Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 47 in total

  1. Huat, Bujang B.K, Faisal Ali, Hashim, S.
    The three shear strength parameters that are required to define a failure envelope of an unsaturated soil are c' (apparent cohesion),
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
  2. Wan Mohtar WH, ElShafie A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:683537.
    PMID: 25250384 DOI: 10.1155/2014/683537
    Shear-free turbulence generated from an oscillating grid in a water tank impinging on an impermeable surface at varying Reynolds number 74 ≤ Re(l) ≤ 570 was studied experimentally, where the Reynolds number is defined based on the root-mean-square (r.m.s) horizontal velocity and the integral length scale. A particular focus was paid to the turbulence characteristics for low Re(l) < 150 to investigate the minimum limit of Re l obeying the profiles of rapid distortion theory. The measurements taken at near base included the r.m.s turbulent velocities, evolution of isotropy, integral length scales, and energy spectra. Statistical analysis of the velocity data showed that the anisotropic turbulence structure follows the theory for flows with Re(l) ≥ 117. At low Re(l) < 117, however, the turbulence profile deviated from the prediction where no amplification of horizontal velocity components was observed and the vertical velocity components were seen to be constant towards the tank base. Both velocity components sharply decreased towards zero at a distance of ≈ 1/3 of the integral length scale above the base due to viscous damping. The lower limit where Re(l) obeys the standard profile was found to be within the range 114 ≤ Re(l) ≤ 116.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength*
  3. Sulaiman O, Hashim R, Wahab R, Ismail ZA, Samsi HW, Mohamed A
    Bioresour Technol, 2006 Dec;97(18):2466-9.
    PMID: 16524726
    Studies were carried out on heat treatment of bamboo species Gigantochloa scortechinii Gamble using palm oil. The samples were laminated and glued. The adhesion results showed that the delamination of glue line increased as the temperature and duration of oil heat treatment increased. Maximum load and shear strength of the glue line reduced as the heat treatment become more severe. It was found that the palm oil used as the heating medium penetrated in some parts of the cell wall as well as in the cell lumen of the bamboo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength*
  4. Sheikh Khozani Z, Sheikhi S, Mohtar WHMW, Mosavi A
    PLoS One, 2020;15(4):e0229731.
    PMID: 32271780 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0229731
    Shear stress comprises basic information for predicting the average depth velocity and discharge in channels. With knowledge of the percentage of shear force carried by walls (%SFw) it is possible to more accurately estimate shear stress values. The %SFw, non-dimension wall shear stress ([Formula: see text]) and non-dimension bed shear stress ([Formula: see text]) in smooth rectangular channels were predicted by a three methods, the Bayesian Regularized Neural Network (BRNN), the Radial Basis Function (RBF), and the Modified Structure-Radial Basis Function (MS-RBF). For this aim, eight data series of research experimental results in smooth rectangular channels were used. The results of the new method of MS-RBF were compared with those of a simple RBF and BRNN methods and the best model was selected for modeling each predicted parameters. The MS-RBF model with RMSE of 3.073, 0.0366 and 0.0354 for %SFw, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] respectively, demonstrated better performance than those of the RBF and BRNN models. The results of MS-RBF model were compared with three other proposed equations by researchers for trapezoidal channels and rectangular ducts. The results showed that the MS-RBF model performance in estimating %SFw, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] is superior than those of presented equations by researchers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength*
  5. Bahnasi FI, Abd-Rahman AN, Abu-Hassan MI
    PMID: 24455081 DOI: 10.4317/jced.51113
    1) to assess different methods of recycling orthodontic brackets, 2) to evaluate Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of (a) new, (b) recycled and (c) repeated recycled stainless steel brackets (i) with and (ii) without bracket base primer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
  6. Zainal SMIS, Hejazi F, Aziz FNAA, Jaafar MS
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Nov 10;13(22).
