Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 312 in total

  1. Tham LK, Abu Osman NA, Wan Abas WA, Lim KS
    PLoS One, 2013;8(2):e55702.
    PMID: 23409022 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055702
    The deep tendon reflex assessments that are essential to the accurate diagnosis of neurological or neuromuscular disorders are conducted subjectively in clinical neurology. Our aim was to assess deep tendon reflexes objectively with a new reflex quantification method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  2. Khamis NK, Deros BM
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2018 Jun;30(6):764-769.
    PMID: 29950761 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.30.764
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of seat pressure distribution measurements based on a specific posture to predict the pressure felt level when seated. [Subjects and Methods] To examine the relationship between body pressure data and the driver's perception, eleven subjects were selected to participate in a simulated driving experiment using a pressure mat as a direct measurement method to measure the seat pan's pressure distribution. The buttock-popliteal length was measured using an anthropometer, and the pressure felt ratings evaluated after the body pressure measurements were recorded. Accordingly, this was then followed by performing statistical analysis using seat pressure measurements, and the buttock-popliteal length as independent variables along with subjective ratings selected of the pressure felt by the drivers' as dependent variables. [Results] The findings of this study suggest that the direct measurements and anthropometric body data are positively correlated with the predictive model thereby confirming the validity of the model with an R2 value of 0.952. [Conclusion] The proposed model is expected to provide a useful reference value for new vehicle drivers by providing the pressure felt level based on direct and body measurements in a specific posture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  3. George E, Faridah K
    Family Practitioner, 1988;11(1&2):37-39.
    The population of Malaysia is approximately 14 million and theoretically 1 in 2500 marriages are between heterozygotes for thalassaemia and 1 in 10,000 children can be expected to have thalassaemia major. Hypertransfusion is not possible because of insufficient blood supplies and each child requires an iron chelator, Desferal, at US$5800 a year for life: this high cost makes it sizeable proportion of the 'active reproductive' population. Abortion is not legal and antenatal diagnosis has not bee established. An approach to the prevention of this disease would be public education and identification of carriers. Numerous techniques have been utilised in population screening for traits of thalassaemia and haemoglobinopathy. These include osmotic fragility tests; blood smear examination for basophilia, microcytosis, and hypochromia; and genetic studies. Blood smear examinations are extremely subjective and interpretations depend upon the skills of a trained technologist. Osmotic fragility tests although cheap are cumbersome and require accurate preparations of saline solutions. Genetic studies are not available in the region. The medical examination for entrance to colleges and institutions includes investigative procedures such as chest x-ray and urine examinations. In addition a blood sample could be analysed for the red cell parameters. A similar study could be attempted for all secondary school leavers. The current estimated cost on the Coulter S as in this study was 80 cents (U.S.) in contrast to the prohibitive costs of managing a case of transfusion-dependent thalassaemia. These two groups would cover a sizeable proportion of the 'active reproductive' population. Analysis of the red cell parameters provides useful information for the identification of carriers of alpha-, beta-, delta-beta-thalassaemia and HbE. Additional studies which include haemoglobin analysis and serum ferritin would provide the necessary evidence for the confirmation of these findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  4. Hall GL, Cooper BG
    Respirology, 2018 12;23(12):1090-1091.
    PMID: 30024083 DOI: 10.1111/resp.13373
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  5. Zhang M, Zhang K, Yu D, Xie Q, Liu B, Chen D, et al.
    Prev Vet Med, 2021 Aug;193:105399.
    PMID: 34118647 DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2021.105399
    Cardiomegaly is the main imaging finding for canine heart diseases. There are many advances in the field of medical diagnosing based on imaging with deep learning for human being. However there are also increasing realization of the potential of using deep learning in veterinary medicine. We reported a clinically applicable assisted platform for diagnosing the canine cardiomegaly with deep learning. VHS (vertebral heart score) is a measuring method used for the heart size of a dog. The concrete value of VHS is calculated with the relative position of 16 key points detected by the system, and this result is then combined with VHS reference range of all dog breeds to assist in the evaluation of the canine cardiomegaly. We adopted HRNet (high resolution network) to detect 16 key points (12 and four key points located on vertebra and heart respectively) in 2274 lateral X-ray images (training and validation datasets) of dogs, the model was then used to detect the key points in external testing dataset (396 images), the AP (average performance) for key point detection reach 86.4 %. Then we applied an additional post processing procedure to correct the output of HRNets so that the AP reaches 90.9 %. This result signifies that this system can effectively assist the evaluation of canine cardiomegaly in a real clinical scenario.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  6. Arends S, Drenthen J, van den Bergh P, Franssen H, Hadden RDM, Islam B, et al.
    Clin Neurophysiol, 2022 Jun;138:231-240.
    PMID: 35078730 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinph.2021.12.014
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the heterogeneity of electrodiagnostic (EDx) studies in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patients collected as part of the International GBS Outcome Study (IGOS).

