Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 2867 in total

  1. Kwan Z, Yeoh CA, Mohd Affandi A, Alias FA, Hamid M, Baharum N, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2015 Oct;70(5):273-7.
    PMID: 26556114
    BACKGROUND: Patients with severe psoriasis, namely those requiring phototherapy or systemic treatment, have an increased risk of death. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, aetiology and risk factors for mortality among adult patients aged 18 years and above with psoriasis in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving adult patients notified by dermatologists to the Malaysian Psoriasis Registry between July 2007 and December 2013. Data were cross-checked against the National Death Registry. Patients certified dead were identified and the cause of death was analysed. Multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression were conducted on potential factors associated with higher risk of mortality.

    RESULTS: A total of 419 deaths were identified among the 9775 patients notified. There were four significant risk factors for higher mortality: age>40 years (age 41-60 years old, Odds Ratio (OR) 2.70, 95%CI 1.75, 4.18; age>60 years OR 7.46, 95%CI 4.62, 12.02), male gender (OR 1.72, 95%CI 1.33,2.22), severe psoriasis with body surface area (BSA) >10% (OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.19, 1.96) and presence of at least one cardiovascular co-morbidity (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.30, 2.14). Among the 301 patients with verifiable causes of death, the leading causes were infection (33.9%), cardiovascular disease (33.6%) and malignancy (15.9%).

    CONCLUSION: Infection was the leading cause of death among psoriasis patients in Malaysia. Although cardiovascular diseases are well-known to cause significant morbidity and mortality among psoriasis patients, the role of infections and malignancy should not be overlooked.

    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  2. Yong Sheng Tan NH, Sachithanandan A
    Med J Malaysia, 2015 Apr;70(2):114-5.
    PMID: 26162393 MyJurnal
    The incidence of premature multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) is on the rise in Malaysia. The pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis is multi-factorial with dyslipidaemia being one such risk factor. Elevated total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) levels are primarily responsible. We analysed the fasting pre-operative lipid profiles of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients with symptomatic severe premature CAD. A majority of patients had an elevated LDL cholesterol level despite being on a statin. Similarly, no patient with an elevated TG level was prescribed a fibrate. Pre-operative control of known dyslipidaemia was suboptimal in young adults with angiographially proven severe symptomatic CAD. This is either due to subtherapeutic dose prescribing or failure to commence appropriate anti-lipid drugs. Collectively, general practitioners, cardiologists and cardiac surgeons must be more diligent in monitoring lipid profiles in such patients and be more meticulous in prescribing therapeutic doses to achieve target control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  3. Choon SE, Lebwohl MG, Turki H, Zheng M, Burden AD, Li L, et al.
    Dermatology, 2023;239(3):345-354.
    PMID: 36796336 DOI: 10.1159/000529274
    BACKGROUND: Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare, neutrophilic skin disease that can become life-threatening if flares are untreated. There are limited data describing the characteristics and clinical course of GPP disease flares with current treatment options.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of GPP flares using historical medical information from patients enrolled in the Effisayil™ 1 trial.

    METHODS: Investigators collected retrospective medical data characterizing patients' GPP flares prior to clinical trial enrollment. Data on overall historical flares were collected, as well as information on patients' typical, most severe, and longest past flares. This included data on systemic symptoms, flare duration, treatment, hospitalization, and time to clearance of skin lesions.

    RESULTS: In this cohort (N = 53), patients with GPP experienced a mean of 3.4 flares per year. Flares were painful, associated with systemic symptoms, and often triggered by stress, infections, or treatment withdrawal. Resolution of flares was longer than 3 weeks in 57.1%, 71.0%, and 85.7% of documented (or identified) typical, most severe, and longest flares, respectively. GPP flares led to patient hospitalization in 35.1%, 74.2%, and 64.3% of patients for their typical, most severe, and longest flares, respectively. For the majority of patients, pustules took up to 2 weeks to clear for a typical flare and 3-8 weeks to clear for the most severe and longest flares.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight that current treatment options are slow to control GPP flares and provide context for assessing the efficacy of new therapeutic strategies in patients with a GPP flare.

