Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 60 in total

  1. Isa MH, Bashir MJK, Wong LP
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2022 Jun;29(29):44779-44793.
    PMID: 35138542 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-022-19022-3
    In this study, palm oil mill effluent (POME) treated by ultrasonication at optimum conditions (sonication power: 0.88 W/mL, sonication duration: 16.2 min and total solids: 6% w/v) obtained from a previous study was anaerobically digested at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The reactor biomass was subjected to metagenomic study to investigate the impact on the anaerobic community dynamics. Experiments were conducted in two 5 L continuously stirred fill-and-draw reactors R1 and R2 operated at 30 ± 2 °C. Reactor R1 serving as control reactor was fed with unsonicated POME with HRT of 15 and 20 days (R1-15 and R1-20), whereas reactor R2 was fed with sonicated POME with the same HRTs (R2-15 and R2-20). The most distinct archaea community shift was observed among Methanosaeta (R1-15: 26.6%, R2-15: 34.4%) and Methanobacterium (R1-15: 7.4%, R2-15: 3.2%). The genus Methanosaeta was identified from all reactors with the highest abundance from the reactors R2. Mean daily biogas production was 6.79 L from R2-15 and 4.5 L from R1-15, with relative methane gas abundance of 85% and 73%, respectively. Knowledge of anaerobic community dynamics allows process optimization for maximum biogas production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology
  2. Nor Anuar A, Ujang Z, van Loosdrecht MC, de Kreuk MK
    Water Sci Technol, 2007;56(7):55-63.
    PMID: 17951868
    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology has been extensively studied recently to improve sludge settling and behaviour in activated sludge systems. The main advantage is that aerobic granular sludge (AGS) can settle very fast in a reactor or clarifier because AGS is compact and has strong structure. It also has good settleability and a high capacity for biomass retention. Several experimental works have been conducted in this study to observe the settling behaviours of AGS. The study thus has two aims: (1) to compare the settling profile of AGS with other sludge flocs and (2) to observe the influence of mechanical mixing and design of the reactor to the settleability of AGS. The first experimental outcome shows that AGS settles after less than 5 min in a depth of 0.4 m compared to other sludge flocs (from sequencing batch reactor, conventional activated sludge and extended aeration) which takes more than 30 min. This study also shows that the turbulence from the mixing mechanism and shear in the reactor provides an insignificant effect on the AGS settling velocity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  3. Nor-Anuar A, Ujang Z, van Loosdrecht MC, de Kreuk MK, Olsson G
    Water Sci Technol, 2012;65(2):309-16.
    PMID: 22233910 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2012.837
    Aerobic granular sludge has a number of advantages over conventional activated sludge flocs, such as cohesive and strong matrix, fast settling characteristic, high biomass retention and ability to withstand high organic loadings, all aspects leading towards a compact reactor system. Still there are very few studies on the strength of aerobic granules. A procedure that has been used previously for anaerobic granular sludge strength analysis was adapted and used in this study. A new coefficient was introduced, called a stability coefficient (S), to quantify the strength of the aerobic granules. Indicators were also developed based on the strength analysis results, in order to categorize aerobic granules into three levels of strength, i.e. very strong (very stable), strong (stable) and not strong (not stable). The results indicated that aerobic granules grown on acetate were stronger (high density: >150 g T SSL(-1) and low S value: 5%) than granules developed on sewage as influent. A lower value of S indicates a higher stability of the granules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  4. Fakhrul-Razi A, Alam MZ, Idris A, Abd-Aziz S, Molla AH
    PMID: 11929070
    A study was carried out to isolate and identify filamentous fungi for the treatment of domestic wastewater sludge by enhancing biodegradability, settleability and dewaterability of treated sludge using liquid state bioconversion process. A total of 70 strains of filamentous fungi were isolated from three different sources (wastewater, sewage sludge and leachate) of IWK's (Indah Water Konsortium) sewage treatment plant, Malaysia. The isolated strains were purified by conventional techniques and identified by microscopic examination. The strains isolated belonged to the genera of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Spicaria and Hyaloflorae The distribution of observed isolated fungi were 41% in sewage sludge followed by 39% in wastewater and 20% in leachate. The predominant fungus was Penicillium (39 strains). The second and third most common isolates were Aspergillus (14 strains) and Trichoderma (12 strains). The other isolates were Spicaria (3 strains) and Hyaloflorae (2 strains). Three strains (WWZP1003, LZP3001, LZP3005) of Penicillium (P. corylophilum, P. waksmanii, and P. citrinum respectively), 2 strains (WWZA1006 and SS2017) of Aspergillus (A. terrues and A. flavus respectively) and one strain (SSZT2008) of Trichoderma (T. harzianum) were tentatively identified up to species level and finally verified by CABI Bioscience Identification Services, UK.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  5. How SW, Lim SY, Lim PB, Aris AM, Ngoh GC, Curtis TP, et al.