    METHODS: Prospectively collected clinical and EDx data were available in 957 IGOS patients from 115 centers. Only the first EDx study was included in the current analysis.

    RESULTS: Median timing of the EDx study was 7 days (interquartile range 4-11) from symptom onset. Methodology varied between centers, countries and regions. Reference values from the responding 103 centers were derived locally in 49%, from publications in 37% and from a combination of these in the remaining 15%. Amplitude measurement in the EDx studies (baseline-to-peak or peak-to-peak) differed from the way this was done in the reference values, in 22% of motor and 39% of sensory conduction. There was marked variability in both motor and sensory reference values, although only a few outliers accounted for this.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed extensive variation in the clinical practice of EDx in GBS patients among IGOS centers across the regions.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Besides EDx variation in GBS patients participating in IGOS, this diversity is likely to be present in other neuromuscular disorders and centers. This underlines the need for standardization of EDx in future multinational GBS studies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  7. Efficace F, Iurlo A, Patriarca A, Stagno F, Bee PC, Ector G, et al.
    Leuk Lymphoma, 2021 03;62(3):669-678.
    PMID: 33153355 DOI: 10.1080/10428194.2020.1838509
    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessment is important to facilitate decisions in the current treatment landscape of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Therefore, the availability of a validated HRQOL questionnaire, specifically developed for CML patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), may enhance quality of research in this area. We performed an international study including 782 CML patients to assess the validity of the EORTC QLQ-CML 24 questionnaire, and to generate HRQOL reference values to facilitate interpretation of results in future studies. Internal consistency, assessed with Cronbach's alpha coefficients, ranged from 0.66 to 0.83. In the confirmatory factor analysis, all standardized factor loadings exceeded the threshold of 0.40 (range 0.49-0.97), confirming the hypothesized scale structure. Reference values stratified by age and sex were also generated. Our findings support the use of the EORTC QLQ-CML 24, in conjunction with the EORTC QLQ-C30, as a valuable measure to assess HRQOL in CML patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  8. Ng RL, Azriyanti AZ
    Med J Malaysia, 2018 10;73(5):336-337.
    PMID: 30350819 MyJurnal
    We report a case of benign transient hyperphosphatasaemia (BTH) which was noted incidentally when the patient was admitted for acute tonsillitis. Blood result showed alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at admission was markedly elevated with value of 2481 U/L [normal range 34 - 104 U/L]. He had no history or physical findings to suggest liver or bone disease. Various blood and radiographic investigations were performed to determine the cause but results were normal. He was followed-up with repeat blood test and the alkaline phosphatase normalised after 42 days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  9. Shaharudin S, Rahim MFA, Muhamad AS
    Int J Prev Med, 2018;9:90.
    PMID: 30450173 DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_42_17
    Background: The study investigated the effects of isokinetic versus isotonic training among adolescent state-level weightlifters in terms of total leukocytes, total lymphocytes, and its subsets following 24 sessions of training program and a month following training program cessation.

    Methods: Nineteen adolescent state-level weightlifters were assigned into isokinetic or isotonic groups. All participants were recruited from a pool of weightlifters with standardized training program provided by their coach. Series of immunological tests were carried out before the commencement, immediately upon the completion, and a month after the cessation of the additional training program to evaluate total leukocytes and lymphocytes count.