    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  4. Hansen-Algenstaedt N, Chiu CK, Chan CY, Lee CK, Schaefer C, Kwan MK
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 2015 Sep 1;40(17):E954-63.
    PMID: 25929207 DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000000958
    Retrospective study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  5. Zaki NF, Sulaiman AS, Gillani WS
    Int Arch Med, 2010;3:34.
    PMID: 21092333 DOI: 10.1186/1755-7682-3-34
    Global views emphasize the need for early; effective intervention against the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome to reduce the risk of premature cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to determine the clinical practices and compliance among dyslipidemia with type II diabetes and hypertension in multiracial society.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  6. Kitisubkanchana J, Reduwan NH, Poomsawat S, Pornprasertsuk-Damrongsri S, Wongchuensoontorn C
    Oral Radiol, 2021 Jan;37(1):55-65.
    PMID: 32030659 DOI: 10.1007/s11282-020-00425-2
    OBJECTIVES: To describe the radiographic features of odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) and ameloblastomas and to compare the radiographic findings between these 2 lesions.

    METHODS: Radiographs of OKCs and ameloblastomas were retrospectively reviewed. Location, border, shape, association with impacted tooth, tooth displacement, root resorption, and bone expansion were evaluated. Chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis. A p value 

    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  7. Yamin DH, Husin A, Harun A
    Front Public Health, 2021;9:631865.
    PMID: 34458217 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.631865
    Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is an important healthcare-associated infection caused by various nosocomial pathogens. Candida parapsilosis has emerged as a crucial causative agent for the CRBSI in the last two decades. Many factors have been associated with the development of CRBSI including, demography, pre-maturity, comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart diseases, neuropathy, respiratory diseases, renal dysfunction, hematological and solid organ malignancies, and intestinal dysfunction), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation (MV), total parenteral nutrition (TPN), prior antibiotic and/or antifungal therapy, neutropenia, prior surgery, immunosuppressant, and type, site, number, and duration of catheters. This study aims to determine C. parapsilosis CRBSI risk factors. A retrospective study has been performed in an 853-bedded tertiary-care hospital in north-eastern Malaysia. All inpatients with C. parapsilosis positive blood cultures from January 2006 to December 2018 were included, and their medical records were reviewed using a standardized checklist. Out of 208 candidemia episodes, 177 had at least one catheter during admission, and 31 cases had not been catheterized and were excluded. Among the 177 cases, 30 CRBSI cases were compared to 147 non-CRBSI cases [81 bloodstream infections (BSIs), 66 catheter colonizers]. The significance of different risk factors was calculated using multivariate analysis. Multivariate analysis of potential risk factors shows that ICU admission was significantly associated with non-CRBSI as compared to CRBSI [OR, 0.242; 95% CI (0.080-0.734); p = 0.012], and TPN was significantly positively associated with CRBSI than non-CRBSI [OR, 3.079; 95%CI (1.125-8.429); p = 0.029], while other risk factors were not associated significantly. Patients admitted in ICU were less likely to develop C. parapsilosis CRBSI while patients receiving TPN were more likely to have C. parapsilosis CRBSI when compared to the non-CRBSI group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  8. Zueter A, Yean CY, Abumarzouq M, Rahman ZA, Deris ZZ, Harun A
    BMC Infect Dis, 2016;16:333.
    PMID: 27423906 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-016-1583-2
    Over the last two decades, many epidemiological studies were performed to describe risks and clinical presentations of melioidosis in endemic countries.

