Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 42 in total

  1. Moss B, Lim KK, Beltram A, Moniz S, Tang J, Fornasiero P, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 06 07;7(1):2938.
    PMID: 28592816 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-03065-5
    In this article we present the first comparative study of the transient decay dynamics of photo-generated charges for the three polymorphs of TiO2. To our knowledge, this is the first such study of the brookite phase of TiO2 over timescales relevant to the kinetics of water splitting. We find that the behavior of brookite, both in the dynamics of relaxation of photo-generated charges and in energetic distribution, is similar to the anatase phase of TiO2. Moreover, links between the rate of recombination of charge carriers, their energetic distribution and the mode of transport are made in light of our findings and used to account for the differences in water splitting efficiency observed across the three polymorphs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic
  2. Zainal N, Azimah E, Hassan Z, Abu Hassan H, Hashim M
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:1557-1564.
    In this work, the emission efficiency of InxGa1-xN based light emitting diodes (LEDs) had been numerically investigated with the variation of the number of quantum well. From our calculation, we found that non-uniformity of carriers distribution (especially electron) in the wells leads to serious inhomogeneity of radiative recombination distribution that would degrade the efficiency of the LED with more wells. However, the problem was minimized when the selected quantum barriers were doped with a reasonable doping level. Comparison with other reported experimental works were also included. At the end of this work, we proposed several types of preferable LEDs designs with optimum structural parameters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic
  3. Chong YL, Ng KH
    Virus Genes, 2017 Dec;53(6):774-777.
    PMID: 28456924 DOI: 10.1007/s11262-017-1459-6
    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a single-stranded DNA virus in Parvoviridae family, causing respiratory diseases in human. The recent identifications of genomic recombination among the four human bocavirus genotypes and related non-human primate bocaviruses have shed lights into the evolutionary processes underpinning the diversity of primate bocavirus. Among these reports, however, we found inconsistency and possible alternative interpretations of the recombination events. In this study, these recombination events were reviewed, and the related genome sequences were re-analysed, aiming to inform the research community of bocavirus with more consistent knowledge and comprehensive interpretations on the recombination history of primate bocavirus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic/genetics*
  4. Dasineh Khiavi N, Katal R, Kholghi Eshkalak S, Masudy-Panah S, Ramakrishna S, Jiangyong H
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2019 Jul 13;9(7).
    PMID: 31337085 DOI: 10.3390/nano9071011
    A high recombination rate and low charge collection are the main limiting factors of copper oxides (cupric and cuprous oxide) for the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. In this paper, a high performance copper oxide photocatalyst was developed by integrating cupric oxide (CuO) and cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films, which showed superior performance for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) compared to the control CuO and Cu2O photocatalyst. Our results show that a heterojunction photocatalyst of CuO-Cu2O thin films could significantly increase the charge collection, reduce the recombination rate, and improve the photocatalytic activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic
  5. Lai CW, Sreekantan S
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2012 Apr;12(4):3170-4.
    PMID: 22849082
    Well aligned TiO2 nanotubes were successfully synthesized by anodization of Ti foil at 60 V in a fluorinated bath comprised of ethylene glycol with 5 wt% of NH4F and 5 wt% of H2O2. In order to enhance the visible light absorption and photoelectrochemical response of pure TiO2 nanotube arrays, a mixed oxide system (W-TiO2) was investigated. W-TiO2 nanotube arrays were prepared using radio-frequency (RF) sputtering to incorporate the W into the lattice of TiO2 nanotube arrays. The W atoms occupy the substitutional position within the vacancies of TiO2 nanotube arrays. The as-anodized TiO2 is amorphous in nature while the annealed TiO2 is anatase phase. The mixed oxide (W-TiO2) system in suitable TiO2 phase plays important roles in efficient electron transfers due to the reduction in electron-hole recombination. In this article, the effect of the sputtered W into the as-anodized/annealed TiO2 nanotube arrays on the photoelectrochemical response was presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic
  6. Ong WJ, Tan LL, Chai SP, Yong ST
    Chem. Commun. (Camb.), 2015 Jan 18;51(5):858-61.