    Water Sci Technol, 2018 May;77(9-10):2274-2283.
    PMID: 29757179 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2018.143
    Intensive aeration for nitrification is a major energy consumer in sewage treatment plants (STPs). Low-dissolved-oxygen (low-DO) nitrification has the potential to lower the aeration demand. However, the applicability of low-DO nitrification in the tropical climate is not well-understood. In this study, the potential of low-DO nitrification in tropical setting was first examined using batch kinetic experiments. Subsequently, the performance of low-DO nitrification was investigated in a laboratory-scale sequential batch reactor (SBR) for 42 days using real tropical sewage. The batch kinetic experiments showed that the seed sludge has a relatively high oxygen affinity. Thus, the rate of nitrification was not significantly reduced at low DO concentrations (0.5 mg/L). During the operation of the low-DO nitrification SBR, 90% of NH4-N was removed. The active low-DO nitrification was mainly attributed to the limited biodegradable organics in the sewage. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed the nitrifiers were related to Nitrospira genus and Nitrosomonadaceae family. Phylogenetic analysis suggests 47% of the operational taxonomic units in Nitrospira genus are closely related to a comammox bacteria. This study has demonstrated active low-DO nitrification in tropical setting, which is a more sustainable process that could significantly reduce the energy footprint of STPs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  6. Chang JS, Chong MN, Poh PE, Ocon JD, Md Zoqratt MZH, Lee SM
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Apr;259:113867.
    PMID: 31896479 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113867
    This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of morphological-controlled ZnO nanoarchitectures on aerobic microbial communities during real wastewater treatment in an aerobic-photocatalytic system. Results showed that the antibacterial properties of ZnO nanoarchitectures were significantly more overwhelming than their photocatalytic properties. The inhibition of microbial activities in activated sludge by ZnO nanoarchitectures entailed an adverse effect on wastewater treatment efficiency. Subsequently, the 16S sequencing analysis were conducted to examine the impacts of ZnO nanoarchitectures on aerobic microbial communities, and found the significantly lower microbial diversity and species richness in activated sludge treated with 1D-ZnO nanorods as compared to other ZnO nanoarchitectures. Additionally, 1D-ZnO nanorods reduced the highest proportion of Proteobacteria phylum in activated sludge due to its higher proportion of active polar surfaces that facilitates Zn2+ ions dissolution. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the experimental data obtained from COD removal efficiency and bacterial log reduction were statistically significant (p-value 
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology
  7. Ghafari S, Hasan M, Aroua MK
    J Hazard Mater, 2009 Mar 15;162(2-3):1507-13.
    PMID: 18639979 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.039
    Acclimation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria using inorganic carbon source (CO(2) and bicarbonate) and hydrogen gas as electron donor was performed in this study. In this regard, activated sludge was used as the seed source and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technique was applied for accomplishing the acclimatization. Three distinct strategies in feeding of carbon sources were applied: (I) continuous sparging of CO(2), (II) bicarbonate plus continuous sparging of CO(2), and (III) only bicarbonate. The pH-reducing nature of CO(2) showed an unfavorable impact on denitrification rate; however bicarbonate resulted in a buffered environment in the mixed liquor and provided a suitable mean to maintain the pH in the desirable range of 7-8.2. As a result, bicarbonate as the only carbon source showed a faster adaptation, while carbon dioxide as the only carbon source as well as a complementary carbon source added to bicarbonate resulted in longer acclimation period. Adapted hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, using bicarbonate and hydrogen gas in the aforementioned pH range, caused denitrification at a rate of 13.33 mg NO(3)(-)-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 20 and 30 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L and 9.09 mg NO(3)(-)-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 50mg NO(3)(-)-N/L.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology
  8. Alam Z, Muyibi SA, Jamal P
    PMID: 17365300