    Study site: Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  9. Kow RY, Low CL, Awang MS
    J Invest Surg, 2023 12;36(1):1-2.
    PMID: 36345727 DOI: 10.1080/08941939.2022.2136803
    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  10. Ahmad WMAW, Noor NFM, Shaari R, Nawi MAA, Ghazali FMM, Aleng NA, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2021 Jun 01;32(4):1500-1503.
    PMID: 33852515 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007435
    ABSTRACT: Oral and maxillofacial fractures are the most common injuries among multiple trauma. About 5% to 10% of trauma patients having facial fractures. The objectives of this case study are to focus the most common mid-face fractures types' and to determine the relationship of the midface fracture in maxillofacial trauma among the patient who attended the outpatient clinic in a Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. In this research paper, an advanced statistical tool was chosen through the multilayer perceptron neural network methodology (MLPNN). Multilayer perceptron neural network methodology was applied to determine the most associated predictor important toward maxillary bone injury. Through the predictor important classification analysis, the relationship of each bone will be determined, and sorting according to their contribution. After sorting the most associated predictor important toward maxillary bone injury, the validation process will be applied through the value of training, testing, and validation. The input variables of MLPNN were zygomatic complex fracture, orbital wall fracture, nasal bone fracture, frontal bone fracture, and zygomatic arch fracture. The performance of MLPNN having high accuracy with 82.2%. As a conclusion, the zygomatic complex fracture is the most common fracture trauma among the patient, having the most important association toward maxillary bone fracture. This finding has the highest potential for further statistical modeling for education purposes and the decision-maker among the surgeon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  11. Stonehouse-Smith D, Rahman ANAA, Mooney J, Bellardie H
    Cleft Palate Craniofac J, 2022 01;59(1):79-85.
    PMID: 33757373 DOI: 10.1177/1055665621996116
    AIM: To assess occlusal outcomes of orthodontic treatment for patients with complete cleft lip and palate.

    DESIGN: Retrospective assessment using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index.

    SETTING: Consecutive patients treated by one consultant orthodontist at a tertiary care cleft center.

    PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-seven patients with either complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) or bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) consecutively treated with fixed appliances.

    INTERVENTION: Fixed orthodontic appliance treatment and orthognathic surgery when required.

    OUTCOMES: The PAR index assessment was carried out by a calibrated-independent assessor. Treatment duration, the number of patient visits, and data on dental anomalies were drawn from patient records and radiographs.

    RESULTS: One hundred two patients' study models were assessed after exclusions. Mean start PAR score for UCLP (n = 71) was 43.9 (95% CI, 41.2-46.6, SD 11.5), with a mean score reduction of 84.3% (95% CI, 81.9-86.7, SD 10.1). The UCLP mean treatment time was 23.7 months with 20.1 appointments. Mean start PAR score for BCLP (n = 31) was 43.4 (95% CI, 39.2-47.6, SD 11.4), with a mean score reduction of 80.9% (95% CI, 76.3-85.5, SD 12.5). The BCLP mean treatment time was 27.8 months with 20.5 appointments.

    CONCLUSION: These results compare well with other outcome reports, including those for patients without a cleft, and reflect the standard of care provided by an experienced cleft orthodontist. As with high-volume surgeons, orthodontic treatment for this high need group is favorable when provided by a high-volume orthodontist. These findings may be used for comparative audit with similar units providing cleft care.

    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  12. Al-Timemy AH, Mosa ZM, Alyasseri Z, Lavric A, Lui MM, Hazarbassanov RM, et al.
    Transl Vis Sci Technol, 2021 12 01;10(14):16.
    PMID: 34913952 DOI: 10.1167/tvst.10.14.16
    Purpose: To develop and assess the accuracy of a hybrid deep learning construct for detecting keratoconus (KCN) based on corneal topographic maps.

    Methods: We collected 3794 corneal images from 542 eyes of 280 subjects and developed seven deep learning models based on anterior and posterior eccentricity, anterior and posterior elevation, anterior and posterior sagittal curvature, and corneal thickness maps to extract deep corneal features. An independent subset with 1050 images collected from 150 eyes of 85 subjects from a separate center was used to validate models. We developed a hybrid deep learning model to detect KCN. We visualized deep features of corneal parameters to assess the quality of learning subjectively and computed area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), confusion matrices, accuracy, and F1 score to evaluate models objectively.

    Results: In the development dataset, 204 eyes were normal, 123 eyes were suspected KCN, and 215 eyes had KCN. In the independent validation dataset, 50 eyes were normal, 50 eyes were suspected KCN, and 50 eyes were KCN. Images were annotated by three corneal specialists. The AUC of the models for the two-class and three-class problems based on the development set were 0.99 and 0.93, respectively.

    Conclusions: The hybrid deep learning model achieved high accuracy in identifying KCN based on corneal maps and provided a time-efficient framework with low computational complexity.

    Translational Relevance: Deep learning can detect KCN from non-invasive corneal images with high accuracy, suggesting potential application in research and clinical practice to identify KCN.