    PMID: 33182531 DOI: 10.3390/ma13225055
    The use of fibers in cementitious composites yields numerous benefits due to their fiber-bridging capabilities in resisting cracks. Therefore, this study aimed to improve the shear-resisting capabilities of conventional concrete through the hybridization of multiple synthetic fibers, specifically on reinforced concrete structures in seismic-prone regions. For this study, 16 hybrid fiber-reinforced concretes (HyFRC) were developed from the different combinations of Ferro macro-synthetic fibers with the Ultra-Net, Super-Net, Econo-Net, and Nylo-Mono microfibers. These hybrids were tested under direct shear, resulting in improved shear strength of controlled specimens by Ferro-Ultra (32%), Ferro-Super (24%), Ferro-Econo (44%), and Ferro-Nylo (24%). Shear energy was further assessed to comprehend the effectiveness of the fiber interactions according to the mechanical properties, dosage, bonding power, manufactured material, and form of fibers. Conclusively, all fiber combinations used in this study produced positive synergistic effects under direct shear at large crack deformations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
  7. Md Zin N, Al-Fakih A, Nikbakht E, Teo W, Anwar Gad M
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Dec 11;12(24).
    PMID: 31835775 DOI: 10.3390/ma12244159
    An experimental study is conducted to determine the influence of secondary reinforcement on the behaviour of corbels fabricated with three different types of high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites, including engineered cementitious concrete (ECC); high-performance steel fiber-reinforced composite (HPSFRC); and hybrid fiber-reinforced composite (HyFRC). Two shear span-to-depth ratios (a/d = 0.75 and 1.0) are explored. The mechanical properties of the composites in terms of tensile, compressive, and flexural strengths are investigated. Next, the structural behaviour of the high-performance cementitious composite corbels in terms of ultimate load capacity, ductility, and failure modes under the three-point bending test are investigated. The secondary reinforcement is proven to significantly affect stiffness and ultimately load capacity of all three high-performance composite corbels with an aspect ratio of 0.75. However, the secondary reinforcement was more impactful for the HPSFRC corbels, with 51% increase of ultimate strength. Moreover, in terms of damage, fewer cracks occurred in ECC corbels. HPSFRC corbels displayed the highest level of ductility and deformation capacity compared to the other specimens. The results were comparatively analyzed against the predicted results using truss and plastic truss models which provided relatively reliable shear strength.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
  8. Zhongwei Liu, Jinsheng Jia, Wei Feng, Fengling Ma, Cuiying Zheng
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:2101-2108.
    Shear strength is currently a significant parameter in the design of cemented sand gravel and rock (CSGR) dams. Shear strength tests were carried out to compare material without layers noumenon and layer condition. The experimental results showed good linearity in the curves of shear strength and pure grinding tests with correlation coefficients of nearly 97%. The friction coefficient was similar to that of C10 roller-compacted concrete (RCC), but the cohesion value was weaker than that of RCC. The shear strength of the CSGR layers decreased by 40% when retarding mixtures were not added and the layer was paved immediately after 4 h of waiting interval.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
  9. Al-Fasih MY, Mohamad ME, Ibrahim IS, Ahmad Y, Ariffin MAM, Sarbini NN, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(5):e0252050.
    PMID: 34015027 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0252050
    Effects of different surface textures on the interface shear strength, interface slip, and failure modes of the concrete-to-concrete bond are examined through finite element numerical model and experimental methods in the presence of the horizontal load with 'push-off' technique under different normal stresses. Three different surface textures are considered; smooth, indented, and transversely roughened to finish the top surfaces of the concrete bases. In the three-dimensional modeling via the ABAQUS solver, the Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) is used to simulate the interface shear failure. It is observed that the interface shear strength increases with the applied normal stress. The transversely roughened surface achieves the highest interface shear strength compared with those finished with the indented and smooth approaches. The smooth and indented surfaces are controlled by the adhesive failure mode while the transversely roughened surface is dominated by the cohesive failure mode. Also, it is observed that the CZM approach can accurately model the interface shear failure with 3-29% differences between the modeled and the experimental test findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
  10. Panjehpour M, Chai HK, Voo YL
    PLoS One, 2015;10(6):e0130734.
