential diagnosis) were subjected to TLE1 IHC staining, which was graded from 0 to 3+. Of the 26 SS cases, 12 each were biphasic and monophasic types and 2 were poorly-differentiated. TLE1 was expressed in 22/26 (84.6%) SS cases, of which 11/12 (91.7%) were biphasic, 10/12 (83.3%) monophasic and 1/2 (50%) poorly-differentiated tumours. Two of 7 (28.6%) non-SS cases were positive for TLE1. Immunopositivity of SS and non-SS cases for EMA were 20/26 (76.9%) and 2/7 (28.6%) respectively and for CK7 were 7/26 (26.9%) and 0/7 (0%) respectively. All cases were negative for CD34. Consistent histomorphological features for SS included mild nuclear pleomorphism, alternating tumour cellularity, fascicular growth pattern and thick ropy stromal collagen. In conclusion, TLE1 is not a stand-alone diagnostic IHC marker for SS. However, in the absence of molecular studies, it can contribute added diagnostic value in combination with morphological evaluation and other IHC markers such as EMA and CD34.
The haemolysins produced by Aeromonas species were detected and compared by two assay methods--a modified blood agar plate assay and the rabbit erythrocyte haemolysin method. Both assays showed a high level of agreement (86%). The titres of the rabbit erythrocyte haemolysin assay correlated with the haemolytic zone diameter of the ox blood agar assay. In addition the agar haemolysin assay had simple media requirements, was easy to perform and results were well defined.
Bungarus candidus venom exhibited high hyaluronidase, acetylcholinesterase and phospholipase A activities; low proteinase, 5'-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities and moderately high L-amino acid oxidase activity. SP-Sephadex C-50 ion exchange chromatographic fractionation of the venom and Sephadex G-50 chromatography of the major lethal venom fractions indicate that the venom contains at least two highly lethal, basic phospholipases A with LD50 (i.v.) values of 0.02 micrograms/g (F6A) and 0.18 micrograms/g (F4A), respectively; as well as two polypeptide toxins with LD50 (i.v.) values of 0.17 micrograms/g and 0.83 micrograms/g, respectively. The major lethal toxin is the basic lethal phospholipase A, F6A, which accounts for approximately 13% of the venom protein and has a mol. wt of 21,000.
Children with heavy Trichuris infestation were compared with paediatric amoebic dysentery patients and normal children. Heavy Trichuris infestation was diagnosed by visualization of worms on anoscopy. Patients with heavy Trichuris infection had a longer duration of disease, more frequent hospitalization and a higher rate of rectal prolapse than did patients with amoebiasis. Five Trichuris children also had clubbing. Trichuris patients had lower mean haematrocrits (27%) and serum albumin (3-3 gm%) than did patients with amoebiasis (32% and 3-7 gm% respectively). Coinfection with Shigella and Salmonella was significantly increased in patients with heavy Trichuris infection compared to both amoebic and control group children. Trichuris patients were infected with Entamoeba histolytica more frequently (46%) than normal children. Heavy Trichuris infection is the probable cause of symptoms and signs seen in these patients.