A polymer-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of polyethylene-glycol (PEG) with sodium citrate was developed for direct recovery of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) from a culture of Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10. The influences of phase composition, tie-line length (TLL), volume ratio (VR), crude sample loading, pH and sodium chloride (NaCl) on the partition behaviour of BLIS was investigated. Under optimum conditions of ATPS, the purification of BLIS was achieved at 26.5% PEG (8000)/11% sodium citrate with a TLL of 46.38% (w/w), VR of 1.8, and 1.8% crude load at pH 7 without the presence of NaCl. BLIS from P. acidilactici Kp10 was successfully purified by the ATPS up to 8.43-fold with a yield of 81.18%. Given that the operation of ATPS is simple, environmentally friendly and cost-effective, as it requires only salts and PEG, it may have potential for industrial applications in the recovery of BLIS from fermentation broth.
In this paper, a linear relationship is proposed relating the natural logarithm of partition coefficient, ln K for protein partitioning in poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-phosphate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to the square of tie-line length (TLL(2)). This relationship provides good fits (r(2) > 0.98) to the partition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in PEG (1450 g/mol, 2000 g/mol, 3350 g/mol, and 4000 g/mol)-phosphate ATPS with TLL of 25.0-50.0% (w/w) at pH 7.0. Results also showed that the plot of ln K against pH for BSA partitioning in the ATPS containing 33.0% (w/w) PEG1450 and 8.0% (w/w) phosphate with varied working pH between 6.0 and 9.0 exhibited a linear relationship which is in good agreement (r(2) = 0.94) with the proposed relationship, ln K = α' pH + β'. These results suggested that both the relationships proposed could be applied to correlate and elucidate the partition behavior of biomolecules in the polymer-salt ATPS. The influence of other system parameters on the partition behavior of BSA was also investigated. An optimum BSA yield of 90.80% in the top phase and K of 2.40 was achieved in an ATPS constituted with 33.0% (w/w) PEG 1450 and 8.0% (w/w) phosphate in the presence of 8.5% (w/w) sodium chloride (NaCl) at pH 9.0 for 0.3% (w/w) BSA load.
Extensive studies have been carried out on the effect of temperature and salt concentration on the theological behavior of whey proteins and different starches individually, but not on mixed dispersions of whey protein isolates and starches. In the present studies, the rheological behavior of cross-linked waxy maize starch and whey protein isolate mixed dispersions during heating at 60-85 degrees C was investigated. Further, the effect of CaCl2 (25-100 mM ionic strengths) on the gelatinization of these dispersions was determined. It was found that at a 2:3 ratio and a 3:2 ratio of cross-linked waxy maize starch to whey protein isolate mixed gels form a compatible networkmM concentration the solution viscosity was higher.
Currently, the transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products such as reducing sugars is garnering attention worldwide. However, efficient hydrolysis is usually hindered by the recalcitrant structure of the biomass. Many pretreatment technologies have been developed to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose such that the components can be reutilized more effectively to enhance sugar recovery. Among all of the utilized pretreatment methods, inorganic salt pretreatment represents a more novel method and offers comparable sugar recovery with the potential for reducing costs. The use of inorganic salt also shows improved performance when it is integrated with other pretreatment technologies. Hence, this paper is aimed to provide a detailed overview of the current situation for lignocellulosic biomass and its physicochemical characteristics. Furthermore, this review discusses some recent studies using inorganic salt for pretreating biomass and the mechanisms involved during the process. Finally, some prospects and challenges using inorganic salt are highlighted.