    PMID: 26110268 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130734
    Deep beams are commonly used in tall buildings, offshore structures, and foundations. According to many codes and standards, strut-and-tie model (STM) is recommended as a rational approach for deep beam analyses. This research focuses on the STM recommended by ACI 318-11 and AASHTO LRFD and uses experimental results to modify the strut effectiveness factor in STM for reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams. This study aims to refine STM through the strut effectiveness factor and increase result accuracy. Six RC deep beams with different shear span to effective-depth ratios (a/d) of 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.00 were experimentally tested under a four-point bending set-up. The ultimate shear strength of deep beams obtained from non-linear finite element modeling and STM recommended by ACI 318-11 as well as AASHTO LRFD (2012) were compared with the experimental results. An empirical equation was proposed to modify the principal tensile strain value in the bottle-shaped strut of deep beams. The equation of the strut effectiveness factor from AASHTTO LRFD was then modified through the aforementioned empirical equation. An investigation on the failure mode and crack propagation in RC deep beams subjected to load was also conducted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength*
  11. Chong Leong G, Uda H
    PLoS One, 2013;8(11):e78705.
    PMID: 24244344 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078705
    This paper compares and discusses the wearout reliability and analysis of Gold (Au), Palladium (Pd) coated Cu and Pd-doped Cu wires used in fineline Ball Grid Array (BGA) package. Intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness measurement has been carried out to estimate the coefficient of diffusion (Do) under various aging conditions of different bonding wires. Wire pull and ball bond shear strengths have been analyzed and we found smaller variation in Pd-doped Cu wire compared to Au and Pd-doped Cu wire. Au bonds were identified to have faster IMC formation, compared to slower IMC growth of Cu. The obtained weibull slope, β of three bonding wires are greater than 1.0 and belong to wearout reliability data point. Pd-doped Cu wire exhibits larger time-to-failure and cycles-to-failure in both wearout reliability tests in Highly Accelerated Temperature and Humidity (HAST) and Temperature Cycling (TC) tests. This proves Pd-doped Cu wire has a greater potential and higher reliability margin compared to Au and Pd-coated Cu wires.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
  12. Ikramullah, Rizal S, Nakai Y, Shiozawa D, Khalil HPSA, Huzni S, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Jul 10;12(14).
    PMID: 31295885 DOI: 10.3390/ma12142225
    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the Mode II interfacial fracture toughness and interfacial shear strength of Typha spp. fiber/PLLA and Typha spp. fiber/epoxy composite by using a double shear stress method with 3 fibers model composite. The surface condition of the fiber and crack propagation at the interface between the fiber and the matrix are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Alkali treatment on Typha spp. fiber can make the fiber surface coarser, thus increasing the value of interfacial fracture toughness and interfacial shear strength. Typha spp. fiber/epoxy has a higher interfacial fracture value than that of Typha spp. fiber/PLLA. Interfacial fracture toughness on Typha spp. fiber/PLLA and Typha spp. fiber/epoxy composite model specimens were influenced by the matrix length, fiber spacing, fiber diameter and bonding area. Furthermore, the interfacial fracture toughness and the interfacial fracture shear stress of the composite model increased with the increasing duration of the surface treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
  13. Liansheng Tang, Haitao Sang, Liqun Jiang, Yinlei Sun
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:141-156.
    The suction between soil particles is the basis and core problem in the study of unsaturated soil. However, is the suction between soil particles just the matrix suction (which has been widely used since the discipline of unsaturated soil mechanics was established). In fact, the concept of matrix suction is from soil science and reflects the water-absorbing capacity of the soil. Matrix suction characterizes the interaction between soil particles and pore water rather than the interactions between soil particles, which were not in conformity with the principle of effective stress of soils. The suction of unsaturated soil, in essence, is the intergranular suction composed of absorbed suction and structural suction. In this paper, first, the basic concepts of absorbed suction and structural suction were briefly introduced. Then, with soil mechanics, powder science, crystal chemistry, granular material mechanics and other related disciplines of knowledge for reference, the quantitative calculation formulas were theoretically deduced for the absorbed suction for equal-sized and unequal-sized unsaturated soil particles with arbitrary packing and the variable structural suction for equal-sized unsaturated soil particles with arbitrary packing and unequal-sized unsaturated soil particles with close tetrahedral packing. The factors that influence these equations were discussed. Then, the shear strength theory of unsaturated soil was established based on the theory of intergranular suction through the analysis of the effective stress principle of unsaturated soil. This study demonstrates that the shear strength of unsaturated soil consists of three parts: The effective cohesive force, the additional strength caused by external loads and the strength caused by intergranular suction. The contribution of the three parts to the shear strength of unsaturated soil depends on the following influence factors: Soil type, confining pressure, water content and density. Therefore, these factors must be comprehensively considered when determining the strength of an unsaturated soil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
  14. Khoo PS, Chin KL, H'ng PS, Bakar ES, Lee CL, Go WZ, et al.
    R Soc Open Sci, 2019 Dec;6(12):191763.