    Forty-six bacterial strains were isolated from nine different sources in four treatment plants namely Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) sewage treatment plant (STP), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) wastewater treatment plant-1,-2 and -3 to evaluate the bioconversion process in terms of efficient biodegradation and bioseparation. The bacterial strains isolated were found to be 52.2% (24 isolates) and 47.8% (22 isolates) in the IWK and IIUM treatment plants, respectively. The results showed that higher microbial population (9-10 x 10(4) cfu/mL) was observed in the secondary clarifier of IWK treatment plant. Among the isolates, 23 isolates were gram-positive bacillus (GPB) and gram-positive cocci (GPC), 19 isolates were gram-negative bacillus (GNB) and gram-negative cocci (GNC), and the rest were undetermined. Gram-negative cocci (GNC) were not found in the isolates from IWK. A total of 15 bacterial strains were selected for effective and efficient sludge bioconversion. All the strains were tested against sludge (1% total suspended solids, TSS) to evaluate the biosolids production (TSS% content), chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and filtration rate (filterability test). The strain S-1 (IWK1001) showed lower TSS content (0.8% TSS), maximum COD removal (84%) and increased filterability (1.1 min/10 mL of filtrate) of treated sludge followed by the strains S-11, S-14, S-2, S-15, S-13, S-7, S-8, S-4, S-3, S-6, S-12, S-16, S-17 and S-9. The pH values in the fermentation broth were affected by the bacterial cultures and recorded as well. Effective bioconversion was observed during the first three days of sludge treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  9. Salmiati, Salim MR, Hassan RM, Tan KY
    Water Sci Technol, 2007;56(7):33-40.
    PMID: 17951865
    Biochemical products have been widely used for treatment of various types of wastewater. The treatment processes with the addition of biochemical products are quite attractive because of their simplicity, minimal use of equipment, they are environmentally friendly and are suitable for the removal of organic pollutants. The purpose of these products is to enhance the activities of beneficial microbes in order to improve treatment performance. This study was carried out to determine the potential of applying biochemical products in assisting and improving the performance of sewage treatment plants. In this study, four biochemical products, namely: Zeolite, Bio-C, Eco-B and Was-D, were applied to the sewage treatment plant. Analyses were carried out on several water quality parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), oil & grease (O&G), phosphorus (P), ammoniacal nitrogen (AN) and sludge thickness (ST). From the results obtained, it can be seen that the overall performance of the treatment plant improved with most of the parameters studied were found to fulfill the DOE Standard B requirements. The performance of Bio-C was found to give better results than other products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  10. Wang J, Mahmood Q, Qiu JP, Li YS, Chang YS, Li XD
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:398028.
    PMID: 26167485 DOI: 10.1155/2015/398028
    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m(3) of biogas per m(3) of POME which was utilized for electricity generation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  11. Molla AH, Fakhru'l-Razi A, Hanafi MM, Abd-Aziz S, Alam MZ
    PMID: 12369641
    Ten filamentous fungi adapted to domestic wastewater sludge (DWS) were further studied to evaluate their potential in terms of adaptation to higher sludge supplemented growing media and phytopathogenicity (induction of diseases to plants) to three germinating crop (Corn: Zea mays, Mung bean: Phaseolus aureus and Mustard: Brassica napus) seeds. The performances of the fungi in seed germination were evaluated based on percent germination index (GI) and infected/spotted seeds on direct fungal biomass (FBM) and fungal metabolite (FM). Significantly the highest biomass production was achieved with RW-P1 512 and Penicillium corylophilum (WW-P1003) at the highest (25%) sludge supplemented growing media that implied its excellent potentiality of adaptation and multiplication to domestic wastewater sludge. Significantly encouraging results of percent GI and spotted/infected seedlings were observed in FM than FBM by all fungi except the strain Aspergillus niger. A. niger gave the poorest percent of GI (24.30, 26.98 and 00.00%) and the highest percent of infected/spotted seeds (70, 100, and 100%) using FBM for corn, mung bean and mustard, respectively. On the other hand, comparatively the highest percent of GI (107.99, 106.25 and 117.67%) and the lowest percent of spotted/infected seedlings (3.3, 3.3 and 3.3%) were achieved with the isolate RW-P1 512 using FM. In FBM, the superior results of percent GI (86.61, 95.92 and 83.87%) and spotted/infected seedlings (3.3, 63.3 and 43.3%) were obtained by A. versicolor. Several crop seeds were responded differently for different fungal treatments. Hundred percent infected/spotted seeds in FM were recorded only for mustard with Trichoderma family that implied its strong sensitiveness to its metabolites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  12. Alam MZ, Fakhru'l-Razi A, Molla AH
    J Environ Sci (China), 2004;16(1):132-7.