    PMID: 25429376 DOI: 10.1039/c4cc08996k
    A facile one-pot impregnation-thermal reduction strategy was employed to fabricate sandwich-like graphene-g-C3N4 (GCN) nanocomposites using urea and graphene oxide as precursors. The GCN sample exhibited a slight red shift of the absorption band edge attributed to the formation of a C-O-C bond as a covalent cross linker between graphene and g-C3N4. The GCN sample demonstrated high visible-light photoactivity towards CO2 reduction under ambient conditions, exhibiting a 2.3-fold enhancement over pure g-C3N4. This was ascribed to the inhibition of electron-hole pair recombination by graphene, which increased the charge transfer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic
  7. Md Saad SK, Ali Umar A, Ali Umar MI, Tomitori M, Abd Rahman MY, Mat Salleh M, et al.
    ACS Omega, 2018 Mar 31;3(3):2579-2587.
    PMID: 31458546 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.8b00109
    This paper reports the synthesis of two-dimensional, hierarchical, porous, and (001)-faceted metal (Ag, Zn, and Al)-doped TiO2 nanostructures (TNSs) and the study of their photocatalytic activity. Two-dimensional metal-doped TNSs were synthesized using the hydrolysis of ammonium hexafluorotitanate in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine and metal precursors. Typical morphology of metal-doped TNSs is a hierarchical nanosheet that is composed of randomly stacked nanocubes (dimensions of up to 5 μm and 200 nm in edge length and thickness, respectively) and has dominant (001) facets exposed. Raman analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the Ag doping, compared to Zn and Al, much improves the crystallinity degree and at the same time dramatically lowers the valence state binding energy of the TNS and provides an additional dopant oxidation state into the system for an enhanced electron-transfer process and surface reaction. These are assumed to enhance the photocatalytic of the TNS. In a model of photocatalytic reaction, that is, rhodamine B degradation, the AgTNS demonstrates a high photocatalytic activity by converting approximately 91% of rhodamine B within only 120 min, equivalent to a rate constant of 0.018 m-1 and ToN and ToF of 94 and 1.57 min-1, respectively, or 91.1 mmol mg-1 W-1 degradation when normalized to used light source intensity, which is approximately 2 times higher than the pristine TNS and several order higher when compared to Zn- and Al-doped TNSs. Improvement of the crystallinity degree, decrease in the defect density and the photogenerated electron and hole recombination, and increase of the oxygen vacancy in the AgTNS are found to be the key factors for the enhancement of the photocatalytic properties. This work provides a straightforward strategy for the preparation of high-energy (001) faceted, two-dimensional, hierarchical, and porous Ag-doped TNSs for potential use in photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic
  8. Tan KH, Chen YW, Van CN, Wang H, Chen JW, Lim FS, et al.
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2019 Jan 09;11(1):1655-1664.
    PMID: 30561192 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b17758
    The ability of band offsets at multiferroic/metal and multiferroic/electrolyte interfaces in controlling charge transfer and thus altering the photoactivity performance has sparked significant attention in solar energy conversion applications. Here, we demonstrate that the band offsets of the two interfaces play the key role in determining charge transport direction in a downward self-polarized BFO film. Electrons tend to move to BFO/electrolyte interface for water reduction. Our experimental and first-principle calculations reveal that the presence of neodymium (Nd) dopants in BFO enhances the photoelectrochemical performance by reduction of the local electron-hole pair recombination sites and modulation of the band gap to improve the visible light absorption. This opens a promising route to the heterostructure design by modulating the band gap to promote efficient charge transfer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic
  9. Sirimahachai R, Harome H, Wongnawa S
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:1393-1399.