    Results: The results revealed a significant time and group interaction and main effects of time on mean total leukocytes (P < 0.05). Mean total leukocytes count at posttest decreased in both groups. In isotonic group, it was further decreased following 1 month of training cessation (P < 0.05) but not in the isokinetic group. However, the decrement was not high and the values were in the normal range. No significant time and group interaction was observed in total lymphocytes and its subsets count.

    Conclusions: Eight weeks of isokinetic and isotonic additional training with emphasis on shoulder joint only affect mean total leukocytes count in state-level adolescent weightlifters.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  10. Garcia-Martin R, González-Briones A, Corchado JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2019 May 25;19(10).
    PMID: 31130598 DOI: 10.3390/s19102390
    Due to fire protection regulations, a minimum number of fire extinguishers must be available depending on the surface area of each building, industrial establishment or workplace. There is also a set of rules that establish where the fire extinguisher should be placed: always close to the points that are most likely to be affected by a fire and where they are visible and accessible for use. Fire extinguishers are pressure devices, which means that they require maintenance operations that ensure they will function properly in the case of a fire. The purpose of manual and periodic fire extinguisher checks is to verify that their labeling, installation and condition comply with the standards. Security seals, inscriptions, hose and other seals are thoroughly checked. The state of charge (weight and pressure) of the extinguisher, the bottle of propellant gas (if available), and the state of all mechanical parts (nozzle, valves, hose, etc.) are also checked. To ensure greater safety and reduce the economic costs associated with maintaining fire extinguishers, it is necessary to develop a system that allows monitoring of their status. One of the advantages of monitoring fire extinguishers is that it will be possible to understand what external factors affect them (for example, temperature or humidity) and how they do so. For this reason, this article presents a system of soft agents that monitors the state of the extinguishers, collects a history of the state of the extinguisher and environmental factors and sends notifications if any parameter is not within the range of normal values.The results rendered by the SmartFire prototype indicate that its accuracy in calculating pressure changes is equivalent to that of a specific data acquisition system (DAS). The comparative study of the two curves (SmartFire and DAS) shows that the average error between the two curves is negligible: 8% in low pressure measurements (up to 3 bar) and 0.3% in high pressure (above 3 bar).
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  11. Alhorani Q, Alkhybari E, Rawashdeh M, Sabarudin A, Latiff RA, Al-Ibraheem A, et al.
    Nucl Med Commun, 2023 Nov 01;44(11):937-943.
    PMID: 37615527 DOI: 10.1097/MNM.0000000000001748
    PET-computed tomography (PET/CT) is a hybrid imaging technique that combines anatomical and functional information; to investigate primary cancers, stage tumours, and track treatment response in paediatric oncology patients. However, there is debate in the literature about whether PET/CT could increase the risk of cancer in children, as the machine is utilizing two types of radiation, and paediatric patients have faster cell division and longer life expectancy. Therefore, it is essential to minimize radiation exposure by justifying and optimizing PET/CT examinations and ensure an acceptable image quality. Establishing diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) is a crucial quantitative indicator and effective tool to optimize paediatric imaging procedures. This review aimed to distinguish and acknowledge variations among published DRLs for paediatric patients in PET/CT procedures. A search of relevant articles was conducted using databases, that is, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Medline, using the keywords: PET-computed tomography, computed tomography, PET, radiopharmaceutical, DRL, and their synonyms. Only English and full-text articles were included, with no limitations on the publication year. After the screening, four articles were selected, and the review reveals different DRL approaches for paediatric patients undergoing PET/CT, with primary variations observed in patient selection criteria, reporting of radiation dose values, and PET/CT equipment. The study suggests that future DRL methods for paediatric patients should prioritize data collection in accordance with international guidelines to better understand PET/CT dose discrepancies while also striving to optimize radiation doses without compromising the quality of PET/CT images.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  12. Ho JJ, Amar HSS, Ismail R
