Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 100 in total

  1. Ting SL, Koay AC, Yew YH, Chua CN
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Jun;66(2):121-3.
    PMID: 22106691 MyJurnal
    Asymmetrical eyelid skin crease may be mistaken for ptosis due to apparent narrowing of the palpebral fissure in the eye without the skin crease. This study describes a series of patients who were mistakenly referred for ptosis operation as a result of absent skin crease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology
  2. Fadzil MH, Ihtatho D, Affandi AM, Hussein SH
    J Med Eng Technol, 2009;33(6):426-36.
    PMID: 19557605 DOI: 10.1080/07434610902744066
    Psoriasis is a skin disorder which is caused by a genetic fault. Although there is no cure for psoriasis, there are many treatment modalities to help control the disease. To evaluate treatment efficacy, the current gold standard method, PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index), is used to measure psoriasis severity by evaluating the area, erythema, scaliness and thickness of the plaques. However, the determination of PASI can be tedious and subjective. In this work, we develop a computer vision method that determines one of the PASI parameters, the lesion area. The method isolates healthy and healed skin areas from lesion areas by analysing the hue and chroma information in the CIE L*a*b* colour space. Centroids of healthy skin and psoriasis in the hue-chroma space are determined from selected sample. The Euclidean distance of all pixels from each centroid is calculated. Pixels are assigned to either healthy skin or psorasis lesion classes based on the minimum Euclidean distance. The study involves patients from different ethnic origins having three different skin tones. Results obtained show that the proposed method is able to determine lesion areas with accuracy higher than 90% for 28 out of 30 cases.

    Study site: Dermatology Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology
  3. Baleg SM, Bidin N, Suan LP, Ahmad MF, Krishnan G, Johari AR, et al.
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2015 Sep;14(3):246-53.
    PMID: 25817596 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12142
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of multiple pulses on the depth of injury caused by CO2 laser in an in vivo rat model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology
  4. Khaw GE
    Med J Malaysia, 1998 Mar;53(1):114-6.
    PMID: 10968151
    Neural leprosy is rare. This is a report of a 63-year-old Indian man who had long standing multiple peripheral neuropathy. The slit skin smear for acid-fast bacilli of Mycobacterium leprae was positive. The skin and nerve biopsies were normal. He was treated with rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology
  5. Jayalakshmi P, Tong M, Singh S, Ganesapillai T
    PMID: 9207759
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology
  6. Jayalakshmi P, Ganesapillai T, Ganesan J
    Int. J. Lepr. Other Mycobact. Dis., 1995 Mar;63(1):109-11.
    PMID: 7730709
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology
  7. Naganathan K, Doi SA, Jamiyah H
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Dec;49(4):401-3.
    PMID: 7674975
    Herpes gestationis is a rare disease in pregnancy. A 35-year-old G3P2 presented during her third trimester with erythematous pruritic papular eruptions. Direct immunofluorescence of a skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of herpes gestationis. The patient responded well to predniosolone treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology
  8. Adam BA
    Med J Malaysia, 1973 Jun;27(4):284-8.
    PMID: 4270787
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology
  9. Leung AKC, Lam JM, Leong KF
    Curr Pediatr Rev, 2019;15(1):42-46.
    PMID: 30465511 DOI: 10.2174/1573396315666181120163952
    BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of solitary cutaneous mastocytoma is mainly clinical, based on lesion morphology, the presence of a positive Darier sign, and the absence of systemic involvement. Knowledge of this condition is important so that an accurate diagnosis can be made.

    OBJECTIVE: To familiarize physicians with the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of a solitary cutaneous mastocytoma.

    METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "solitary cutaneous mastocytoma". The search strategy included meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, observational studies, and reviews. Only papers published in English language were included. The information retrieved from the above search was used in the compilation of the present article.