    composite was successfully synthesized via the aqueous precipitation method followed by calcination. The
    varied amount of AgCl (10, 20 and 30%) was mixed into BiYO3
    via sonochemical-assisted method. The structures and
    morphologies of the as-prepared AgCl/BiYO3
    composite were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron
    microscopy (SEM) and UV-vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). The optical absorption spectrum of AgCl/
    composite showed strong absorption in visible region. The photocatalytic activity of AgCl/BiYO3
    composite was
    evaluated by the photodegradation of reactive orange16 (RO16), which was selected to represent the dye pollutants,
    under UV and visible light irradiation. The results indicated that 20% AgCl/BiYO3 photocatalyst was the most capable
    photocatalyst in this series in the degradation of RO16 under both UV and visible light illumination within 1 h. Moreover,
    the mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of AgCl/BiYO3
    was elucidated using three types of free radical scavengers.
    The significant enhancement was attributed to the formation of AgCl/BiYO3
    heterojunction resulting in the low electronhole
    pair recombination rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic
  10. Selvarajah G, Selvarajah S
    Biochem Mol Biol Educ, 2016 07 08;44(4):381-90.
    PMID: 26899144 DOI: 10.1002/bmb.20964
    Students frequently expressed difficulty in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in chromosomal recombination. Therefore, we explored alternative methods for presenting the two concepts of the double-strand break model: Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. In addition to a lecture and computer-animated video, we included a model building activity using pipe cleaners. Biotechnology undergraduates (n = 108) used the model to simulate Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. Based on student perception, an average of 12.85 and 78.35% students claimed that they completely and partially understood the two concepts, respectively. A test conducted to ascertain their understanding about the two concepts showed that 66.1% of the students provided the correct response to the three multiple choice questions. A majority of the 108 students attributed the inclusion of model building to their better understanding of Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. This underlines the importance of incorporating model building, particularly in concepts that require spatial visualization. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):381-390, 2016.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic/genetics
  11. Cheong HT, Chow WZ, Takebe Y, Chook JB, Chan KG, Al-Darraji HA, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(7):e0133883.
    PMID: 26196131 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133883
    In many parts of Southeast Asia, the HIV-1 epidemic has been driven by the sharing of needles and equipment among intravenous drug users (IDUs). Over the last few decades, many studies have proven time and again that the diversity of HIV-1 epidemics can often be linked to the route of infection transmission. That said, the diversity and complexity of HIV-1 molecular epidemics in the region have been increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to the high tendency of the viral RNA to recombine. This scenario was exemplified by the discovery of numerous circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), especially in Thailand and Malaysia. In this study, we characterized a novel CRF designated CRF74_01B, which was identified in six epidemiologically unlinked IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The near-full length genomes were composed of CRF01_AE and subtype B', with eight breakpoints dispersed in the gag-pol and nef regions. Remarkably, this CRF shared four and two recombination hotspots with the previously described CRF33_01B and the less prevalent CRF53_01B, respectively. Genealogy-based Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of CRF74_01B genomic regions showed that it is closely related to both CRF33_01B and CRF53_01B. This observation suggests that CRF74_01B was probably a direct descendent from specific lineages of CRF33_01B, CRF53_01B and subtype B' that could have emerged in the mid-1990s. Additionally, it illustrated the active recombination processes between prevalent HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants in Malaysia. In summary, we report a novel HIV-1 genotype designated CRF74_01B among IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The characterization of the novel CRF74_01B is of considerable significance towards the understanding of the genetic diversity and population dynamics of HIV-1 circulating in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic*
  12. Tee KK, Kusagawa S, Li XJ, Onogi N, Isogai M, Hase S, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2009;4(8):e6666.