    Med J Malaysia, 2001 Sep;56(3):331-5.
    PMID: 11732079
    The Griffiths Scales for Mental Development were used to assess a group of 60 normal 2-year old Malaysian children (25 Indian, 23 Malay and 12 Chinese). The mean GQ was 104.2 (SD 9.3). This was significantly higher than the test mean of 100, p < 0.001. The mean score for Malaysian children was significantly higher on the locomotor, personal social, performance and practical reasoning subscales while they were significantly lower on the hand eye subscale and did not differ from the test mean on the hearing and speech subscale. There was a significant correlation between GQ and social class, r = -0.39, p < 0.05. Scores were lower than those currently obtained on British children, p < 0.001. Minor difficulties due to language and cultural factors arose over the interpretation of several items but with standardisation of these items the test is useful in Malaysian children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  13. Chan PWK, Cheong B, Nadarajan K, Lai BH, Cham WT, Khoo KK, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Dec;55(4):506-9.
    PMID: 11221165
    Blood pressure examination was done manually in 1756 healthy school children aged 6-12 years. Korotkoff 1 represented the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Korotkoff 5 was taken as the diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Blood pressure percentile charts were then drawn up based on age group and sex regardless of ethnicity. There was a significant correlation between both SBP and DBP to increasing height, weight and body mass index.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  14. Ng KH, Rassiah P, Wang HB, Hambali AS, Muthuvellu P, Lee HP
    Br J Radiol, 1998 Jun;71(846):654-60.
    PMID: 9849390
    A collaborative national survey initiated by the University of Malaya and the Ministry of Health was conducted from 1993 to 1995 to establish baseline patient dose data for seven common types (12 projections) of X-ray examinations in Malaysia. A total of 12 randomly selected public hospitals and 867 patients were included in this survey. The entrance surface doses (ESD) received by the patients were measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) attached to the patient's skin. Histograms are presented showing wide, positively skewed distributions of measured entrance surface doses for each examination. Mean, median, first and third quartile values of ESD and median effective dose are reported. Survey results are generally comparable with those reported in the UK, USA and by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The results also provide information on dose level for a lower weight population (mean weight 60 kg) compared with the international reference dose values based on a 70 kg standard. The findings support the importance of the on-going national quality assurance programme to ensure doses are kept to a level consistent with optimum image quality. The data will also be useful for the formulation of national guidance levels as recommended by the IAEA. Furthermore, this study provides patient dosimetry information on healthcare level II countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  15. Arumugam K
    Malays J Pathol, 1991 Jun;13(1):43-5.
    PMID: 1795561
    Raised prolactin levels have been implicated as a cause for infertility in patients with endometriosis. This study was done to investigate if serum prolactin levels were significantly raised in infertile patients with endometriosis. Serum prolactin levels were studied in 43 infertile patients with endometriosis. For controls, 36 infertile patients with normal pelvic findings were used. For standardization, blood samples were drawn on day 21 of the menstrual cycle. Analysis was done by radioimmunoassay using reagent kits. The mean prolactin level in the endometriotic group was 372 mIU/l (range 187-752) while that in the controls was 333 mIU/l.(range 124-767). There was no statistical difference (t = 1.12). Furthermore the accepted normal level for serum prolactin in our population is less than 540 mIU/l. These results show that there is no evidence to implicate raised prolactin levels as a cause for infertility in patients with endometriosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  16. Kamath SU, Agarwal S, Austine J
    Malays Orthop J, 2020 Nov;14(3):143-150.
    PMID: 33403075 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.2011.022
    Introduction: With a higher proportion of young individuals undergoing uncemented hip arthroplasty, a close match in the dimension of the proximal femur and the implanted prosthesis is paramount. This is a study to gain insight into geographical variation in proximal femur morphology to determine the reference values to design uncemented femoral stems for a south Indian population, and also the effect of ageing and gender on the proximal femur morphology.

