BACKGROUND: Patients with severe psoriasis, namely those requiring phototherapy or systemic treatment, have an increased risk of death. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, aetiology and risk factors for mortality among adult patients aged 18 years and above with psoriasis in Malaysia.
METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving adult patients notified by dermatologists to the Malaysian Psoriasis Registry between July 2007 and December 2013. Data were cross-checked against the National Death Registry. Patients certified dead were identified and the cause of death was analysed. Multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression were conducted on potential factors associated with higher risk of mortality.
RESULTS: A total of 419 deaths were identified among the 9775 patients notified. There were four significant risk factors for higher mortality: age>40 years (age 41-60 years old, Odds Ratio (OR) 2.70, 95%CI 1.75, 4.18; age>60 years OR 7.46, 95%CI 4.62, 12.02), male gender (OR 1.72, 95%CI 1.33,2.22), severe psoriasis with body surface area (BSA) >10% (OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.19, 1.96) and presence of at least one cardiovascular co-morbidity (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.30, 2.14). Among the 301 patients with verifiable causes of death, the leading causes were infection (33.9%), cardiovascular disease (33.6%) and malignancy (15.9%).
CONCLUSION: Infection was the leading cause of death among psoriasis patients in Malaysia. Although cardiovascular diseases are well-known to cause significant morbidity and mortality among psoriasis patients, the role of infections and malignancy should not be overlooked.
The incidence of premature multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) is on the rise in Malaysia. The pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis is multi-factorial with dyslipidaemia being one such risk factor. Elevated total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) levels are primarily responsible. We analysed the fasting pre-operative lipid profiles of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients with symptomatic severe premature CAD. A majority of patients had an elevated LDL cholesterol level despite being on a statin. Similarly, no patient with an elevated TG level was prescribed a fibrate. Pre-operative control of known dyslipidaemia was suboptimal in young adults with angiographially proven severe symptomatic CAD. This is either due to subtherapeutic dose prescribing or failure to commence appropriate anti-lipid drugs. Collectively, general practitioners, cardiologists and cardiac surgeons must be more diligent in monitoring lipid profiles in such patients and be more meticulous in prescribing therapeutic doses to achieve target control.
Global views emphasize the need for early; effective intervention against the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome to reduce the risk of premature cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to determine the clinical practices and compliance among dyslipidemia with type II diabetes and hypertension in multiracial society.
PURPOSE: Extravasation with intravenous chemotherapy is a common complication of chemotherapy which carries the risk of devastating complications. This study aims to determine the rate of extravasation with intravenous chemotherapy in a major hospital where chemotherapy is delivered in various departments other than the oncology department.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who underwent intravenous chemotherapy in the oncology department and surgical wards in Penang General hospital from 1st February 2008 till 31st June 2008 were recruited retrospectively for this study to look at the rate of extravasation.
RESULTS: A total of 602 patients underwent intravenous chemotherapy during this period. Fifty patients received chemotherapy in the general surgical ward while another 552 patients received chemotherapy in the oncology department. There were 5 cases of extravasation giving an overall extravasation rate of 0.8% (5/602). however, 4 of these cases occurred in the general surgical ward giving it a rate of 8% (4/50).
CONCLUSION: The rate of extravasation in our hospital was 0.8%. however, this rate can be significantly increased if it is not done under a specialized unit delivering intravenous chemotherapy on a regular basis. Preventive steps including a standard chemotherapy delivery protocol, staff and patient education must be put in place in all units delivering intravenous chemotherapy.
Although open tibial fractures are common in Malaysia, the outcomes for these patients have not been evaluated in the literature. This retrospective study was conducted to examine the factors associated with infection and non-union in open tibial fractures managed at Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA), Kuantan, in 2009.
Oncologic outcomes following laparoscopic abdomino-perineal resection (APR) for distal rectal cancer are infrequently reported. This study aims to compare the long term outcomes between laparoscopic and open APR in distal rectal cancers.
