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  1. Khor GK, Uzir MH
    Yeast, 2011 Feb;28(2):93-107.
    PMID: 20939023 DOI: 10.1002/yea.1827
    Terpenes and terpenoids are among the key impact substances in the food and fragrance industries. Equipped with pharmacological properties and applications as ideal precursors for the biotechnological production of natural aroma chemicals, interests in these compounds have been escalating. Hence, the syntheses of new derivatives that can show improved properties are often called for. Stereoselective biotransformation offers several benefits to increase the rate of production, in terms of both the percentage yield and its enantiomeric excesses. Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is broadly used as a whole cell stereospecific reduction biocatalyst, due to its capability in reducing carbonyls and carbon-carbon double bonds, which also extends its functionality as a versatile biocatalyst in terpenoid biotransformation. This review provides some insights on the development and prospects in the reductive biotransformation of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids using S. cerevisiae, with an overview of strategies to overcome the common challenges in large-scale implementation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/metabolism*
  2. Wong JW, Yuen KH
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2003 Oct;29(9):1035-44.
    PMID: 14606667
    The present study was conducted to investigate the inclusion complexation of artemisinin (ART) with natural cyclodextrins (CyD), namely alpha-, beta-, and gamma-CyDs with the aim of improving its solubility and dissolution rate. Complex formation in aqueous solution and solid state was studied by solubility analysis, dissolution, and thermal analysis. Solubility diagrams indicated that the complexation of ART and the three CyDs occurred at a molar ratio of 1:1, and showed a remarkable increase in ART solubility. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters calculated by using the van't Hoff equation revealed that the complexation process was associated with negative enthalpy of formation and occurred spontaneously. The complexation capability of CyDs with ART increased in the order of alpha- < gamma- < beta-CyDs and could be ascribed to the structural compatibility between the molecular size of ART and the diameter of the CyD cavities. Dissolution profiles of the three complexes demonstrated an increased rate and extent of dissolution compared with those of their respective physical mixtures and a commercial preparation. In solid-state analysis, using differential scanning calorimetry, the gamma-CyD was capable of complexing the highest percentage of ART, followed by beta- and alpha-CyDs. The respective estimated percentage of ART complexed by the CyDs were 85%, 40%, and 12%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/metabolism
  3. Hamdi OA, Feroz SR, Shilpi JA, Anouar el H, Mukarram AK, Mohamad SB, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2015;16(3):5180-93.
    PMID: 25756376 DOI: 10.3390/ijms16035180
    Curcumenol and curcumenone are two major constituents of the plants of medicinally important genus of Curcuma, and often govern the pharmacological effect of these plant extracts. These two compounds, isolated from C. zedoaria rhizomes were studied for their binding to human serum albumin (HSA) using the fluorescence quench titration method. Molecular docking was also performed to get a more detailed insight into their interaction with HSA at the binding site. Additions of these sesquiterpenes to HSA produced significant fluorescence quenching and blue shifts in the emission spectra of HSA. Analysis of the fluorescence data pointed toward moderate binding affinity between the ligands and HSA, with curcumenone showing a relatively higher binding constant (2.46 × 105 M-1) in comparison to curcumenol (1.97 × 104 M-1). Cluster analyses revealed that site I is the preferred binding site for both molecules with a minimum binding energy of -6.77 kcal·mol-1. However, binding of these two molecules to site II cannot be ruled out as the binding energies were found to be -5.72 and -5.74 kcal·mol-1 for curcumenol and curcumenone, respectively. The interactions of both ligands with HSA involved hydrophobic interactions as well as hydrogen bonding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/metabolism*
  4. Rusdi NA, Goh HH, Sabri S, Ramzi AB, Mohd Noor N, Baharum SN
    Molecules, 2018 06 06;23(6).
    PMID: 29882808 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23061370
    Polygonum minus (syn. Persicaria minor) is a herbal plant that is well known for producing sesquiterpenes, which contribute to its flavour and fragrance. This study describes the cloning and functional characterisation of PmSTPS1 and PmSTPS2, two sesquiterpene synthase genes that were identified from P. minus transcriptome data mining. The full-length sequences of the PmSTPS1 and PmSTPS2 genes were expressed in the E. coli pQE-2 expression vector. The sizes of PmSTPS1 and PmSTPS2 were 1098 bp and 1967 bp, respectively, with open reading frames (ORF) of 1047 and 1695 bp and encoding polypeptides of 348 and 564 amino acids, respectively. The proteins consist of three conserved motifs, namely, Asp-rich substrate binding (DDxxD), metal binding residues (NSE/DTE), and cytoplasmic ER retention (RxR), as well as the terpene synthase family N-terminal domain and C-terminal metal-binding domain. From the in vitro enzyme assays, using the farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) substrate, the PmSTPS1 enzyme produced multiple acyclic sesquiterpenes of β-farnesene, α-farnesene, and farnesol, while the PmSTPS2 enzyme produced an additional nerolidol as a final product. The results confirmed the roles of PmSTPS1 and PmSTPS2 in the biosynthesis pathway of P. minus, to produce aromatic sesquiterpenes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/metabolism*
  5. Fatima A, Abdul AB, Abdullah R, Karjiban RA, Lee VS
    Int J Mol Sci, 2015 Jan 26;16(2):2747-66.
