Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 306 in total

  1. Tham LK, Abu Osman NA, Wan Abas WA, Lim KS
    PLoS One, 2013;8(2):e55702.
    PMID: 23409022 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055702
    The deep tendon reflex assessments that are essential to the accurate diagnosis of neurological or neuromuscular disorders are conducted subjectively in clinical neurology. Our aim was to assess deep tendon reflexes objectively with a new reflex quantification method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  2. Khamis NK, Deros BM
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2018 Jun;30(6):764-769.
    PMID: 29950761 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.30.764
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of seat pressure distribution measurements based on a specific posture to predict the pressure felt level when seated. [Subjects and Methods] To examine the relationship between body pressure data and the driver's perception, eleven subjects were selected to participate in a simulated driving experiment using a pressure mat as a direct measurement method to measure the seat pan's pressure distribution. The buttock-popliteal length was measured using an anthropometer, and the pressure felt ratings evaluated after the body pressure measurements were recorded. Accordingly, this was then followed by performing statistical analysis using seat pressure measurements, and the buttock-popliteal length as independent variables along with subjective ratings selected of the pressure felt by the drivers' as dependent variables. [Results] The findings of this study suggest that the direct measurements and anthropometric body data are positively correlated with the predictive model thereby confirming the validity of the model with an R2 value of 0.952. [Conclusion] The proposed model is expected to provide a useful reference value for new vehicle drivers by providing the pressure felt level based on direct and body measurements in a specific posture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  3. George E, Faridah K
    Family Practitioner, 1988;11(1&2):37-39.
    The population of Malaysia is approximately 14 million and theoretically 1 in 2500 marriages are between heterozygotes for thalassaemia and 1 in 10,000 children can be expected to have thalassaemia major. Hypertransfusion is not possible because of insufficient blood supplies and each child requires an iron chelator, Desferal, at US$5800 a year for life: this high cost makes it sizeable proportion of the 'active reproductive' population. Abortion is not legal and antenatal diagnosis has not bee established. An approach to the prevention of this disease would be public education and identification of carriers. Numerous techniques have been utilised in population screening for traits of thalassaemia and haemoglobinopathy. These include osmotic fragility tests; blood smear examination for basophilia, microcytosis, and hypochromia; and genetic studies. Blood smear examinations are extremely subjective and interpretations depend upon the skills of a trained technologist. Osmotic fragility tests although cheap are cumbersome and require accurate preparations of saline solutions. Genetic studies are not available in the region. The medical examination for entrance to colleges and institutions includes investigative procedures such as chest x-ray and urine examinations. In addition a blood sample could be analysed for the red cell parameters. A similar study could be attempted for all secondary school leavers. The current estimated cost on the Coulter S as in this study was 80 cents (U.S.) in contrast to the prohibitive costs of managing a case of transfusion-dependent thalassaemia. These two groups would cover a sizeable proportion of the 'active reproductive' population. Analysis of the red cell parameters provides useful information for the identification of carriers of alpha-, beta-, delta-beta-thalassaemia and HbE. Additional studies which include haemoglobin analysis and serum ferritin would provide the necessary evidence for the confirmation of these findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  4. Hall GL, Cooper BG
    Respirology, 2018 12;23(12):1090-1091.
    PMID: 30024083 DOI: 10.1111/resp.13373
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  5. Ng RL, Azriyanti AZ
    Med J Malaysia, 2018 10;73(5):336-337.
    PMID: 30350819 MyJurnal
    We report a case of benign transient hyperphosphatasaemia (BTH) which was noted incidentally when the patient was admitted for acute tonsillitis. Blood result showed alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at admission was markedly elevated with value of 2481 U/L [normal range 34 - 104 U/L]. He had no history or physical findings to suggest liver or bone disease. Various blood and radiographic investigations were performed to determine the cause but results were normal. He was followed-up with repeat blood test and the alkaline phosphatase normalised after 42 days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  6. Shaharudin S, Rahim MFA, Muhamad AS
    Int J Prev Med, 2018;9:90.
    PMID: 30450173 DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_42_17
    Background: The study investigated the effects of isokinetic versus isotonic training among adolescent state-level weightlifters in terms of total leukocytes, total lymphocytes, and its subsets following 24 sessions of training program and a month following training program cessation.

    Methods: Nineteen adolescent state-level weightlifters were assigned into isokinetic or isotonic groups. All participants were recruited from a pool of weightlifters with standardized training program provided by their coach. Series of immunological tests were carried out before the commencement, immediately upon the completion, and a month after the cessation of the additional training program to evaluate total leukocytes and lymphocytes count.

