Consumers' self-assessments of materialism and status consumption may be influenced by external economic conditions. In this study, 239 Malaysian students were asked to describe their levels of materialism using Richins and Dawson's 1992 Materialism scale and status consumption using Eastman, Goldsmith, and Flynn's 1999 Status Consumption Scale. Half the students were told to respond assuming that they were in an expanding economy, and half as if the economy was in a recession. Comparison of the groups' mean scores showed no statistically significant differences.
Child abuse is a part of violence and maltreatment towards a child. It has led to many immediate and longterm
consequences. The factors pertaining to the perpetrators of physical and emotional abuse were least
explored in the literature. The aim of this systematic review is to comprehend the factors of vulnerability
among the perpetrators of child abuse, and to identify the most common reported characteristics of child
abuse perpetrators in the literature globally. A systematic search of articles published between 2013 and
2018 was conducted in several databases (Scopus, Ovid Medline, EBSCOhost and Google Scholar). Fourteen
studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The risk factors and characteristics of
child abuse perpetrators are classified into three different levels; individual, relationship and community.
The most common reported characteristics are at the individual level. Family background plays an important
role in determining the risk of being a child abuse perpetrator. Low socioeconomic status of the family is the
prominent contributing risk factor for abusing own children.
This data article presents the impact of parents' socioeconomic status on undergraduate students' academic achievements at a Malaysian higher education institution. The eastern parts of Peninsular Malaysia are populated by low-income citizens compared to the national average. The survey was conducted in Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. The targeted population is final year social science students. The total size of the target population is 965 students. Using Krejcie and Morgan's sampling method, a sample size of 333 students was surveyed. A descriptive research design was adopted in this study. Data were obtained from stratified random sampling comprising a total of 333 respondents in Universiti Malaysia Terengganu from 14 states across Malaysia. The data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using tables and figures. The findings revealed that most of the students stated that a parent's socioeconomic status does not influence their academic achievement.
Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL. Data on kindergarteners (N = 462) were analysed using multiple-group confirmatory factory analysis. Early literacy skill differences between boys and girls are more nuanced than previously reported; subsidy status and gender interact. Both boys and girls from high-poverty households performed significantly lower than the girls from low-poverty households in alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and spelling. There were gender gaps, with a female advantage, among children from high-poverty households in alphabet knowledge and spelling and among children from low-poverty households in alphabet knowledge. These results highlight the importance of employing methodologically sound techniques to ascertain group differences in componential early literacy skills.
The Griffiths Scales for Mental Development were used to assess a group of 60 normal 2-year old Malaysian children (25 Indian, 23 Malay and 12 Chinese). The mean GQ was 104.2 (SD 9.3). This was significantly higher than the test mean of 100, p < 0.001. The mean score for Malaysian children was significantly higher on the locomotor, personal social, performance and practical reasoning subscales while they were significantly lower on the hand eye subscale and did not differ from the test mean on the hearing and speech subscale. There was a significant correlation between GQ and social class, r = -0.39, p < 0.05. Scores were lower than those currently obtained on British children, p < 0.001. Minor difficulties due to language and cultural factors arose over the interpretation of several items but with standardisation of these items the test is useful in Malaysian children.
Preferred body sizes appear to decrease markedly with increasing exposure to contemporäry notions of slimness and economic modernity, and reduce even further in industrial settings as socio-economic status increases. Recently a study examining physical attractiveness preferences in Britain and Malaysia, shows that preference for slim ideals varies according to socio-economic status. Malaysians in
Britain and Kuala Lumpur preferred slimmer female bodies than observers in semiurban Kota Kinabalu, who in turn preferred slimmer figures than rural observers in East Malaysia. This study has important implications for the study of body image and eating disorders in Malaysia.
The relationship between healthcare services and inequalities is more likely when a group that shares a salient identity faces severe inequalities of various kinds. Such inequalities may be catalyzed by economic, social, political or concern cultural status. The objectives of this review are to identify the issues and challenges involve in healthcare inequalities, to compare factors contributes to healthcare inequalities and to purpose suggestions and recommendations for improvement based on issues and challenges between United States and India. Comparing annual year healthcare report, documentation of healthcare institutional, Ministry of Health's report and circular, official institutional website, scientific healthcare journals, articles and reports published in 1994 until 2011 regarding healthcare inequalities between United States and India. Health inequalities in the healthcare system contributed by the different in socioeconomic status and accessibility to the healthcare facility due to high cost of treatment has been common risk 'Catastrophic' factors to the inequalities in both countries. Health financing system and resource allocation that benefit only the upper class social spectrum of the population. Disparities occur due to the imbalance in distribution of wealth, discrimination and change in the world economy. Adapting healthcare system that provides care to all classes of people need improvement as no healthcare system is perfect. This matter must be tackle urgently as it's a matter of national concern.