    PMID: 25629232 DOI: 10.3390/ijms16022747
    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Several signaling pathways have been implicated as causative and progression agents. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α protein plays a dual role in promoting and inhibiting cancer depending largely on the pathway initiated by the binding of the protein to its receptor. Zerumbone, an active constituent of Zingiber zerumbet, Smith, is known to act on the tumor necrosis factor pathway upregulating tumour necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptors and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Zerumbone is a sesquiterpene that is able to penetrate into the hydrophobic pockets of proteins to exert its inhibiting activity with several proteins. We found a good binding with the tumor necrosis factor, kinase κB (IKKβ) and the Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) component proteins along the TNF pathway. Our results suggest that zerumbone can exert its apoptotic activities by inhibiting the cytoplasmic proteins. It inhibits the IKKβ kinase that activates the NF-κB and also binds to the NF-κB complex in the TNF pathway. Blocking both proteins can lead to inhibition of cell proliferating proteins to be downregulated and possibly ultimate induction of apoptosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/metabolism*
  6. Seman-Kamarulzaman AF, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Ng CL, Hassan M
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(8):e0161707.
    PMID: 27560927 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161707
    Juvenile Hormone III is of great concern due to negative effects on major developmental and reproductive maturation in insect pests. Thus, the elucidation of enzymes involved JH III biosynthetic pathway has become increasing important in recent years. One of the enzymes in the JH III biosynthetic pathway that remains to be isolated and characterized is farnesal dehydrogenase, an enzyme responsible to catalyze the oxidation of farnesal into farnesoic acid. A novel NAD+-farnesal dehydrogenase of Polygonum minus was purified (315-fold) to apparent homogeneity in five chromatographic steps. The purification procedures included Gigacap S-Toyopearl 650M, Gigacap Q-Toyopearl 650M, and AF-Blue Toyopearl 650ML, followed by TSK Gel G3000SW chromatographies. The enzyme, with isoelectric point of 6.6 is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 70 kDa. The enzyme was relatively active at 40°C, but was rapidly inactivated above 45°C. The optimal temperature and pH of the enzyme were found to be 35°C and 9.5, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl agent, chelating agent, and metal ion. The enzyme was highly specific for farnesal and NAD+. Other terpene aldehydes such as trans- cinnamaldehyde, citral and α- methyl cinnamaldehyde were also oxidized but in lower activity. The Km values for farnesal, citral, trans- cinnamaldehyde, α- methyl cinnamaldehyde and NAD+ were 0.13, 0.69, 0.86, 1.28 and 0.31 mM, respectively. The putative P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase that's highly specific towards farnesal but not to aliphatic aldehydes substrates suggested that the enzyme is significantly different from other aldehyde dehydrogenases that have been reported. The MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS spectrometry further identified two peptides that share similarity to those of previously reported aldehyde dehydrogenases. In conclusion, the P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase may represent a novel plant farnesal dehydrogenase that exhibits distinctive substrate specificity towards farnesal. Thus, it was suggested that this novel enzyme may be functioning specifically to oxidize farnesal in the later steps of JH III pathway. This report provides a basic understanding for recombinant production of this particular enzyme. Other strategies such as adding His-tag to the protein makes easy the purification of the protein which is completely different to the native protein. Complete sequence, structure and functional analysis of the enzyme will be important for developing insect-resistant crop plants by deployment of transgenic plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/metabolism*
  7. Ee SF, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Othman R, Shaharuddin NA, Ismail I, Zainal Z
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:840592.
    PMID: 24678279 DOI: 10.1155/2014/840592
    Polygonum minus is an aromatic plant, which contains high abundance of terpenoids, especially the sesquiterpenes C15H24. Sesquiterpenes were believed to contribute to the many useful biological properties in plants. This study aimed to functionally characterize a full length sesquiterpene synthase gene from P. minus. P. minus sesquiterpene synthase (PmSTS) has a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1689 base pairs encoding a 562 amino acid protein. Similar to other sesquiterpene synthases, PmSTS has two large domains: the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal metal-binding domain. It also consists of three conserved motifs: the DDXXD, NSE/DTE, and RXR. A three-dimensional protein model for PmSTS built clearly distinguished the two main domains, where conserved motifs were highlighted. We also constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed that PmSTS belongs to the angiosperm sesquiterpene synthase subfamily Tps-a. To examine the function of PmSTS, we expressed this gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two transgenic lines, designated as OE3 and OE7, were further characterized, both molecularly and functionally. The transgenic plants demonstrated smaller basal rosette leaves, shorter and fewer flowering stems, and fewer seeds compared to wild type plants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the transgenic plants showed that PmSTS was responsible for the production of β -sesquiphellandrene.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/metabolism*
  8. Song AA, Abdullah JO, Abdullah MP, Shafee N, Othman R, Noor NM, et al.
    FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 2014 Jun;355(2):177-84.