    RESULTS: Typically, a solitary cutaneous mastocytoma presents as an indurated, erythematous, yellow- brown or reddish-brown macule, papule, plaque or nodule, usually measuring up to 5 cm in diameter. The lesion often has a peau d'orange appearance and a leathery or rubbery consistency. A solitary cutaneous mastocytoma may urticate spontaneously or when stroked or rubbed (Darier sign). Organomegaly and lymphadenopathy are characteristically absent. The majority of patients with skin lesions that erupt within the first two years of life have spontaneous resolution of the lesions before puberty. Treatment is mainly symptomatic. Reassurance and avoidance of triggering factors suffice in most cases.

    CONCLUSION: The diagnosis is mainly clinical, based on the morphology of the lesion, the presence of a positive Darier sign, and the absence of systemic involvement. A skin biopsy is usually not necessary unless the diagnosis is in doubt.

    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology*
  10. Tan LS, Daud MH, Nasirudin N
    J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol, 2018 Dec;23(4):577-580.
    PMID: 30428790 DOI: 10.1142/S2424835518720335
    Pyogenic granuloma, also known as lobular capillary hemangioma, is a benign vascular lesion of the skin or mucous membrane with rapid growth or repetitive trauma. Rarely seen in adult, its management varies and surgical intervention is usually common. We report a case of pyogenic granuloma of the right index finger in a 46-year-old gentleman who presented with painless swelling of the right index finger after a trivial injury. Wedge biopsy confirmed the diagnosis and excision of the granuloma measuring 3 cm × 3 cm × 2 cm was done with curettage and electrocautery over the base of granuloma. The wound subsequently healed well with good functional and aesthetic outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology*
  11. Leung AKC, Leong KF, Lam JM
    Curr Pediatr Rev, 2019;15(3):170-174.
    PMID: 30734680 DOI: 10.2174/1573396315666190207151941
    BACKGROUND: Tinea imbricata is a chronic superficial mycosis caused mainly by Trichophyton concentricum. The condition mainly affects individuals living in primitive and isolated environment in developing countries and is rarely seen in developed countries. Physicians in nonendemic areas might not be aware of this fungal infection.

    OBJECTIVE: To familiarize physicians with the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of tinea imbricata.

    METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key terms "Tinea imbricata" and "Trichophyton concentricum". The search strategy included meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, observational studies, reviews, and case reports. The information retrieved from the above search was used in the compilation of the present article.

    RESULTS: The typical initial lesions of tinea imbricata consist of multiple, brownish red, scaly, pruritic papules. The papules then spread centrifugally to form annular and/or concentric rings that can extend to form serpinginous or polycyclic plaques with or without erythema. With time, multiple overlapping lesions develop, and the plaques become lamellar with abundant thick scales adhering to the interior of the lesion, giving rise to the appearance of overlapping roof tiles, lace, or fish scales. Lamellar detachment of the scales is common. The diagnosis is mainly clinical, based on the characteristic skin lesions. If necessary, the diagnosis can be confirmed by potassium hydroxide wet-mount examination of skin scrapings of the active border of the lesion which typically shows short septate hyphae, numerous chlamydoconidia, and no arthroconidia. Currently, oral terbinafine is the drug of choice for the treatment of tinea imbricata. Combined therapy of an oral antifungal agent with a topical antifungal and keratolytic agent may increase the cure rate.

    CONCLUSION: In most cases, a spot diagnosis of tinea imbricata can be made based on the characteristic skin lesions consisting of scaly, concentric annular rings and overlapping plaques that are pruritic. Due to popularity of international travel, physicians involved in patient care should be aware of this fungal infection previously restricted to limited geographical areas.