    PMID: 14971468
    This study was undertaken to screen the filamentous fungi isolated from its relevant habitats(wastewater, sewage sludge and sludge cake) for the bioconversion of domestic wastewater sludge. A total of 35 fungal strains were tested against wastewater sludge (total suspended solids, TSS 1%-5% w/w) to evaluate its potentiality for enhancing the biodegradability and dewaterability using liquid state bioconversion(LSB) process. The strains were divided into five groups i.e. Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Basidiomycete and Miscellaneous, respectively. The strains WWZP1003, SCahmA103, SCahmT105 and PC-9 among their respective groups of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Basidiomycete played potential roles in terms of separation (formation of pellets/flocs/filaments), biodegradation(removal of COD) and filtration (filterability) of treated domestic wastewater sludge. The Miscellaneous group was not considered due to its unsatisfactory results as compared to the other groups. The pH value was also influenced by the microbial treatment during fermentation process. The filterability of treated sludge was improved by fungal treatment, and lowest filtration time was recorded for the strain WWZP1003 and SCahmA103 of Penicillium and Aspergillus groups respectively compared with other strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  13. Ruslan AR, Vadivelu VM
    J Environ Sci (China), 2019 Mar;77:148-155.
    PMID: 30573078 DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2018.06.023
    The effect of pre-treatment of dewatered sludge using different nitrite concentrations and pH for microbial fuel cell (MFC) application was investigated. The results show that the addition of nitrite was feasible to increase the solubilization rate of the sludge and may reduce mass transfer limitation at the anode. This helped the MFC to reach higher voltage and to generate more power. The higher free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration under the acidic condition helped to increase sludge solubilization. However, under an alkaline condition, during which the FNA concentration was relatively low, the solubilization of the sludge was higher. The highest voltage and power density produced was 390 mV and 153 mW/m2, respectively, with the addition of nitrite at 100 mg-N/L and pH 9. Furthermore, it was found that elevated levels of FNA could inhibit electrogenic bacteria thus reducing power generation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  14. Alam MZ, Fakhru'l-Razi A
    Water Res, 2003 Mar;37(5):1118-24.
    PMID: 12553987
    A study was conducted to evaluate the settleability and dewaterability of fungal treated and untreated sludge using liquid state bioconversion process. The fungal mixed culture of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum was used for fungal pretreatment of wastewater sludge. The fungal strains immobilized/entrapped on sludge particles with the formation of pellets and enhanced the separation process. The results presented in this study showed that the sludge particles (pellets) size of 2-5mm of diameter were formed with the microbial treatment of sludge after 2 days of fermentation that contained maximum 33.7% of total particles with 3-3.5mm of diameter. The settling rate (measured as total suspended solids (TSS) concentration, 130 mg/l) was faster in treated sludge than untreated sludge (TSS concentration, 440 mg/l) after 1 min of settling time. In 1 min of settling operation, 86.45% of TSS was settled in treated sludge while 4.35% of TSS settled in raw sludge. Lower turbidity was observed in treated sludge as compared to untreated sludge. The results to specific resistance to filtration (SRF) revealed that the fungal inoculum had significant potentiality to reduce SRF by 99.8% and 98.7% for 1% w/w and 4% w/w of TSS sludge, respectively. The optimum fermentation period recorded was 3 days for 1% w/w sludge and 6 days for 4% w/w sludge, respectively, for dewaterability test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  15. Hassana SR, Zwaina HM, Zamana NQ, Dahlanb I
    Environ Technol, 2014 Jan-Feb;35(1-4):294-9.
    PMID: 24600868
    Start-up period is considered to be the most unstable and difficult stage in anaerobic process and usually takes a long time due to slow-degree adaptation of anaerobic microorganisms. In order to achieve a shorter start-up period, a novel modified anaerobic baffled reactor (MABR) has been developed in this study, where each modified baffle has its own characteristics (form/shape) to facilitate a treatment ofrecycled paper mill effluent (RPME). The results ofphysico-chemical characteristics showed that effluent from recycled paper mill consisted of 4328mgL-1 chemical oxygen demand (COD), 669mg L-1 biochemical oxygen demand and 501mg L-1 volatile fatty acid. It also consisted of variety of heavy metals such as zinc, magnesium, iron and nickel at concentrations of 1.39, 12.19, 2.39 and 0.72 mgL-1, respectively. Performance of MABR during the start-up period showed that methane production reached 34.7% with COD removal of 85% at steady state. The result indicates that MABR was successfully operated during the start-up period in treating RPME within a period of less than 30 days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  16. Shehu MS, Abdul Manan Z, Alwi SR
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Jun;114:69-74.