Treated Rhizopora mucronata tannin (RMT) as a corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel and copper in oil and gas facilities was investigated. Corrosion rate of carbon-steel and copper in 3wt% NaCl solution by RMT was studied using chemical (weight loss method) and spectroscopic (FTIR) techniques at various temperatures in the ranges of 26-90°C. The weight loss data was compared to the electrochemical by the application of Faraday's law for the conversion of corrosion rate data from one system to another. The inhibitive efficiency of RMT was compared with commercial inhibitor sodium benzotriazole (BTA-S). The best concentration of RMT was 20% (w/v), increase in concentration of RMT decreased the corrosion rate and increased the inhibitive efficiency. Increase in temperature increased the corrosion rate and decreased the inhibitive efficiency but, the rate of corrosion was mild with RMT. The FTIR result shows the presence of hydroxyl group, aromatic group, esters and the substituted benzene group indicating the purity of the tannin. The trend of RMT was similar to that of BTA-S, but its inhibitive efficiency for carbon-steel was poor (6%) compared to RMT (59%). BTA-S was efficient for copper (76%) compared to RMT (74%) at 40% (w/v) and 20% (w/v) concentration respectively. RMT was efficient even at low concentration therefore, the use of RMT as a cost effective and environmentally friendly corrosion inhibiting agent for carbon steel and copper is herein proposed.
Aqueous biphasic flotation (ABF) integrates aqueous biphasic system (ABS) and solvent sublation for recovery of target biomolecules. The feasibility of the alcohol/salt ABF for exclusive partition of cytochrome c to one specific phase of the system was investigated. Aliphatic alcohols of different carbon chain length (ethanol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol) and salts (sulfate, phosphate and citrate) were used for the phase formation. The effects of phase composition, concentration of sample loading, pH, flotation time and flow rate of the system on the partition efficiency of cytochrome c were determined. Cytochrome c was exclusively partitioned to the alcohol-rich top phase of the ABF of 18% (w/w) ethanol and 26% (w/w) ammonium sulfate with pH 6 and 20% (w/w) of sample loading. Highest partition coefficient (K) of 6.85 ± 0.21 and yield (YT) of 99.40% ± 0.02 were obtained with optimum flotation rate of 10 mL/min and flow rate of 10 min.
The extraction of Red 3BS reactive dye from aqueous solution was studied using emulsion liquid membrane (ELM). ELM is one of the processes that have very high potential in treating industrial wastewater consisting of dyes. In this research, Red 3BS reactive dye was extracted from simulated wastewater using tridodecylamine (TDA) as the carrier agent, salicyclic acid (SA) to protonate TDA, sodium chloride as the stripping agent, kerosene as the diluent and SPAN 80 as emulsifier. Experimental parameters investigated were salicyclic acid concentration, extraction time, SPAN 80 concentration, sodium chloride concentration, TDA concentration, agitation speed, homogenizer speed, emulsifying time and treat ratio. The results show almost 100% of Red 3BS was removed and stripped in the receiving phase at the optimum condition in this ELM system. High voltage coalesce was applied to break the emulsion hence, enables recovery of Red 3BS in the receiving phase.
The focus of this research is to study the potential of nanofiltration membrane technology in removing ammonia-nitrogen from the aquaculture system. One of the major fabrication parameters that directly affect the separation performance is shear rate or casting rate during membrane fabrication. In this study, asymmetric polyethersulfone (PES) nanofiltration membranes were prepared at five different shear rates within the range of 67-400 s(-1). Membrane productivity and separation performance were assessed via pure water, salt and ammonia-nitrogen permeation experiments, and their structural properties were determined by employing the combination of the irreversible thermodynamic (IT) model, solution diffusion model, steric hindrance pore (SHP) model and Teorell-Meyers (TMS) model. The study reveals that the alteration of shear rate enormously affects the membrane morphology and structural parameters, hence subsequently significantly influencing the membrane performance. It was found that, membrane produced at the shear rate 200 s(-1) or equivalent to 10s of casting speed during membrane fabrications managed to remove about 68% of ammonia-nitrogen, in which its separation performance is the most favourable by means of highest flux and rejection ability towards unwanted solutes. Besides, from the research findings, nano-membrane technology is a potential candidate for the treatment of aquaculture wastewater.