A new species of the rarely collected ant genus Platythyrea Roger, 1863 closely related to Platythyrea clypeata Forel, 1911 is described and illustrated based on the worker caste under the name Platythyrea janyaisp. n. This species is distributed in southern Thailand and western Malaysia, while P. clypeata is distributed in Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand in the areas north of the Isthmus of Kra. Platythyrea clypeata is newly recorded from Thailand from dead wood on the forest floor. The type series of P. janyai was also collected from rotten wood on the forest floor.
The purpose of this study was to determine the association of well-being and cognitive impairment with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia. Fifty-four individuals were recruited for study as cases were matched with 60 individuals as the control subjects, and data were collected using the WHO well-being index and the validated 6-item cognitive impairment test dementia test. The results showed that there was no significant association between gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and POAG. Patients with POAG had significantly lower well-being index scores (mean 67.93) than the control group (mean 81.60) withP-value < 0.001. Similarly, patients with POAG had a significantly higher score of cognitive impairment (CIT test) (mean 6.15) compared to the control group (mean 0.40) withP-value < 0.001. Consequently, POAG is likely to be associated with higher cognitive impairment and lower well-being index.
Depression is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the year 2000 depression accounted for 4.4% of the global disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a population of 28 million people and is one of the countries experiencing demographic transition in its population structure. Improvements in socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with increased chronic diseases including chronic mental diseases like depression, but still there is no comprehensive review summarizing the various reports currently existing in the literature. Although individual studies within Saudi Arabia have reported prevalence rates and risks, the quality of such studies need to be subjected to rigorous assessment and their findings pooled to give combined weighted evidence that will provide basis for targeted intervention. Pooled risks have the advantage of adjusting inherent variations within sampled populations and therefore providing more reliable estimates even though there are concerns about possible magnification of smaller individual risks.
This article provides violent crime data in Malaysia from 2006 to 2017. The violent crimes include murder, rape, gang robbery, robbery and voluntarily causing hurt cases. A total of 330,395 violent crime cases were reported in this 12 year period and the data were tabulated state by state for all thirteen states of Malaysia, including two states in Borneo (Sabah and Sarawak) and one federal territory (Kuala Lumpur). In general, violent crimes show a decreasing trend from 2006 to 2017 in Malaysia. However, armed gang robbery and armed robbery show a fluctuating pattern from 2008 to 2011. A similar pattern was also recorded for unarmed gang robbery from 2008 to 2010. The violent crime data deposited here are available for further analysis, e.g., for identifying risk factors such as demography, lifestyle, socio-economic status, government policies etc. which may be associated with violent crime incidence and pattern across the country.
Expectations and satisfactions are two different yet interrelated area. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of working parent expectation on parenting satisfaction among working parents in Sabah. In addition, this study also examines the differences of the background of respondents in terms of socio-economic status and the level of education towards parenting satisfaction in Sabah. The study employed purposive sampling survey method with questionnaire. It has been distributed to 210 working parents in various sectors around Kota Kinabalu and Beaufort, Sabah. The set of questionnaire used in this study comprising the Parent Comparison Level Index (PCLI) to measure parental expectation and the Parent Satisfaction Scale (PSS) used to measure parenting satisfaction. The data obtained were analyzed using the IBM SPSS version 23 software through simple regression test and one-way ANOVA test according to the objectives of the study. The results of the analysis showed that parental expectations were significantly and positively influencing parenting satisfaction with a contribution of 34.6 percent variance. Whilst, the difference in education level and socio-economic status of parents shows that there is no difference in parenting satisfaction. In conclusion, higher parenting expectation will lead to higher parenting satisfaction. However, parenting satisfaction is not related to the differences in educational background and socioeconomic status of the parents. The implication of this study is toward parents and the aspect involving parenting satisfaction.