    PMID: 22444634 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.02.135
    Optimization of thermo-alkaline disintegration of sewage sludge for enhanced biogas yield was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design of experiment. The individual linear and quadratic effects as well as the interactive effects of temperature, NaOH concentration and time on the degree of disintegration were investigated. The optimum degree of disintegration achieved was 61.45% at 88.50 °C, 2.29 M NaOH (24.23%w/w total solids) and 21 min retention time. Linear and quadratic effects of temperature are most significant in affecting the degree of disintegration. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 99.5% confirms that the model used in predicting the degree of disintegration process has a very good fitness with the experimental variables. The disintegrated sludge increased the biogas yield by 36%v/v compared to non-disintegrated sludge. The RSM with Box-Behnken design is an effective tool in predicting the optimum degree of disintegration of sewage sludge for increased biogas yield.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  17. Abdullah N, Ujang Z, Yahya A
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Jun;102(12):6778-81.
    PMID: 21524907 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.04.009
    The present study investigates the formation of aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with palm oil mill effluent (POME). Stable granules were observed in the reactor with diameters between 2.0 and 4.0mm at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 2.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). The biomass concentration was 7600 mg L(-1) while the sludge volume index (SVI) was 31.3 mL g SS(-1) indicating good biomass accumulation in the reactor and good settling properties of granular sludge, respectively. COD and ammonia removals were achieved at a maximum of 91.1% and 97.6%, respectively while color removal averaged at only 38%. This study provides insights on the development and the capabilities of aerobic granular sludge in POME treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  18. Wan Nawawi WM, Jamal P, Alam MZ
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Dec;101(23):9241-7.
    PMID: 20674345 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.024
    This paper introduces sludge palm oil (SPO) as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production by liquid state fermentation. Potential strains of microorganism were isolated from various hydrocarbon-based sources at palm oil mill and screened for biosurfactant production with the help of drop collapse method and surface tension activity. Out of 22 isolates of microorganism, the strain S02 showed the highest bacterial growth with a surface tension of 36.2 mN/m and was therefore, selected as a potential biosurfactant producing microorganism. Plackett-Burman experimental design was employed to determine the important nutritional requirement for biosurfactant production by the selected strain under controlled conditions. Six out of 11 factors of the production medium were found to significantly affect the biosurfactant production. K(2)HPO(4) had a direct proportional correlation with the biosurfactant production while sucrose, glucose, FeSO(4), MgSO(4), and NaNO(3) showed inversely proportional relationship with biosurfactant production in the selected experimental range.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  19. Damayanti A, Ujang Z, Salim MR, Olsson G, Sulaiman AZ
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Jan;101(1):144-9.
    PMID: 19734044 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.034
    Activated sludge models (ASMs) have been widely used as a basis for further model development in wastewater treatment processes. Values for parameters to be used are vital for the accuracy of the modeling approach. A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), as open respirometer with continuous flow for 20 h is used in ASMs. The dissolved oxygen (DO) profile for 11 days was monitored. It was found the mass transfer coefficient K(La) is 0.3 h(-1) during lag and start feed phase and 0.01 h(-1) during stop feed phase, while the heterotrophic yield coefficient Y(H) is 0.44. Some of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractionations of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using respirometric test in ASM models are S(s) 50 mg/L, S(I) 16,600 mg/L, X(S) 25,550 mg/L, and X(I) 2,800 mg/L. The comparison of experimental and ASM1 from OUR concentration is found to fit well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
  20. Othman I, Anuar AN, Ujang Z, Rosman NH, Harun H, Chelliapan S
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 Apr;133:630-4.
    PMID: 23453799 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.01.149
    The present study demonstrated that aerobic granular sludge is capable of treating livestock wastewater from a cattle farm in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) without the presence of support material. A lab scale SBR was operated for 80 d using 4 h cycle time with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 9 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Results showed that the aerobic granules were growing from 0.1 to 4.1 mm towards the end of the experimental period. The sludge volume index (SVI) was 42 ml g(-1) while the biomass concentration in the reactor grew up to 10.3 g L(-1) represent excellent biomass separation and good settling ability of the granules. During this period, maximum COD, TN and TP removal efficiencies (74%, 73% and 70%, respectively) were observed in the SBR system, confirming high microbial activity in the SBR system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*
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