The partitioning behavior of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and phosphate was studied. The parameters of ATPS exhibiting the pronounced effects on the partitioning behavior of IgG include phase composition, PEG molecular weight, and the addition of sodium chloride (NaCl). The accumulation of IgG at the interface of the ATPS increased drastically as the tie-line length (TLL) was increased. This trend was correlated with a linear relationship relating the natural logarithm of interfacial partition coefficient (ln G) to the difference of PEG concentration between the top phase and the bottom phase (Δ[PEG]), and a good fit was obtained. An attempt was made to correlate the natural logarithm of partition coefficient (ln K) to the presence of NaCl with the proposed linear relationship, ln K = α″ ln [Cl(-)] + β″. The proposed relationship, which serves as a better description of the underlying mechanics of the protein partitioning behavior in the polymer-salt ATPS, provides a good fit (r(2) > 0.95) for the data of IgG partitioning. An optimum recovery of 99.97% was achieved in an ATPS (pH 7.5) composed of 14.0% (w/w) PEG 1450, 12.5% (w/w) phosphate and 5.0% (w/w) NaCl.
The impact of ionic strength (from 0.003 to 500mM) and salt type (NaCl vs MgCl2) on transport and retention of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) in saturated limestone porous media was systematically studied. Vertical columns were packed with limestone grains. The NPs were introduced as a pulse suspended in aqueous solutions and breakthrough curves in the column outlet were generated using an ultraviolent-visible spectrometry. Presence of NaCl and MgCl2 in the suspensions were found to have a significant influence on the electrokinetic properties of the NP aggregates and limestone grains. In NaCl and MgCl2 solutions, the deposition rates of the TiO2-NP aggregates were enhanced with the increase in ionic strength, a trend consistent with traditional Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Furthermore, the NP aggregates retention increased in the porous media with ionic strength. The presence of salts also caused a considerable delay in the NPs breakthrough time. MgCl2 as compared to NaCl was found to be more effective agent for the deposition and retention of TiO2-NPs. The experimental results followed closely the general trends predicted by the filtration and DLVO calculations. Overall, it was found that TiO2-NP mobility in the limestone porous media depends on ionic strength and salt type.
Palm kernel cake (PKC) has been largely produced in Malaysia as one of the cheap and abundant agro-waste by-products from the palm oil industry and it contains high fiber (mannan) content. The present study aimed to produce β-mannanase by Bacillus subtilis ATCC11774 via optimization of the medium composition using palm kernel cake as substrate in semi-solid fermentation. The fermentation nutrients such as PKC, peptone, yeast extract, sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate (MgSO2), initial culture pH and temperature were screened using a Plackett-Burman design. The three most significant factors identified, PKC, peptone and NaCl, were further optimized using central composite design (CCD), a response surface methodology (RSM) approach, where yeast extract and MgSO2 were fixed as a constant factor. The maximum β-mannanase activity predicted by CCD under the optimum medium composition of 16.50 g/L PKC, 19.59 g/L peptone, 3.00 g/L yeast extract, 2.72 g/L NaCl and 0.2 g/L MgSO2 was 799 U/mL. The validated β-mannanase activity was 805.12 U/mL, which was close to the predicted β-mannanas activity. As a comparison, commercial media such as nutrient broth, M9 and Luria bertani were used for the production of β-mannanase with activities achieved at 204.16 ± 9.21 U/mL, 50.32 U/mL and 88.90 U/mL, respectively. The optimized PKC fermentation medium was four times higher than nutrient broth. Hence, it could be a potential fermentation substrate for the production of β-mannanase activity by Bacillus subtilis ATCC11774.
Zero-salted yellow alkaline noodles (YAN) were immersed in solutions of resistant starch HYLON™ VII (HC) or fruit coating Semperfresh™ (SC) containing a range of salt (NaCl) between 10 and 30% (w/v). The objective was to evaluate the effect of salt-coatings on the textural, handling, cooking, and sensory properties of YAN. Increasing salt in the coatings caused a reduction in optimum cooking time, cooking loss and increase in cooking yield. The mechanical and textural parameters, sensory hardness, springiness and overall sensory acceptability of the salt-coated noodles however decreased with increasing salt application. HC-Na10 and SC-Na10 showed the highest textural and mechanical parameters, sensory hardness and springiness. The differences in the parameters were attributed mainly to the water absorption properties of starch that was affected by salt application. Thus, the quality of salt-coated noodles was dependent mainly on the amounts of salt applied in the coatings rather than on the types of coatings used.