A growing number of Cambodian children without legal documentary evidence of date of birth are vulnerable to exploitation. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of southern Chinese reference dataset for dental age estimation on Cambodian children and young adults of different socioeconomic status. Dental panoramic tomographs (DPT) of 371 Cambodian children and young adults belonging to lower and higher socioeconomic status (SES) groups were analyzed. All the left maxillary and mandibular permanent teeth including the third molars were scored based on Demirjian's classification of tooth development stages. Chronological age (CA) was calculated from the date of birth and date of exposure of radiograph. The mean age of attainment for each stage of development was obtained from the southern Chinese reference dataset. Dental age (DA) was calculated by averaging the mean age scores for all the teeth. Paired t-test and correlation analysis were conducted to measure associations between the chronological age and the dental age for males and females in the lower and higher socio-economic status groups. Underestimation of age was observed in both SES groups using the southern Chinese reference dataset. For the higher SES group, the difference between the chronological and dental age (CA-DA) was 0.26 years for females and 0.11 years for males. The difference was statistically significant only in females (p < 0.05). In the low SES group, the results showed a difference of 0.07 years in females and 0.01 years in males; the differences were not statistically significant in both sexes (p > 0.05). A strong correlation was observed between the CA and DA in both sex and SES groups ranging from 0.969 to 0.988 (p < 0.05). The southern Chinese dental reference dataset can be used to estimate the age of undocumented Cambodian male and female children and young adults of both higher and lower SES.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of dental myths and perceived knowledge regarding oral healthcare practices and its associations with levels of education amongst low socioeconomic strata in Karachi, Pakistan.
METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted in January 2011. Two-staged random sampling was conducted to achieve a sample size of 576 participants from 8 union councils of Gadap Town, Karachi, Pakistan. An interview-based questionnaire was used to determine the participants' perceptions towards oral health and hygiene practices as well as the prevalence of common dental myths. The subjects were interviewed through a formulated questionnaire that was cross-translated into Urdu language.
RESULTS: Response rate from the participants was 550 (95.48%). Of the total, 270 (47%) respondents believed in the myth of tooth extraction affecting the eye vision. This was significantly associated with the socio-demography of the respondents. Besides, 421 (73%) thought that tooth extraction is not the ultimate remedy for pain relief and it was statistically significant with age and educational status of the participants. Those who considered bleeding while brushing to be normal were 144 (25%), and it was significantly associated with age and education level. Impact of oral health on general health was positively responded by 392 (68%), while 418 (72.5%) respondents did not think that the retention of baby teeth is important. Both these perceptions were significantly associated with age and level of education.
CONCLUSION: Pakistani population has considerable belief in myths and false perceptions regarding oral health issues. Various stakeholders should be involved to develop policies towards healthy attitudes and beliefs within the community towards their oral healthcare.
Diseases spread through food still remain a common and persistent problems resulting in appreciable morbidity and occasional mortality. Food handlers play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation. This study is to explore the pattern of sociodemographic distribution and to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers towards food-borne diseases and food safety. A total of 430 food handlers were randomly selected from Kota Bharu district and interviewed by using structured questionnaire. Distribution of food handlers was Malays (98.8%), females (69.5%), married (81.4%), working in food stalls (64.2%), involved in operational areas (49.3%), having no license (54.2%) and immunized with Ty2 (60.7%). The mean age was 41 +/- 12 years and the mean income was RM 465 +/- 243/month. The educational level was found as no formal education (10.5%), primary school (31.9%), secondary school (57.0%) and diploma/degree holders (0.7%). A significant number of food handlers (57.2%) had no certificate in food handlers training program and 61.9% had undergone routine medical examinations (RME). Almost half (48.4%) had poor knowledge. Multiple logistic regression showed type of premise [Odd ratio (OR) = 4.0, 95% Confidence interval (CI) =1.8-7.5, p = 0.0004], educational level (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.8-7.4, p = 0.0003) and job status of food handlers (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8, p = 0.0031) significantly influenced the level score of knowledge. No significant difference of attitude and practice between trained and untrained food handlers. Findings of this preliminary study may help in planning health education intervention programs for food handlers in order to have improvement in knowledge, attitude and practice towards food-borne diseases and food safety. Furthermore, it will in turn reduce national morbidity and mortality of food-borne diseases.