    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology
  12. Pau WS, Tan KK
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2008 Jun;27(6):569-70.
    PMID: 18449061 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318168db08
    Scrub typhus is a common cause of febrile illness among children from rural regions in tropical countries. We described 2 cases of scrub typhus with an eschar localized in the genitalia that was missed during the routine medical examination of a febrile child.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology*
  13. Wong SM, Tang JJ
    Med Mycol, 2012 May;50(4):404-6.
    PMID: 22074310 DOI: 10.3109/13693786.2011.630684
    Disseminated sporotrichosis is uncommon and usually occurs in patients who are immunodeficient. Here we describe a male patient who was otherwise in good physical condition, who presented with disseminated sporotrichosis. The only significant event in his past medical history was lepromatous leprosy which had been treated 42 years earlier.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology
  14. Gong P, Chin L, Es'haghian S, Liew YM, Wood FM, Sampson DD, et al.
    J Biomed Opt, 2014 Dec;19(12):126014.
    PMID: 25539060 DOI: 10.1117/1.JBO.19.12.126014
    We demonstrate the in vivo assessment of human scars by parametric imaging of birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Such in vivo assessment is subject to artifacts in the detected birefringence caused by scattering from blood vessels. To reduce these artifacts, we preprocessed the PS-OCT data using a vascular masking technique. The birefringence of the remaining tissue regions was then automatically quantified. Results from the scars and contralateral or adjacent normal skin of 13 patients show a correspondence of birefringence with scar type: the ratio of birefringence of hypertrophic scars to corresponding normal skin is 2.2 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard deviation ), while the ratio of birefringence of normotrophic scars to normal skin is 1.1 ± 0.4 . This method represents a new clinically applicable means for objective, quantitative human scar assessment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology*
  15. Malik AS, Humayun J, Kamel N, Yap FB
    Skin Res Technol, 2014 Aug;20(3):322-31.
    PMID: 24329769 DOI: 10.1111/srt.12122
    BACKGROUND: More than 99% acne patients suffer from acne vulgaris. While diagnosing the severity of acne vulgaris lesions, dermatologists have observed inter-rater and intra-rater variability in diagnosis results. This is because during assessment, identifying lesion types and their counting is a tedious job for dermatologists. To make the assessment job objective and easier for dermatologists, an automated system based on image processing methods is proposed in this study.
    OBJECTIVES: There are two main objectives: (i) to develop an algorithm for the enhancement of various acne vulgaris lesions; and (ii) to develop a method for the segmentation of enhanced acne vulgaris lesions.
    METHODS: For the first objective, an algorithm is developed based on the theory of high dynamic range (HDR) images. The proposed algorithm uses local rank transform to generate the HDR images from a single acne image followed by the log transformation. Then, segmentation is performed by clustering the pixels based on Mahalanobis distance of each pixel from spectral models of acne vulgaris lesions.
    RESULTS: Two metrics are used to evaluate the enhancement of acne vulgaris lesions, i.e., contrast improvement factor (CIF) and image contrast normalization (ICN). The proposed algorithm is compared with two other methods. The proposed enhancement algorithm shows better result than both the other methods based on CIF and ICN. In addition, sensitivity and specificity are calculated for the segmentation results. The proposed segmentation method shows higher sensitivity and specificity than other methods.
    CONCLUSION: This article specifically discusses the contrast enhancement and segmentation for automated diagnosis system of acne vulgaris lesions. The results are promising that can be used for further classification of acne vulgaris lesions for final grading of the lesions.
    KEYWORDS: acne grading; acne lesions; acne vulgaris; enhancement; segmentation
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology*
  16. Ahmad Fadzil MH, Prakasa E, Asirvadam VS, Nugroho H, Affandi AM, Hussein SH
    Comput Biol Med, 2013 Nov;43(11):1987-2000.
    PMID: 24054912 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2013.08.009
    Psoriasis is an incurable skin disorder affecting 2-3% of the world population. The scaliness of psoriasis is a key assessment parameter of the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Dermatologists typically use visual and tactile senses in PASI scaliness assessment. However, the assessment can be subjective resulting in inter- and intra-rater variability in the scores. This paper proposes an assessment method that incorporates 3D surface roughness with standard clustering techniques to objectively determine the PASI scaliness score for psoriasis lesions. A surface roughness algorithm using structured light projection has been applied to 1999 3D psoriasis lesion surfaces. The algorithm has been validated with an accuracy of 94.12%. Clustering algorithms were used to classify the surface roughness measured using the proposed assessment method for PASI scaliness scoring. The reliability of the developed PASI scaliness algorithm was high with kappa coefficients>0.84 (almost perfect agreement).