    PMID: 19688091 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006666
    A growing number of emerging HIV-1 recombinants classified as circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) have been identified in Southeast Asia in recent years, establishing a molecular diversity of increasing complexity in the region. Here, we constructed a replication-competent HIV-1 clone for CRF33_01B (designated p05MYKL045.1), a newly identified recombinant comprised of CRF01_AE and subtype B. p05MYKL045.1 was reconstituted by cloning of the near full-length HIV-1 sequence from a newly-diagnosed individual presumably infected heterosexually in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The chimeric clone, which contains the 5' LTR (long terminal repeat) region of p93JP-NH1 (a previously isolated CRF01_AE infectious clone), showed robust viral replication in the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This clone demonstrated robust viral propagation and profound syncytium formation in CD4+, CXCR4-expressing human glioma NP-2 cells, indicating that p05MYKL045.1 is a CXCR4-using virus. Viral propagation, however, was not detected in various human T cell lines including MT-2, M8166, Sup-T1, H9, Jurkat, Molt-4 and PM1. p05MYKL045.1 appears to proliferate only in restricted host range, suggesting that unknown viral and/or cellular host factors may play a role in viral infectivity and replication in human T cell lines. Availability of a CRF33_01B molecular clone will be useful in facilitating the development of vaccine candidates that match the HIV-1 strains circulating in Southeast Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic*
  13. Lau KA, Wang B, Kamarulzaman A, Ng KP, Saksena NK
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2007 Sep;23(9):1139-45.
    PMID: 17919110
    A new HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF), CRF33_01B, has been identified in Malaysia. Concurrently we found a unique recombinant form (URF), that is, the HIV-1 isolate 06MYKLD46, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is composed of B or a Thai variant of the B subtype (B') and CRF01_AE. Here, we determined the near full-length genome of the isolate 06MYKLD46 and performed detailed phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses to characterize its mosaic composition and to further confirm the subtype assignments. Although the majority of the 06MYKLD46 genome is CRF01_AE, we found three short fragments of B or B' subtype inserted along the genome. These B or B' subtype regions were 716 and 335 bp, respectively, in the protease-reverse transcriptase (PR-RT) region, similar to those found in CRF33_01B, as well as an extra 590 bp in the env gene region. Thus we suggest that 06MYKLD46 is a possible second-generation HIV-1 recombinant derived from CRF33_01B.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic*
  14. Yoke-Fun C, AbuBakar S
    BMC Microbiol., 2006 Aug 30;6:74.
    PMID: 16939656
    BACKGROUND: Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is a common causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent years, the virus has caused several outbreaks with high numbers of deaths and severe neurological complications. Several new EV-71 subgenotypes were identified from these outbreaks. The mechanisms that contributed to the emergence of these subgenotypes are unknown.

    RESULTS: Six EV-71 isolates from an outbreak in Malaysia, in 1997, were sequenced completely. These isolates were identified as EV-71 subgenotypes, B3, B4 and C2. A phylogenetic tree that correlated well with the present enterovirus classification scheme was established using these full genome sequences and all other available full genome sequences of EV-71 and human enterovirus A (HEV-A). Using the 5' UTR, P2 and P3 genomic regions, however, isolates of EV-71 subgenotypes B3 and C4 segregated away from other EV-71 subgenotypes into a cluster together with coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16/G10) and EV-71 subgenotype C2 clustered with CV-A8. Results from the similarity plot analyses supported the clustering of these isolates with other HEV-A. In contrast, at the same genomic regions, a CV-A16 isolate, Tainan5079, clustered with EV-71. This suggests that amongst EV-71 and CV-A16, only the structural genes were conserved. The 3' end of the virus genome varied and consisted of sequences highly similar to various HEV-A viruses. Numerous recombination crossover breakpoints were identified within the non-structural genes of some of these newer EV-71 subgenotypes.

    CONCLUSION: Phylogenetic evidence obtained from analyses of the full genome sequence supports the possible occurrence of inter-typic recombination involving EV-71 and various HEV-A, including CV-A16, the most common causal agent of HFMD. It is suggested that these recombination events played important roles in the emergence of the various EV-71 subgenotypes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic/genetics*
  15. Chan YF, AbuBaker S
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2004 Aug;10(8):1468-70.