    Materials and Methods: The study comprised of two groups. For the first group, 50 unpaired dry femur bones were obtained from adult human cadavers; and the second group was a clinical group of 50 adult patients. Standardised radiographic techniques were used to measure the extra-cortical and intra-cortical morphometric parameters. Based on these, dimensionless ratios were calculated to express the shape of the proximal femur. The data were expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation and a comparison made with other studies.

    Results: A significant difference was noted across various population subsets within the Indian subcontinent and also in comparison to the Western population, suggestive of regional variation. The measurements made in cadaveric bone differed significantly from those in live patients, especially the femoral head diameter and extra-cortical and intra-cortical width. Femoral offset, head height and diameter were significantly less in females.

    Conclusion: The south Indian population needs customised implants with an increase in neck shaft angle and a decrease in intra-cortical and extra-cortical width for press fit in hip arthroplasty. The variation between the two sexes must also be accounted for during prosthesis design.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  17. Ahmad AA, Samsuddin S, Oh SJWY, Martinez-Perez P, Rasedee A
    J Vet Med Sci, 2018 Dec 11;80(12):1867-1874.
    PMID: 30333379 DOI: 10.1292/jvms.17-0585
    The Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) population in Southeast Asia faces threats such as poaching and deforestation. Health assessments of rescued individuals including physical examination and blood work are crucial for clinicians to determine the health status of these animals. The establishments of reference intervals of hematology and serum biochemistry are important for identifying clinical abnormalities. The objectives of our study were to establish blood reference intervals for Sunda pangolins, to determine if there are age and sex related differences in hematology and serum biochemistry, and to compare our results with those of a previous study on confiscated Sunda pangolins in Thailand. Fifty-eight Sunda pangolins were rescued between January 2011 and December 2015. The hematology and serum biochemistry results of 51 clinically normal Sunda pangolins were selected for the establishment of the blood reference intervals. No sex related differences were noted in this study. Age-related differences were observed, in which adult Sunda pangolins had a significantly higher mean corpuscular volume than juveniles, and juvenile Sunda pangolins had significantly higher red blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels than those of the adults (P<0.05). Age-related differences were also noted in several serum biochemistry parameters: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was significantly higher in juveniles, and total protein was significantly higher in adult Sunda pangolins. Compared to a previous study the white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, and ALP were higher, and the lymphocyte counts were lower in the present study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  18. Miyabe-Nishiwaki T, MacIntosh AJJ, Kaneko A, Morimoto M, Suzuki J, Akari H, et al.
    J Med Primatol, 2019 Dec;48(6):338-350.
    PMID: 31418873 DOI: 10.1111/jmp.12434
    BACKGROUND: Biological information about captive Japanese macaques, including hematology and blood chemistry, is still lacking despite the fact that ethological and ecological data have accumulated during decades of field research.

    METHODS: Hematological (511 examinations of 280 Japanese macaques) and blood chemistry data (between 33 and 284 examinations from between 29 and 257 individual macaques) in clinically healthy, simian retrovirus-free Japanese macaques tested between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Specific hematological and blood chemistry data for Japanese macaques without clinical signs of disease were provided in this study. Averages presented can be used as hematological parameters for Japanese macaques. Some differences between Japanese macaques and other closely related macaque species were found. Some parameters varied according to macaque age and sex, as well as regional origin. The data in this study will provide useful clinical indices for Japanese macaques in captive and similar conditions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
  19. Ng RL, Koay HS, Jamil MT
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 11;75(6):748-749.
    PMID: 33219191
    We describe here an infant girl with ductal dependent complex cyanotic heart disease, who required prostaglandin infusion for a total of five months prior to Blalock-Taussig shunt procedure. Her alkaline phosphatase activity was raised after seven weeks being on prostaglandin and only dropped to the normal range seven days after discontinuing prostaglandin infusion. During our review at five months old, her limbs were grossly swollen and radiographic examination showed dense periosteal reaction in the long bones. Based on the clinical findings and investigations, she was diagnosed to have cortical hyperostosis, which is an uncommon side effect of prostaglandin. She underwent right Blalock-Taussig Shunt procedure successfully with no major complications. Unfortunately, she succumbed to infection two months after surgery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Values
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