    PMID: 31903217 DOI: 10.1098/rsos.191763
    The peeling of small-diameter rubberwood logs from the current short-rotation practices undoubtedly will produce lower grade veneers compared to the veneers from conventional planting rotation. Hence, this raises the question of the properties of the produced laminated veneer lumber (LVL) from veneers peeled from small-diameter rubberwood logs using the spindleless lathe technology. Different thicknesses of rubberwood veneers was peeled from rubberwood logs with diameter less than 20 cm using a spindleless lathe. Three-layer LVLs were prepared using phenol formaldehyde (PF) adhesive and hot pressed at different temperatures. During the peeling of veneer, lathe checks as deep as 30-60% of the veneer thickness are formed. Owing to deeper lathe check on 3 mm rubberwood veneer, higher pressing temperature significantly increased the gluebond shear strength of the PF-bonded LVL. In addition, lathe check frequency was also shown to influence the bond strength. The presence of higher lathe check frequency on 2 mm veneer increased the wettability, thus facilitating optimum penetration of adhesive for stronger bonding. These findings stress the importance of measuring and considering the lathe check depth and frequency during the lamination process to get a better understanding of bonding quality in veneer-based products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
  15. Rahim NI, Mohammed BS, Al-Fakih A, Wahab MMA, Liew MS, Anwar A, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Jun 22;13(12).
    PMID: 32580327 DOI: 10.3390/ma13122804
    Deep beams are more susceptible to shear failure, and therefore reparation is a crucial for structural reinforcements. Shear failure is structural concrete failure in nature. It generally occurs without warning; however, it is acceptable for the beam to fail in bending but not in shear. The experimental study presented the structural behavior of the deep beams of reinforced concrete (RC) that reinforces the web openings with externally connected carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite in the shear zone. The structural behavior includes a failure mode, and cracking pattern, load deflection responses, stress concentration and the reinforcement factor were investigated. A total of nine reinforced concrete deep beams with openings strengthened with CFRP and one control beam without an opening have been cast and tested under static four-point bending load till failure. The experimental results showed that the increase the size of the opening causes an increase in the shear strength reduction by up to 30%. Therefore, the larger the openings, the lower the capability of load carriage, in addition to an increase in the number of CFRP layers that could enhance the load carrying capacity. Consequently, utilization of the CFRP layer wrapping technique strengthened the shear behavior of the reinforced concrete deep beams from about 10% to 40%. It was concluded that the most effective number of CFRP layers for the deep beam with opening sizes of 150 mm and 200 mm were two layers and three layers, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
  16. Balagopal S, Nekkanti S, Kaur K
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2021 Feb 01;22(2):134-139.
    PMID: 34257171
    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine and compare the flexural strength, shear bond strength, and fluoride-releasing ability of glass ionomer cement (GIC), Fuji IX GIC®, and a new alkasite filling material, Cention N®.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: The materials were divided into two groups, Fuji IX GIC® (n = 30) and Cention N® (n = 30) and further divided (n = 10) to test three parameters, the fluoride releasing ability, flexural strength, and shear bond strength. Fluoride release was checked using fluoride ion-selective electrode, and flexural strength and shear bond strength were tested using universal testing machine (Intron 3366, UK).

    RESULTS: Fluoride release of Fuji IX GIC® was significantly higher compared to that of control Cention N® over a period of 21 days. Flexural strength of Cention N® was significantly higher compared to Fuji IX GIC® and there were no significant differences in shear bond strength of both the materials.

    CONCLUSION: From the results of the study, it can be concluded that Cention N® is an alkasite filling material for the complete and permanent replacement of tooth structure in posterior teeth and can be a good alternative when compared to GICs on the basis of their superior mechanical properties.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Cention N® is an innovative filling material for the complete and permanent replacement of tooth structure in posterior teeth and can be a good alternative when compared to GICs on the basis of their superior mechanical properties.

    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
  17. Mansur S, Ishak A, Pop I
    PLoS One, 2015;10(3):e0117733.