    Results: The results revealed a significant time and group interaction and main effects of time on mean total leukocytes (P < 0.05). Mean total leukocytes count at posttest decreased in both groups. In isotonic group, it was further decreased following 1 month of training cessation (P < 0.05) but not in the isokinetic group. However, the decrement was not high and the values were in the normal range. No significant time and group interaction was observed in total lymphocytes and its subsets count.

    Conclusions: Eight weeks of isokinetic and isotonic additional training with emphasis on shoulder joint only affect mean total leukocytes count in state-level adolescent weightlifters.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  7. Garcia-Martin R, González-Briones A, Corchado JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2019 May 25;19(10).
    PMID: 31130598 DOI: 10.3390/s19102390
    Due to fire protection regulations, a minimum number of fire extinguishers must be available depending on the surface area of each building, industrial establishment or workplace. There is also a set of rules that establish where the fire extinguisher should be placed: always close to the points that are most likely to be affected by a fire and where they are visible and accessible for use. Fire extinguishers are pressure devices, which means that they require maintenance operations that ensure they will function properly in the case of a fire. The purpose of manual and periodic fire extinguisher checks is to verify that their labeling, installation and condition comply with the standards. Security seals, inscriptions, hose and other seals are thoroughly checked. The state of charge (weight and pressure) of the extinguisher, the bottle of propellant gas (if available), and the state of all mechanical parts (nozzle, valves, hose, etc.) are also checked. To ensure greater safety and reduce the economic costs associated with maintaining fire extinguishers, it is necessary to develop a system that allows monitoring of their status. One of the advantages of monitoring fire extinguishers is that it will be possible to understand what external factors affect them (for example, temperature or humidity) and how they do so. For this reason, this article presents a system of soft agents that monitors the state of the extinguishers, collects a history of the state of the extinguisher and environmental factors and sends notifications if any parameter is not within the range of normal values.The results rendered by the SmartFire prototype indicate that its accuracy in calculating pressure changes is equivalent to that of a specific data acquisition system (DAS). The comparative study of the two curves (SmartFire and DAS) shows that the average error between the two curves is negligible: 8% in low pressure measurements (up to 3 bar) and 0.3% in high pressure (above 3 bar).
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  8. Ho JJ, Amar HSS, Ismail R
    Med J Malaysia, 2001 Sep;56(3):331-5.
    PMID: 11732079
    The Griffiths Scales for Mental Development were used to assess a group of 60 normal 2-year old Malaysian children (25 Indian, 23 Malay and 12 Chinese). The mean GQ was 104.2 (SD 9.3). This was significantly higher than the test mean of 100, p < 0.001. The mean score for Malaysian children was significantly higher on the locomotor, personal social, performance and practical reasoning subscales while they were significantly lower on the hand eye subscale and did not differ from the test mean on the hearing and speech subscale. There was a significant correlation between GQ and social class, r = -0.39, p < 0.05. Scores were lower than those currently obtained on British children, p < 0.001. Minor difficulties due to language and cultural factors arose over the interpretation of several items but with standardisation of these items the test is useful in Malaysian children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  9. Chan PWK, Cheong B, Nadarajan K, Lai BH, Cham WT, Khoo KK, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Dec;55(4):506-9.
    PMID: 11221165
    Blood pressure examination was done manually in 1756 healthy school children aged 6-12 years. Korotkoff 1 represented the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Korotkoff 5 was taken as the diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Blood pressure percentile charts were then drawn up based on age group and sex regardless of ethnicity. There was a significant correlation between both SBP and DBP to increasing height, weight and body mass index.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  10. Ng KH, Rassiah P, Wang HB, Hambali AS, Muthuvellu P, Lee HP
    Br J Radiol, 1998 Jun;71(846):654-60.