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a well-studied biodegradable polymer used in drug delivery and other medical applications such as in tissue regeneration. It is often necessary to impart porosity within the scaffold (microparticles) in order to promote the growth of tissue during the regeneration process. Sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate have been extensively used as porogens in the generation of porous microstructure. In this study, we compared the effect of volumes (250 μl, 500 μl and 750 μl) of two porogens, sodium chloride (1.71 M) and ammonium bicarbonate (1.71 M), on the porosity of PLGA microparticles.
This study investigated the effects of different parameters on the removal efficiencies of organic and inorganic pollutants in landfill leachate treatment by electrolysis. Different parameters were considered such as the electric potential (e.g., 24, 40 and 60 V), hydraulic retention time (HRT) (e.g., 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min), sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (e.g., 1, 3, 5 and 7%), pH (e.g., 3, 7 and 9), electrodes materials [e.g., aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe)] and distance between electrodes (e.g., 1, 2 and 3 cm). The best operational condition of electrolysis was then recommended. The electric potential of 60 V with HRT of 120 min at 5% of NaCl solution using Al as anode and Fe as cathode (kept at a distance of 3 cm) was the most efficient condition which increased the removal efficiencies of various parameters such as turbidity, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and heavy metals (e.g., Zn and Mn). The higher removal percentages of many parameters, especially COD (94%) and Mn (93%) indicated that the electrolysis is an efficient technique for multi-pollutants (e.g., organic, inorganic and heavy metals) removal from the landfill leachate.
Amauroderma rugosum is a wild mushroom species widely distributed in tropics and is classified under the class of Basidiomycetes. Basidiomycetes are well-known for their abilities of producing lignocellulolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidase (LiP), laccase (Lac) and manganese peroxidase (MnP). Different factors such as nutrient sources, incubation period and agitation affect the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. The A. rugosum produced LiP in the medium supplemented with potato dextrose broth (PDB), 0.5% yeast and 1.0% saw dust at 26.70±3.31 U/mL. However, the LiP activity was increased to 106.32±5.32 U/mL when supplemented with 150 μm of copper (CuSO4). The aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is a simple, rapid and low cost method for primary extraction and recovery of LiP. A total of 25 systems made from five different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) were tested. PEG 600 produced the highest top phase purification factor (PFT) of 1.33±0.62 with yield of 72.18±8.50%. The optimization of the ATPS parameters, such as volume ratio VR, pH and crude enzyme loading are the factors controlling the phase partition. Our results showed that significant improvement (PFT of 6.26±2.87 with yield of 87.31±3.14%) of LiP recovery can be achieved by optimized the parameters.
Prazosin (PRZ) and levonorgestrel (LNG) are widely used as an anti-disease drugs due to their biological activity in the human body. The frequent detection of these compounds in water samples requires alternative technologies for the removal of both compounds. After electrochemical degradation of PRZ and LNG, the parent compounds could be completely removed after treatment, but the identification and characterization of by-products are necessary as well. In this study, the effects of NaCl concentration and applied voltage were investigated during the electrochemical degradation process. The results revealed that the increase of NaCl concentration and applied voltage could promote the generation of hypochlorite OCl- and then enhance the degradation of PRZ and LNG. After initial study, 6V and 0.2g NaCl were selected for further experiments (96% and 99% removal of PRZ and LNG after 40min, respectively). Energy consumption was also evaluated and calculated for PRZ and LNG at 3, 6 and 8V. Solid phase extraction (SPE) method plays an important role in enhancing the detection limit of by-products. Furthermore, characterization and identification of chlorinated and non-chlorinated by-products were conducted using an accurate liquid chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry LC-TOF/MS instrument. The monitoring of products during the electrochemical degradation process was performed at 6V and 0.2g NaCl in a 50mL solution. The results indicated that two chlorinated products were formed during the electrochemical process. The toxicity of by-products toward E. coli bacteria was investigated at 37°C and 20hr incubation time.