    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  13. Huang Q, Zhao G, Chen Y, Wu P, Li S, Peng C, et al.
    J Urol, 2023 Jan;209(1):99-110.
    PMID: 36194169 DOI: 10.1097/JU.0000000000002952
    PURPOSE: We introduce an intrapericardial control technique using a robotic approach in the surgical treatment of renal tumor with level IV inferior vena cava thrombus to decrease the severe complications associated with cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight patients with level IV inferior vena cava thrombi not extending into the atrium underwent transabdominal-transdiaphragmatic robot-assisted inferior vena cava thrombectomy obviating cardiopulmonary bypass/deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (cardiopulmonary bypass-free group) by an expert team comprising urological, hepatobiliary, and cardiovascular surgeons. The central diaphragm tendon and pericardium were transabdominally dissected until the intrapericardial inferior vena cava were exposed and looped proximal to the cranial end of the thrombi under intraoperative ultrasound guidance. As controls, 14 patients who underwent robot-assisted inferior vena cava thrombectomy with cardiopulmonary bypass (cardiopulmonary bypass group) and 25 patients who underwent open thrombectomy with cardiopulmonary bypass/deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (cardiopulmonary bypass/deep hypothermic circulatory arrest group) were included. Clinicopathological, operative, and survival outcomes were retrospectively analyzed.

    RESULTS: Eight robot-assisted inferior vena cava thrombectomies were successfully performed without cardiopulmonary bypass, with 1 open conversion. The median operation time and first porta hepatis occlusion time were shorter, and estimated blood loss was lower in the cardiopulmonary bypass-free group as compared to the cardiopulmonary bypass group (540 vs 586.5 minutes, 16.5 vs 38.5. minutes, and 2,050 vs 3,500 mL, respectively). Severe complications (level IV-V) were also lower in the cardiopulmonary bypass-free group than in cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiopulmonary bypass/deep hypothermic circulatory arrest groups (25% vs 50% vs 40%). Oncologic outcomes were comparable among the 3 groups in short-term follow-up.

    CONCLUSIONS: Pure transabdominal-transdiaphragmatic robot-assisted inferior vena cava thrombectomy without cardiopulmonary bypass/deep hypothermic circulatory arrest represents as an alternative minimally invasive approach for selected level IV inferior vena cava thrombi.