    PMID: 24828482 DOI: 10.1111/1574-6968.12469
    Isoprenoids are a large, diverse group of secondary metabolites which has recently raised a renewed research interest due to genetic engineering advances, allowing specific isoprenoids to be produced and characterized in heterologous hosts. Many researches on metabolic engineering of heterologous hosts for increased isoprenoid production are focussed on Escherichia coli and yeasts. E. coli, as most prokaryotes, use the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway for isoprenoid production. Yeasts on the other hand, use the mevalonate pathway which is commonly found in eukaryotes. However, Lactococcus lactis is an attractive alternative host for heterologous isoprenoid production. Apart from being food-grade, this Gram-positive prokaryote uses the mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid production instead of the MEP pathway. Previous studies have shown that L. lactis is able to produce sesquiterpenes through heterologous expression of plant sesquiterpene synthases. In this work, we analysed the gene expression of the lactococcal mevalonate pathway through RT-qPCR to successfully engineer L. lactis as an efficient host for isoprenoid production. We then overexpressed the mvk gene singly or co-expressed with the mvaA gene as an attempt to increase β-sesquiphellandrene production in L. lactis. It was observed that co-expression of mvk with mvaA doubled the amount of β-sesquiphellandrene produced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/metabolism*
  9. Song AA, Abdullah JO, Abdullah MP, Shafee N, Othman R, Tan EF, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(12):e52444.
    PMID: 23300671 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052444
    Isoprenoids are a large and diverse group of metabolites with interesting properties such as flavour, fragrance and therapeutic properties. They are produced via two pathways, the mevalonate pathway or the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. While plants are the richest source of isoprenoids, they are not the most efficient producers. Escherichia coli and yeasts have been extensively studied as heterologous hosts for plant isoprenoids production. In the current study, we describe the usage of the food grade Lactococcus lactis as a potential heterologous host for the production of sesquiterpenes from a local herbaceous Malaysian plant, Persicaria minor (synonym Polygonum minus). A sesquiterpene synthase gene from P. minor was successfully cloned and expressed in L. lactis. The expressed protein was identified to be a β-sesquiphellandrene synthase as it was demonstrated to be functional in producing β-sesquiphellandrene at 85.4% of the total sesquiterpenes produced based on in vitro enzymatic assays. The recombinant L. lactis strain developed in this study was also capable of producing β-sesquiphellandrene in vivo without exogenous substrates supplementation. In addition, overexpression of the strain's endogenous 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase (HMGR), an established rate-limiting enzyme in the eukaryotic mevalonate pathway, increased the production level of β-sesquiphellandrene by 1.25-1.60 fold. The highest amount achieved was 33 nM at 2 h post-induction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/metabolism*
  10. Yap HY, Muria-Gonzalez MJ, Kong BH, Stubbs KA, Tan CS, Ng ST, et al.
    Microb. Cell Fact., 2017 Jun 12;16(1):103.
    PMID: 28606152 DOI: 10.1186/s12934-017-0713-x
    BACKGROUND: Genome mining facilitated by heterologous systems is an emerging approach to access the chemical diversity encoded in basidiomycete genomes. In this study, three sesquiterpene synthase genes, GME3634, GME3638, and GME9210, which were highly expressed in the sclerotium of the medicinal mushroom Lignosus rhinocerotis, were cloned and heterologously expressed in a yeast system.

    RESULTS: Metabolite profile analysis of the yeast culture extracts by GC-MS showed the production of several sesquiterpene alcohols (C15H26O), including cadinols and germacrene D-4-ol as major products. Other detected sesquiterpenes include selina-6-en-4-ol, β-elemene, β-cubebene, and cedrene. Two purified major compounds namely (+)-torreyol and α-cadinol synthesised by GME3638 and GME3634 respectively, are stereoisomers and their chemical structures were confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that GME3638 and GME3634 are a pair of orthologues, and are grouped together with terpene synthases that synthesise cadinenes and related sesquiterpenes. (+)-Torreyol and α-cadinol were tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and the latter was found to exhibit selective potent cytotoxicity in breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7) with IC50 value of 3.5 ± 0.58 μg/ml while α-cadinol is less active (IC50 = 18.0 ± 3.27 μg/ml).

    CONCLUSIONS: This demonstrates that yeast-based genome mining, guided by transcriptomics, is a promising approach for uncovering bioactive compounds from medicinal mushrooms.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/metabolism*
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