No consensus exists regarding pulseless otherwise well-perfused hand in pediatric Gartland type III fractures. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe our strategy and to determine the guidelines of therapeutic consensus.
The purpose of this study was to assess the tissue
response of Type 2 diabetic subjects towards non surgical
periodontal therapy as compared with matched, nondiabetic
subjects. This was a retrospective, comparative
study using periodontal case notes of 40 subjects attending
undergraduates’ periodontal clinics (20 diabetics, 20 nondiabetics),
who were selected based on the inclusion
and exclusion criteria. Response towards non surgical
periodontal therapy was assessed through three clinical
periodontal parameters, namely plaque score, gingivitis
score and number of periodontal pocket ≥5mm at the
baseline and after initial non surgical periodontal therapy.
Data obtained was then analyzed by SPSS Version 12.
Both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects showed significant
improvements (p-value = 0.021; 0.000; 0.001 and 0.010;
0.014; 0.001) in all three parameters after the therapy.
However, when comparison was made between the two
groups, there was no significant difference (p-value = 0.913;
0.892 and 0.903) in any of the parameters. Periodontal
conditions improved clinically in both diabetic and nondiabetic
subjects after non-surgical periodontal therapy.
Therefore, both groups responded similarly towards the
therapy and thus it can be postulated that well-controlled
diabetic status does not have a significant effect on the
outcome of periodontal therapy.
While it is not difficult to recognise the classical clinical features of congenital syphilis in most cases, some of them may present with unusual manifestations which can defy early diagnosis. We report our experience with 13 cases of early congenital syphilis over a period of 10 years from 1980 to 1989. Twelve of the thirteen patients were less than 3 months at presentation. There were two infants born prematurely and six of the babies were born with a low birthweight (less than 2.5 kg). All but four patients survived following treatment. Skin lesions either in the form of typical vesiculobullous eruption over the palms and soles or a maculopapular skin rash over the body were the most common presentation and was seen in 10 patients. Splenomegaly with or without hepatomegaly was the most consistent physical sign. Radiological changes in the form of periostitis and/or metaphysitis were seen in all cases where an X-ray of the long bones was performed. An elevated serum immunoglobulin M, though non-specific for the disease, was found to be a useful screening test for recent infection.
The objective of this study was to compare in-patient drug use patterns, costs, and outcomes associated with risperidone or olanzapine in a naturalistic clinical setting. Retrospective chart reviews of 92 patients with psychotic disorders were conducted at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). Data was collected from patients who were hospitalized and for whom risperidone or olanzapine was the drug of first choice for long-term pharmacologic treatment. Proportion of patients for whom efficacy of the studied treatment could be established (as rated by the treating physician) was higher, but not significantly, with risperidone compared to olanzapine (p = 0.46). The average dose of the studied medication was 2.9 ± 1.0 mg/day for risperidone and 9.7 ± 2.4 mg/day for olanzapine. The total cost was significantly higher (p
A surgeon’s experience plays an important role in breast conserving surgery (BCS). The common conception is that, the more junior is the operating surgeon, the surgical margin will be wider or closer to the tumour edge. Thus the aim of this study is to look into the adequacy of surgical margin performed by different level of surgeons’ experience in patients whom underwent wide local excision (WLE) and hook-wire localization (HWL) in our surgical unit. The surgical experience of the operating surgeon and their surgical margins will be analyzed. This is a retrospective study from January 2000 to December 2012. Eighty-eight patients with early breast cancer underwent WLE and HWL by 3 different groups of surgeons (breast surgeons, junior surgeons and surgical registrars) were included. The surgical margins were analyzed for involved-margin, closed-margin or excessed-margin.The incidence of involved-margin, closed-margin and excessed-margin is the lowest among breast surgeons compared to other groups. However, the results were not statistically significant. The incidence of involved surgical margin is significantly higher within junior surgeons for HWL compared to the breast surgeons. The incidence of involved, closed or excessed surgical margin were lowest when performed by breast surgeon but not significantly different between the three groups. However, for HWL the breast surgeons significantly better compared to the other groups.