    PMID: 9849390
    A collaborative national survey initiated by the University of Malaya and the Ministry of Health was conducted from 1993 to 1995 to establish baseline patient dose data for seven common types (12 projections) of X-ray examinations in Malaysia. A total of 12 randomly selected public hospitals and 867 patients were included in this survey. The entrance surface doses (ESD) received by the patients were measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) attached to the patient's skin. Histograms are presented showing wide, positively skewed distributions of measured entrance surface doses for each examination. Mean, median, first and third quartile values of ESD and median effective dose are reported. Survey results are generally comparable with those reported in the UK, USA and by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The results also provide information on dose level for a lower weight population (mean weight 60 kg) compared with the international reference dose values based on a 70 kg standard. The findings support the importance of the on-going national quality assurance programme to ensure doses are kept to a level consistent with optimum image quality. The data will also be useful for the formulation of national guidance levels as recommended by the IAEA. Furthermore, this study provides patient dosimetry information on healthcare level II countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  11. Arumugam K
    Malays J Pathol, 1991 Jun;13(1):43-5.
    PMID: 1795561
    Raised prolactin levels have been implicated as a cause for infertility in patients with endometriosis. This study was done to investigate if serum prolactin levels were significantly raised in infertile patients with endometriosis. Serum prolactin levels were studied in 43 infertile patients with endometriosis. For controls, 36 infertile patients with normal pelvic findings were used. For standardization, blood samples were drawn on day 21 of the menstrual cycle. Analysis was done by radioimmunoassay using reagent kits. The mean prolactin level in the endometriotic group was 372 mIU/l (range 187-752) while that in the controls was 333 mIU/l.(range 124-767). There was no statistical difference (t = 1.12). Furthermore the accepted normal level for serum prolactin in our population is less than 540 mIU/l. These results show that there is no evidence to implicate raised prolactin levels as a cause for infertility in patients with endometriosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  12. Zailina, H., Junidah, R., Jamal Hisham, H.
    Blood lead concentration and 6»aminolevulinic acid in urine were used as indicator for lead exposure among school children in an industrial area south of the peninsular Malaysia. A group of 1 00 Malay children which consist of 48 boys and 52 girb with the age range of 61/2 to 81/2 years from a primary school were selected as chiMren. Blood samples were collected and analyzed with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The urine 6-aminolevulinic acid concentrations were measured with UV/VIS Spectrophotometer. The mean blood lead was 3.75ug/dl. Based on the biological index, 76% of the children are in the “normal range" (
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  13. Norhashila Hashim, Rimfiel B. Janius, Russly Abdul Rahman, Azizah Osman, Zude, Manuela, Shitan, Mahendran
    Bananas were chilled at 6oC and the appearance of brown spots when exposed to ambient air, a
    phenomenon known as chilling injury (CI), was detected using computer vision. The system consisted of a digital colour camera for acquiring images, an illumination set-up for uniform lighting, a computer for receiving, storing and displaying of images and software for analyzing the images. The RGB colour space values of the images were transformed into that of HSI colour space which is intuitive to human vision. Visual assessment of CI by means of a browning scale was used as a reference and correlation between this reference values and hue was investigated. Results of the computer vision study successfully demonstrate the potential of the system in substituting visual assessment in the evaluation of CI in bananas. The results indicate significant influence, at α=0.05, of treatment days and temperature on hue. A strong correlation was also found between hue and visual assessment with R>0.85.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  14. Faisal Ismail Bahnasi, Nagham Mohammed Abdullah, Mohamed Ibrahim Abu-Hassan
    Compendium of Oral Science, 2014;1(1):24-29.
    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of light-cure devices and curing times on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets.