Toward attaining a sustainability and eco-friendly process, a green and low-cost solvent-brine (NaCl solution) is proposed, as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique solvent to extract lipids from microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. The effect of NaCl concentration on the quantity and quality of the extracted lipid was assessed, while MAE parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in the lipid was analyzed by using a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The highest lipid yield (16.1%) was obtained using 10% (w/v) brine at optimum extraction parameters of 5% (w/v) solid loading, 100 °C, and 30 min. The lipid extraction yield via optimized MAE-brine technique was thrice better than that Soxhlet extraction did and only 2% less than Bligh and Dyer (B&D) lipid extraction, which utilized harmful solvents. The proposed MAE-brine technique offered better quality lipids containing the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (44.5%) and omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) (43%). Hence, the MAE-brine solvent technique appears to be a promising extraction method for cheaper, greener, and faster extraction of a high-quality lipid for specialty food applications.
Ectoine is a zwitterionic amino acid derivative that can be naturally sourced from halophilic microorganisms. The increasing demands of ectoine in various industries have urged the researches on the cost-effective approaches on production of ectoine. Ionic liquids-based aqueous biphasic system (ILABS) was applied to recover Halomonas salina ectoine from cells hydrolysate. The 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (Bmim)BF4 was used in the ILABS and the recovery efficiency of ILABS to recover ectoine from H. salina cells lysate was evaluated by determining the effects of phase composition; pHs; crude loading and additional neutral salt (NaCl). The hydrophilic ectoine was targeted to partition to the hydrophilic salt-rich phase. A total yield (YB) of 96.32% ± 1.08 of ectoine was obtained with ILABS of phase composition of 20% (w/w) (Bmim)BF4 and 30% (w/w) sulfate salts; system pH of 5.5 when the 20% (w/w) of crude feedstock was applied to the ILABS. There was no significant enhancement on the ectoine recovery efficiency using the ILABS when NaCl was added, therefore the ILABS composition without the additional neutral salt was recommended for the primary purification of ectoine. Partition coefficient (KE) of 30.80 ± 0.42, purity (PE) of 95.82% and enrichment factor (Ef) of 1.92 were recorded with the optimum (Bmim)BF4/sulfate ILABS. These findings have provided an insight on the feasibility of recovery of intracellular biomolecules using the green solvent-based aqueous system in one single-step operation.
Successful application of a magnetophoretic separation technique for harvesting biological cells often relies on the need to tag the cells with magnetic nanoparticles. This study investigates the underlying principle behind the attachment of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) onto microalgal cells, Chlorella sp. and Nannochloropsis sp., in both freshwater and seawater, by taking into account the contributions of various colloidal forces involved. The complex interplay between van der Waals (vdW), electrostatic (ES) and Lewis acid-base interactions (AB) in dictating IONP attachment was studied under the framework of extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) analysis. Our results showed that ES interaction plays an important role in determining the net interaction between the Chlorella sp. cells and IONPs in freshwater, while the AB and vdW interactions play a more dominant role in dictating the net particle-to-cell interaction in high ionic strength media (≥100 mM NaCl), such as seawater. XDLVO predicted effective attachment between cells and surface functionalized IONPs (SF-IONPs) with an estimated secondary minimum of -3.12 kT in freshwater. This prediction is in accordance with the experimental observation in which 98.89% of cells can be magnetophoretically separated from freshwater with SF-IONPs. We have observed successful magnetophoretic separation of microalgal cells from freshwater and/or seawater for all the cases as long as XDLVO analysis predicts particle attachment. For both the conditions, no pH adjustment is required for particle-to-cell attachment.
Agarose film liquid phase microextraction (AF-LPME) procedure for the extraction and preconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water has been investigated. Agarose film was used for the first time as an interface between donor and acceptor phases in liquid phase microextraction which allowed for selective extraction of the analytes prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using 1-octanol as acceptor phase, high enrichment factors in the range of 57-106 for the targeted analytes (fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) were achieved. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 0.1-200 μgL(-1), good correlation coefficients in the range of 0.9963-0.9999, acceptable reproducibility (RSD 6.1-9.2%, n=3), low limits of detection (0.01-0.04 μgL(-1)) and satisfactory relative recoveries (92.9-104.7%). As the AF-LPME device was non-expensive, reuse or recycle of the film was not required, thus eliminating the possibility of analytes carry-over between runs. The AF-LPME technique is environment-friendly and compatible with the green chemistry concept as agarose is biodegradable polysaccharide extracted from seaweed and the procedure requires small volume of organic solvent and generates little waste. The validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of the four analytes in river water samples.