We conducted a retrospective review on eleven patients who were treated for Type A and C distal femoral fractures (based on AO classification) between January 2004 and December 2004. All fractures were fixed with titanium distal femoral locking compression plate. The patientâ€™s ages ranged from 15 to 85 with a mean of 44. Clinical assessment was conducted at least 6 months post-operatively using the Schatzker scoring system. Results showed that four patients had excellent results, four good, two fair and one failure.
Interlocked intramedullary nailing is accepted as the gold standard for femoral shaft fractures. However for Winquist type I and II femoral fractures at the isthmus region, unlocked intramedullary nailing (KÃ¼ntscher nailing) is still a good option. We performed a retrospective study on 86 patients with a total of 88 femoral shaft fractures around the isthmus that presented at our institution between 1 January 1988 and 31 August 2003. All patients (84.1% Winquist type I and 15.9% Winquist Type II fractures) were treated with unlocked intramedullary nail. The average time to union was 16 weeks with 97.7% rate of union. There were two cases (2.3%) of infection and non-union each. Overall results were comparable to standard interlocking intramedullary nailing. We conclude that unlocked intramedullary nailing is a good treatment option for Winquist Type I and II femoral fracture around the isthmus with its good union rate and minimal complications.
Bone lengthening with distraction osteogenesis involves prolonged application of an external fixator frame. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of callus has been described using various imaging modalities but there is no simple reliable and readily available method. This study aims to investigate the use of a densitometer to analyze plain radiographic images and correlate them with the rate of new bone formation as represented by the bone healing index. A total of 34 bone lengthening procedures in 29 patients were retrospectively reviewed. We used an X-Rite 301 densitometer to measure densities of new callus on plain radiographs taken at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. Patients aged below 16y had significantly lower BHIs indicating faster bone healing and shorter duration of treatment. The ratio of radiographic densities between centre and edge of the new bone measured from plain radiographs taken at 8 weeks correlated positively with the eventual BHI of the patient. This method provides a simple and easy way to predict the rate of bone healing at an early stage of treatment and may also allow remedial action to be taken for those with poor progress in bone formation.
BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterised by thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) based on the Sydney criteria. We aimed to explore the clinico-laboratory features and treatment strategies of APS patients retrospectively.
METHODOLOGY: The medical records of APS patients registered under Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (Kelantan state) between 2000 and 2015 were reviewed.
RESULTS: A total of 17 APS subjects (age 40.7 ± 12.8 years) including 11 primary (64.7%) and six secondary APS (35.3%) patients were identified. The follow-up period was 9.5 ± 6.7 years with male:female ratio of 1.0:4.7. Pregnancy morbidity was the most common clinical manifestation (11/14; 78.6%) followed by recurrent venous thrombosis (10/17; 58.8%). For other clinical features, menorrhagia was the most frequently observed manifestation (4/14; 28.6%) followed by aPLs-associated thrombocytopenia (4/17; 23.5%) and ovarian cyst (3/14; 21.4%). LA and aCL were positive in 94.1% (16/17) and 81.8% (9/11) of the patients, respectively. APTT value (76.7 ± 17.0 sec) was significantly high (p < 0.05). Low intensity warfarin alone was successful to maintain target INR (2.0 - 3.0) and prevent recurrence of thrombosis.
CONCLUSION: The tendency of pregnancy morbidity in this cohort of Malaysian Kelantanese APS patients was high compared to other previously reported APS cohorts. Low intensity warfarin was successful in preventing recurrence of thrombosis, however, APS women receiving long-term anticoagulants should be monitored for possible occurrence of menorrhagia and ovarian cysts.
Popliteal artery injury is the most disastrous intraoperative complication during total knee replacement. This study aims to determine the mean distance between the popliteal artery (PA) and the tibial plateau in normal and osteoarthritic patients who underwent Dual Energy CT Angiography (CTA) of the lower limb.