    Material and Methods: 60-extracted human premolars were divided into 6-groups of 10-teeth each and bonded with stainless-steel brackets by using 3M Unitek Transbond XT composite. Specimens were cured with halogen, LED and plasma arc lights with two different times for each. The specimens were subjected to shear force till debond with a crosshead speed of 1mm/min and tested after 5min. The stress was calculated and data were subjected to statistical analysis.

    Results: one-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 post hoc comparison test were used. There were no significant differences between the 6 groups (p < 0.05).

    Conclusions: all curing light methods with loading force after 5 min achieved SBS more than the normal range; therefore, arch wire can be inserted at the same visit using any of tested curing light device or curing time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  15. Chen ST
    Med J Malaysia, 1977 Sep;32(1):17-21.
    PMID: 609337
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  16. Miyabe-Nishiwaki T, MacIntosh AJJ, Kaneko A, Morimoto M, Suzuki J, Akari H, et al.
    J Med Primatol, 2019 Dec;48(6):338-350.
    PMID: 31418873 DOI: 10.1111/jmp.12434
    BACKGROUND: Biological information about captive Japanese macaques, including hematology and blood chemistry, is still lacking despite the fact that ethological and ecological data have accumulated during decades of field research.

    METHODS: Hematological (511 examinations of 280 Japanese macaques) and blood chemistry data (between 33 and 284 examinations from between 29 and 257 individual macaques) in clinically healthy, simian retrovirus-free Japanese macaques tested between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Specific hematological and blood chemistry data for Japanese macaques without clinical signs of disease were provided in this study. Averages presented can be used as hematological parameters for Japanese macaques. Some differences between Japanese macaques and other closely related macaque species were found. Some parameters varied according to macaque age and sex, as well as regional origin. The data in this study will provide useful clinical indices for Japanese macaques in captive and similar conditions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  17. Mail, M.S.Z., Mohd Azhar, N., Affandi, N.F., Shaharudin, S., Agrawal, S., Chee, L.M.
    JUMMEC, 2019;22(2):43-48.
    Background: Those with increased dynamic knee valgus are vulnerable to increased risk of non-contact knee
    injuries. However, studies on the top down kinetic chain of lower limb mechanics during dynamic motions
    such as single leg squat (SLS) among trained males were scarce.

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between isokinetic hip and knee strength
    and frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) of the knee joint during SLS.

    Methods: Thirty-two male junior athletes (twelve cyclists, ten runners and ten squash players) were screened
    for excessive dynamic knee valgus (DKV) prior to participation. Only those within the normal value of DKV were
    included. Their hip and knee isokinetic strength in sagittal plane were evaluated at 60º/s of angular velocity
    for both legs using dynamometer. Two dimensional knee FPPA was evaluated during SLS at 60º of knee flexion.
    Pearson correlation was evaluated between knee FPPA during SLS and isokinetic leg strength.

    Results: Correlations between knee FPPA and hip and knee isokinetic strength were not statistically significant
    except between knee flexion peak torque/body weight (r = -0.35, p = 0.05) and hamstring to quadriceps ratio
    (r = -0.39, p = 0.03) of non-dominant leg.

    Conclusions: Isokinetic hip and knee strength and knee FPPA during SLS was correlated only for non-dominant
    leg during SLS among male junior athletes. DKV during SLS may be reduced through strengthening the muscles
    around hip and knee joints.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  18. Thiagarajan SK, Rama Krishnan K, Ei T, Husna Shafie N, Arapoc DJ, Bahari H
    PMID: 31186668 DOI: 10.1155/2019/9152757
    Momordica charantia Linn., commonly known as bitter gourd, has many protective roles due to its medicinal value as it contains bioactive components. However, this extract showed possible toxicity effect on zebrafish embryo. Thus this study was designed to differentiate the toxicity activities in two types of M. charantia sample which are Indian and Chinese M. charantia, as well as to compare between two different aqueous extraction methods, hot and cold aqueous method, using zebrafish embryo assay assessment. It was observed that the survival rate of zebrafish embryo decreased as the concentration of test extract increased for all samples of M. charantia. The LC50 values of hot aqueous Chinese M. charantia, hot aqueous Indian M. charantia, and cold aqueous Chinese M. charantia were 144.54 μg/ml, 199.53 μg/ml, and 251.19 μg/ml, respectively. However, cold aqueous Indian M. charantia has a higher LC50 which was not in the range of the tested concentration. Hatchability of Danio rerio embryo reduced as the concentration of M. charantia extract increased while no hatching was observed in the highest concentration (1000 μg/ml). Scoliosis of zebrafish larvae was only seen in higher concentrations (125-1000 μg/ml) of extract. The heartbeat of zebrafish larvae treated with M. charantia extract was within the normal range, 120-180 bpm, but at higher concentrations (125-1000 μg/ml) the heartbeat differed for all samples of test extract. Hence, although this plant extract was safe to be consumed due to its pharmaceutical effect, it still exhibited mild toxicity effect at higher concentration when it was evaluated on zebrafish embryo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  19. Quoquab F, Jaini A, Mohammad J
    PMID: 32708199 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17145258
    This study attempts to investigate the moderating effect of gender on value-belief-norm relationships. In addition, this study aims to investigate the factors that affect green purchase behavior of cosmetics products. Particularly, this study investigates the causal relationships between values and pro-environmental beliefs, pro-environmental beliefs and personal norms and personal norms and green purchase behavior. An online survey was carried out which yielded 240 usable responses among which 79 responses were obtained from males and 161 from females. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, partial least square (PLS-SEM) approach and multi-group analysis (MGA) technique. Results revealed that all direct relationships were supported by the data. It was also found that gender moderates the relationships between altruistic values and pro-environmental beliefs, pro-environmental beliefs and personal norms and personal norms and green purchase behavior. Nevertheless, gender did not moderate the link between hedonic value and pro-environmental beliefs. This study contributes to the existing literature by considering gender as a moderator, which is comparatively new in the green purchase behavior literature. In addition, this study examines few new linkages: more specifically, incorporating hedonic value in value-belief link and adapting value-belief-norm (VBN) theory in measuring consumers' green purchase behavior.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
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