    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  14. Albitar O, Ghadzi SMS, Harun SN, Ahmad SNA, Kjellsson MC
    J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn, 2023 Feb;50(1):21-31.
    PMID: 36380133 DOI: 10.1007/s10928-022-09833-9
    Clozapine has superior efficacy to other antipsychotics yet is underutilized due to its adverse effects, such as neutropenia, weight gain, and tachycardia. The current investigation aimed to introduce a pharmacometric approach to simultaneously model drug adverse effects, with examples from schizophrenia spectrum patients receiving clozapine. The adverse drug effects were represented as a function of time by incorporating a mixture model to describe individual susceptibility to the adverse effects. Applications of the proposed method were presented by analyzing retrospective data from patients' medical records in Psychiatric Clinic, Penang General Hospital. Tachycardia, weight gain, and absolute neutrophils count (ANC) decrease were best described by an offset, a piecewise linear, and a transient surge function, respectively. 42.9% of the patients had all the adverse effects, including weight gain (0.01 kg/m2 increase every week over a baseline of 24.7 kg/m2 until stabilizing at 279 weeks), ANC decrease (20% decrease from 4540 cells/µL week 12-20.8), and tachycardia (14% constant increase over a baseline of 87.9 bpm for a clozapine maintenance dose of 450 mg daily). 32.5% of the patients had only tachycardia, while the remaining 24.6% had none of the adverse effects. A new pharmacometric approach was proposed to describe adverse drug effects with examples of clozapine-induced weight gain, ANC drop, and tachycardia. The current approach described the longitudinal time changes of continuous data while assessing patient susceptibility. Furthermore, the model revealed the possible co-existence of ANC drop and weight gain; thus, neutrophil monitoring might predict future changes in body weight.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  15. Petzold A, Fraser CL, Abegg M, Alroughani R, Alshowaeir D, Alvarenga R, et al.
    Lancet Neurol, 2022 Dec;21(12):1120-1134.
    PMID: 36179757 DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00200-9
    There is no consensus regarding the classification of optic neuritis, and precise diagnostic criteria are not available. This reality means that the diagnosis of disorders that have optic neuritis as the first manifestation can be challenging. Accurate diagnosis of optic neuritis at presentation can facilitate the timely treatment of individuals with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease. Epidemiological data show that, cumulatively, optic neuritis is most frequently caused by many conditions other than multiple sclerosis. Worldwide, the cause and management of optic neuritis varies with geographical location, treatment availability, and ethnic background. We have developed diagnostic criteria for optic neuritis and a classification of optic neuritis subgroups. Our diagnostic criteria are based on clinical features that permit a diagnosis of possible optic neuritis; further paraclinical tests, utilising brain, orbital, and retinal imaging, together with antibody and other protein biomarker data, can lead to a diagnosis of definite optic neuritis. Paraclinical tests can also be applied retrospectively on stored samples and historical brain or retinal scans, which will be useful for future validation studies. Our criteria have the potential to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis, provide information on optic neuritis disease course that can guide future treatment trial design, and enable physicians to judge the likelihood of a need for long-term pharmacological management, which might differ according to optic neuritis subgroups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  16. Letchumanan N, Wong JHD, Tan LK, Ab Mumin N, Ng WL, Chan WY, et al.
    J Digit Imaging, 2023 Aug;36(4):1533-1540.
    PMID: 37253893 DOI: 10.1007/s10278-022-00753-1
    This study investigates the feasibility of using texture radiomics features extracted from mammography images to distinguish between benign and malignant breast lesions and to classify benign lesions into different categories and determine the best machine learning (ML) model to perform the tasks. Six hundred and twenty-two breast lesions from 200 retrospective patient data were segmented and analysed. Three hundred fifty radiomics features were extracted using the Standardized Environment for Radiomics Analysis (SERA) library, one of the radiomics implementations endorsed by the Image Biomarker Standardisation Initiative (IBSI). The radiomics features and selected patient characteristics were used to train selected machine learning models to classify the breast lesions. A fivefold cross-validation was used to evaluate the performance of the ML models and the top 10 most important features were identified. The random forest (RF) ensemble gave the highest accuracy (89.3%) and positive predictive value (66%) and likelihood ratio of 13.5 in categorising benign and malignant lesions. For the classification of benign lesions, the RF model again gave the highest likelihood ratio of 3.4 compared to the other models. Morphological and textural radiomics features were identified as the top 10 most important features from the random forest models. Patient age was also identified as one of the significant features in the RF model. We concluded that machine learning models trained against texture-based radiomics features and patient features give reasonable performance in differentiating benign versus malignant breast lesions. Our study also demonstrated that the radiomics-based machine learning models were able to emulate the visual assessment of mammography lesions, typically used by radiologists, leading to a better understanding of how the machine learning model arrive at their decision.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  17. Tan AL, Phua VC
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Jun;69(3):124-5.
    PMID: 25326352 MyJurnal
    PURPOSE: Extravasation with intravenous chemotherapy is a common complication of chemotherapy which carries the risk of devastating complications. This study aims to determine the rate of extravasation with intravenous chemotherapy in a major hospital where chemotherapy is delivered in various departments other than the oncology department.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who underwent intravenous chemotherapy in the oncology department and surgical wards in Penang General hospital from 1st February 2008 till 31st June 2008 were recruited retrospectively for this study to look at the rate of extravasation.

    RESULTS: A total of 602 patients underwent intravenous chemotherapy during this period. Fifty patients received chemotherapy in the general surgical ward while another 552 patients received chemotherapy in the oncology department. There were 5 cases of extravasation giving an overall extravasation rate of 0.8% (5/602). however, 4 of these cases occurred in the general surgical ward giving it a rate of 8% (4/50).

    CONCLUSION: The rate of extravasation in our hospital was 0.8%. however, this rate can be significantly increased if it is not done under a specialized unit delivering intravenous chemotherapy on a regular basis. Preventive steps including a standard chemotherapy delivery protocol, staff and patient education must be put in place in all units delivering intravenous chemotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
  18. Tan KK, Chong CS, Tsang CB, Koh DC
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Aug;68(4):348-52.
    PMID: 24145265
    Oncologic outcomes following laparoscopic abdomino-perineal resection (APR) for distal rectal cancer are infrequently reported. This study aims to compare the long term outcomes between laparoscopic and open APR in distal rectal cancers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retrospective Studies
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