Materials and Methods: All CTA lower limb examinations from January 2013 to October 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The distance between the PA the tibial plateau distance and the thickness of popliteus muscle were electronically measured. We used modified Kellgren and Lawrence’s Classification to grade the osteoarthritis in patients who underwent CT examinations regardless of symptoms.
Results: There were a total of 126 patients who underwent CTA (93 males and 33 females). 54 of them were Malays, 47 Indians, and 24 Chinese. The mean age of patients was 58 years (range 16 to 92). The mean PA-totibial plateau distance was 9.9 mm for the right lower limb (range 2.5 mm to 17.2 mm) and 10.24 mm for the left (range 5.5 mm to 15.4 mm). There were no significant correlations between PA-to-tibial plateau distance with osteoarthritis grade, age, gender, and racial origin (P > 0.05); however, there was a positive
correlation between PA-to-tibial plateau distances with popliteus muscle thickness (P = 0.000).
Conclusion: Osteoarthritic condition in the knee does not reduce the popliteal artery to the tibial plateau distance. Hence, a higher osteoarthritic grade does not impose additional risks with regards to popliteal artery to tibial plateau distance, with relatively similar arterial injury risks compared to normal knees.
AIM: To describe the prevalence and changes in treatment patterns of ranibizumab and photodynamic therapy (PDT) among retinal disease patients who attended the Ophthalmology Clinic in the tertiary care Hospital Selayang from 2010 to 2014.
METHODS: Study subjects were recruited retrospectively using the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) database software in Hospital Selayang. Demographic data, medical history, diagnostic procedure, treatments and diagnosis of patients were recorded.
RESULTS: The five-year analysis included 821 patients with a mean age of 65.9±11.73y. Overall, there were a higher number of males (63.1%) and a higher number of Chinese (47.4%) patients. Among the 821 patients, 62.9% received ranibizumab injection followed by 19.2% PDT therapy and 17.9% had ranibizumab combined with PDT therapy. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) were the most common retinal eye diseases reported, recording prevalence of 25.0% and 45.6%, respectively. The trend in ranibizumab treatment was reported to increase while PDT showed a decrease in trend from year 2010 to 2014. In terms of treatment, following multiple logistic regression, AMD was associated with the subjects being more likely to have received ranibizumab monotherapy (P<0.001) while PCV was associated with more likely to have received PDT (P<0.001) and PDT combined with ranibizumab therapy (P<0.001).
CONCLUSION: The tertiary care setting in Malaysia is consistent with management of patients from other countries whereby ranibizumab is the most common treatment given to patients with AMD, while PCV patients most commonly receive PDT and ranibizumab combined with PDT therapy.
Study site: Ophthalmology Clinic, Hospital Selayang
A retrospective analysis of 49 patients with 55 liver abscesses evaluated by diagnostic ultrasonography was made. The sonographic appearances were varied and non-specific. 96% of the abscesses were in the right lobe of the liver. Sonographic features which were frequently observed include (a) predominantly hypoechoic internal echotexture (64%) (b) distal sonic enhancement (98%) (c) well-defined margin with an abrupt transition between normal liver parenchyma and lesion (96%) and (d) absence of wall echoes (89%). A combination of these features has considerable diagnostic value. Distal sonic enhancement is of particular diagnostic importance. In equivocal cases the diagnosis can be quickly determined by percutaneous needle aspiration under ultrasound guidance.
Child abuse is as age-old problem which involves physical, emotional and sexual abuse and also the unauthorised administration of drugs to children. The problem does not arise from just a single cause or factor but is multifactorial. One big area is the presence of social situational stresses prior to or during the episodes of abuse. The author has carried out a retrospective study of twenty cases of child abuse investigated by the Department of Social Welfare, Kuala Lumpur from December 1979 to January 1980. This paper describes part of the findings, namely the social situational stresses. The findings are found to be similar to those of other studies, both local and abroad.