    PMID: 25760733 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117733
    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation point flow of a nanofluid over a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet is studied. Numerical results are obtained using boundary value problem solver bvp4c in MATLAB for several values of parameters. The numerical results show that dual solutions exist for the shrinking case, while for the stretching case, the solution is unique. A stability analysis is performed to determine the stability of the dual solutions. For the stable solution, the skin friction is higher in the presence of magnetic field and increases when the suction effect is increased. It is also found that increasing the Brownian motion parameter and the thermophoresis parameter reduces the heat transfer rate at the surface.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
  18. Chitturi V, Pedapati SR, Awang M
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Nov 26;12(23).
    PMID: 31779107 DOI: 10.3390/ma12233901
    Automobile, aerospace, and shipbuilding industries are looking for lightweight materials for cost effective manufacturing which demands the welding of dissimilar alloy materials. In this study, the effect of tool rotational speed, welding speed, tilt angle, and pin depth on the weld joint were investigated. Aluminum 5052 and 304 stainless-steel alloys were joined by friction stir welding in a lap configuration. The design of the experiments was based on Taguchi's orthogonal array for conducting the experiments with four factors and three levels for each factor. The microstructural analysis showed tunnel defects, micro voids, and cracks which formed with 0° and 1.5° tilt angles. The defects were eliminated when the tilt angle increased to 2.5° and a mixed stir zone was formed with intermetallic compounds. The presence of the intermetallic compounds increased with the increase in tilt angle and pin depth which further resulted in obtaining a defect-free weld. Hooks were formed on either side of the weld zone creating a mechanical link for the joint. A Vickers hardness value of HV 635.46 was achieved in the mixed stir zone with 1000 rpm, 20 mm/min, and 4.2 mm pin depth with a tilt angle of 2.5°, which increased by three times compared to the hardness of SS 304 steel. The maximum shear strength achieved with 800 rpm, 40 mm/min, and a 4.3 mm pin depth with a tilt angle of 2.5° was 3.18 kN.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
  19. Normaniza Osman, Mohamad Nordin Abdullah, Faisal Haji Ali
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40:1065-1073.
    Rapid development in hilly areas in Malaysia has become a trend that put a stress to the sloping area. It reduces the factor of safety by reducing the resistant force and therefore leads to slope failure. Vegetation plays a big role in reinforcement functions via anchoring the soils and forms a binding network within the soil layer that tied the soil masses together. In this research, three plant species namely Acacia mangium, Dillenia suffruticosa and Leucaena leucocephala were assessed in term of their soil-root shear strength properties. Our results showed that Acacia mangium had the highest shear strength values, 30.4 kPa and 50.2 kPa at loads 13.3 kPa and 24.3 kPa, respectively. Leucaena leucocephala showed the highest in cohesion factor, which was almost double the value in those of Dillenia suffruticosa and Acacia mangium. The root profile analysis indicated Dillenia suffruticosa exhibited the highest values in both root length density and root volume, whilst Leucaena leucocephala had the highest average of root diameter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
  20. Jiading Wang, Tianfeng Gu, Jianbin Wang, Yuanjun Xu, Peng Chen, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:2049-2059.
    The development degree of fissure water in underground rock is a great trouble to the construction of railway tunnel, which will cause a series of environmental geological problems. Take the surrounding rock-section of the typical red clay in Lvliang-Mt. railway tunnel below the underground water level as an example, several aspects about the red clay surrounding rock will be researched, including pore water pressure, volume moisture content, stress of surrounding rock, vault subsidence and horizontal convergence through the field monitoring. Taking into account the importance of railway tunnel engineering, the large shear test of red clay was carried out at the construction site specially and the reliable situ shear strength parameters of surrounding rock will be obtained. These investigations and field tests helped to do a series of work: Three dimensional finite element numerical model of railway tunnel will be established, the deformation law of the red clay surrounding rock will be investigated, respectively, for the water-stress coupling effect and without considering it, the variation of the pore water pressure during excavation, the influence degree about the displacement field and stress field of water-stress coupling on red clay-rock will be discussed and the mechanism of the surrounding rock deformation will be submitted. Finally, the paper puts forward the feasible drainage scheme of the surrounding rock and the tunnel cathode. The geological environment safety of tunnel construction is effectively protected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shear Strength
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