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology
  17. Yap FB
    Int J Infect Dis, 2011 Oct;15(10):e727-9.
    PMID: 21719337 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2011.05.005
    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic fungal infection caused by the ubiquitous fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis is an uncommon entity and is usually present in the immunosuppressed. Here, a case of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient is reported. This 70-year-old healthy woman presented with multiple painful ulcerated nodules on her face and upper and lower extremities of 6-month duration, associated with low-grade fever, night sweats, loss of appetite, and loss of weight. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy revealed epidermal hyperplasia and granulomatous inflammation in the dermis, with budding yeast. Fungal culture identified S. schenckii. She had total resolution of the lesions after 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B and 8 months of oral itraconazole. All investigations for underlying immunosuppression and internal organ involvement were negative. This case reiterates that disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis, although common in the immunosuppressed, can also be seen in immunocompetent patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology
  18. Ajlia SA, Majid FA, Suvik A, Effendy MA, Nouri HS
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2010 Jun 15;13(12):596-603.
    PMID: 21061910
    A new invention, papain-based wound cleanser is formulated by incorporating papain, a proteolytic enzyme extracted from Carica papaya into the formulation. This cleanser is invented to simplify the methods in wound management by combining wound cleansing and wound debridement using a single formulation. This study describes the preparation and preclinical study of papain-based wound cleanser in accelerating wound healing. In this study, papain-based wound cleanser was used to treat wound incision on Sprague-Dawley rats while distilled water and Betadine were used as negative and positive control. Twenty-seven clinically healthy white rats were randomly divided into three groups and treated accordingly until the 21st day post-incision. Wound reduction rates and histological analysis were obtained to asses the healing pattern. Rats treated with papain-based wound cleanser showed a progressive wound healing based on the wound reduction rates and histological analysis when compared with rats treated with distilled water and Betadine. Better collagen deposition and presence of skin organelles in rats treated with papain-based wound cleanser demonstrated its efficacy in promoting wound healing. In addition to its wound healing effect, papain-based wound cleanser is also integrated with antibacterial properties which make it a complete package for wound management. However, further studies should be carried out to ensure its safety for human usage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology
  19. Mughrabi FF, Hashim H, Ameen M, Khaledi H, Ali HM, Ismail S
    Indian J. Exp. Biol., 2011 Jan;49(1):50-5.
    PMID: 21365996
    Effects of topical application of Bis[benzyl N'-(indol-3-ylmethylene)-hydrazinecarbodithioato]-zinc(II) (BHCZ) on wound healing and histology of healed wound were assessed. Sprague Dawley rats were experimentally induced wound in the posterior neck area. Tween 20 (0.2 ml of 10%) was applied to rats in Group 1 (negative control). Intrasite gel (0.2 ml) was applied topically to rats in Group 2 as reference. BHCZ at the concentrations 0.2 ml of 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml were applied to Group 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Wound dressed with BHCZ significantly healed earlier than those treated with 10% Tween 20. Also wound dressed with 100 mg/ml BHCZ accelerated the rate of wound healing compared to those dressed with intrasite gel and, 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml BHCZ. Histological analysis of healed wound with BHCZ showed comparatively less scar width at wound enclosure and the healed wound contained less macrophages and large amount of collagen with angiogenesis compared to wounds dressed with 10% Tween 20. Results of this study showed that wounds dressed with 100 mg/ml of BHCZ significantly enhanced acceleration of the rate of wound healing enclosure, and histology of healed wounds showed comparatively less macrophages and more collagen with angiogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/pathology
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