    PMID: 15496251
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common illness of infants and young children <10 years of age. It is characterized by fever, ulcers in the oral cavity, and rashes with blisters that appear on the palm and sole. The most common causal agents of HFMD are coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and human enterovirus 71 (HEV71), but other enteroviruses, including CV-A5 and CV-A10, can also cause it. When caused by CV-A16 infection, it is usually a mild disease, and patients normally recover without requiring any special medical attention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic*
  16. Rueppell O, Kuster R, Miller K, Fouks B, Rubio Correa S, Collazo J, et al.
    Genome Biol Evol, 2016 12 01;8(12):3653-3660.
    PMID: 28173114 DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evw269
    Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) far exceed the commonly observed 1–2 meiotic recombination events per chromosome and exhibit the highest Metazoan recombination rate (20 cM/Mb) described thus far. However, the reasons for this exceptional rate of recombination are not sufficiently understood. In a comparative study, we report on the newly constructed genomic linkage maps of Apis florea and Apis dorsata that represent the two honey bee lineages without recombination rate estimates so far. Each linkage map was generated de novo, based on SNP genotypes of haploid male offspring of a single female. The A. florea map spans 4,782 cM with 1,279 markers in 16 linkage groups. The A. dorsata map is 5,762 cM long and contains 1,189 markers in 16 linkage groups. Respectively, these map sizes result in average recombination rate estimates of 20.8 and 25.1 cM/Mb. Synteny analyses indicate that frequent intra-chromosomal rearrangements but no translocations among chromosomes accompany the high rates of recombination during the independent evolution of the three major honey bee lineages. Our results imply a common cause for the evolution of very high recombination rates in Apis. Our findings also suggest that frequent homologous recombination during meiosis might increase ectopic recombination and rearrangements within but not between chromosomes. It remains to be investigated whether the resulting inversions may have been important in the evolutionary differentiation between honey bee species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic*
  17. Waiho K, Shi X, Fazhan H, Li S, Zhang Y, Zheng H, et al.
    Front Genet, 2019;10:298.
    PMID: 31024620 DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2019.00298
    Mud crab, Scylla paramamosain is one of the most important crustacean species in global aquaculture. To determine the genetic basis of sex and growth-related traits in S. paramamosain, a high-density genetic linkage map with 16,701 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was constructed using SLAF-seq and a full-sib family. The consensus map has 49 linkage groups, spanning 5,996.66 cM with an average marker-interval of 0.81 cM. A total of 516 SNP markers, including 8 female-specific SNPs segregated in two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for phenotypic sex were located on LG32. The presence of female-specific SNP markers only on female linkage map, their segregation patterns and lower female: male recombination rate strongly suggest the conformation of a ZW/ZZ sex determination system in S. paramamosain. The QTLs of most (90%) growth-related traits were found within a small interval (25.18-33.74 cM) on LG46, highlighting the potential involvement of LG46 in growth. Four markers on LG46 were significantly associated with 10-16 growth-related traits. BW was only associated with marker 3846. Based on the annotation of transcriptome data, 11 and 2 candidate genes were identified within the QTL regions of sex and growth-related traits, respectively. The newly constructed high-density genetic linkage map with sex-specific SNPs, and the identified QTLs of sex- and growth-related traits serve as a valuable genetic resource and solid foundation for marker-assisted selection and genetic improvement of crustaceans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic
  18. Chow WZ, Ong LY, Razak SH, Lee YM, Ng KT, Yong YK, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(5):e62560.
    PMID: 23667490 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062560
    Since the discovery of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 33_01B in Malaysia in the early 2000 s, continuous genetic diversification and active recombination involving CRF33_01B and other circulating genotypes in the region including CRF01_AE and subtype B' of Thai origin, have led to the emergence of novel CRFs and unique recombinant forms. The history and magnitude of CRF33_01B transmission among various risk groups including people who inject drugs (PWID) however have not been investigated despite the high epidemiological impact of CRF33_01B in the region. We update the most recent molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among PWIDs recruited in Malaysia between 2010 and 2011 by population sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 128 gag-pol sequences. HIV-1 CRF33_01B was circulating among 71% of PWIDs whilst a lower prevalence of other previously dominant HIV-1 genotypes [subtype B' (11%) and CRF01_AE (5%)] and CRF01_AE/B' unique recombinants (13%) were detected, indicating a significant shift in genotype replacement in this population. Three clusters of CRF01_AE/B' recombinants displaying divergent yet phylogenetically-related mosaic genomes to CRF33_01B were identified and characterized, suggestive of an abrupt emergence of multiple novel CRF clades. Using rigorous maximum likelihood approach and the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of CRF33_01Bpol sequences to elucidate the past population dynamics, we found that the founder lineages of CRF33_01B were likely to have first emerged among PWIDs in the early 1990 s before spreading exponentially to various high and low-risk populations (including children who acquired infections from their mothers) and later on became endemic around the early 2000 s. Taken together, our findings provide notable genetic evidence indicating the widespread expansion of CRF33_01B among PWIDs and into the general population. The emergence of numerous previously unknown recombinant clades highlights the escalating genetic complexity of HIV-1 in the Southeast Asian region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic*
  19. Ishikawa T, Abe M, Masuda M
    Virus Res., 2015 Jan 2;195:153-61.
    PMID: 25451067 DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2014.10.010
    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype V was originally isolated in Malaysia in 1952 and has long been restricted to the area. In 2009, sudden emergence of the genotype V in China and Korea was reported, suggesting expansion of its geographical distribution. Although studies on the genotype V are becoming more important, they have been limited partly due to lack of its infectious molecular clone. In this study, a plasmid carrying cDNA corresponding to the entire genome of JEV Muar strain, which belongs to genotype V, in the downstream of T7 promoter was constructed. Electroporation of viral RNA transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase (T7RNAP) in vitro from the plasmid led to production of progeny viruses both in mammalian and mosquito cells. Also, transfection of the infectious clone plasmid into mammalian cells expressing T7RNAP transiently or stably was demonstrated to generate infectious progenies. When the viral structural protein genes were partially deleted from the full-length cDNA, the subgenomic RNA transcribed in vitro from the modified plasmid was shown to replicate itself in mammalian cells as a replicon. The replicon carrying the firefly luciferase gene in place of the deleted structural protein genes was also shown to efficiently replicate itself and express luciferase in mammalian cells. Compared with the replicon derived from JEV genotype III (Nakayama strain), the genotype V-derived replicon appeared to be more tolerant to introduction of a foreign gene. The infectious clone and the replicons constructed in this study may serve as useful tools for characterizing JEV genotype V.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic*
  20. Lau KA, Wang B, Kamarulzaman A, Ngb KP, Saksena NK
    Curr. HIV Res., 2008 Mar;6(2):108-16.
    PMID: 18336258
    The Asian HIV epidemic appears to be complex, characterized by the prevalence of multiple subtypes and circulating recombinant forms with gradual replacement of pure HIV-1 subtypes in several geographical regions. The main objectives of the present study are to identify and analyse the full-length viral genomes of three unique recombinant forms (URFs); the HIV-1 isolates 07MYKLD47, 07MYKLD48 and 07MYKLD49 from Malaysia. Long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of seven overlapping reading frames was used to derive near full-length HIV-1 genomes. Detailed phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses were performed to determine phylogenetic associations and subtypic assignments. We further confirmed the mosaic composition of these CRF01_AE/B inter-subtype recombinant forms, which are composed of B-subtype fragment(s) in the backbone of CRF01_AE. Both 07MYKLD47 and 07MYKLD48 have an insertion of B subtype (880 bp and 532 bp) in the gag-pol and gp41-env gene regions, respectively. Whereas the isolate 07MYKLD49 has three B-subtype fragments inserted in different gene region along the genome; one each in the gag-pol (1862 bp) and pol-vif (1935 bp) regions, and a short B-subtype insertion (541 bp) in the 5' LTR-gag region. This highlights the public health relevance of newly emerging second generation HIV-1 recombinant forms and their dispersal, along with their rapid and continuous evolution in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombination, Genetic*
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