INTRODUCTION: According to statistical unit of the Karapitiya Teaching Hospital, Galle, the main tertiary care institution of the Southern Province serving approximately three million population, in 2008, there were 459 patients with clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis, with 25 fatalities, 21 out of which were referred for autopsy examination.
OBJECTIVES: The present study to study and correlate pathological changes in deaths associated with pulmonary form of leptospirosis with clinico-diagnostic aspects of the infection.
METHOD: There had been 21 leptospirosis related autopsy examinations performed at forensic medicine unit of the Karapitiya Teaching Hospital from January to December 2008. The clinical, laboratory and autopsy findings of these cases were recorded in detail and analyzed.
RESULTS: The characteristic autopsy feature of all these cases was a moderate to severe pulmonary haemorrhage in association with hepato-renal, myocardial and cerebral lesions. The histology of the lung tissues in most cases showed extensive alveolar haemorrhages, hyaline like deposits, neutrophilic infiltrations, swollen septa with congested blood vessels.
CONCLUSION: Severe pulmonary complications are mostly responsible for all fatalities due to leptospirosis in our series. Though there are no reliable clinical indicators that suggest probability of developing pulmonary haemorrhages, we emphasize that respiratory functions and haematological parameters need to be closely monitored in all hospitalized patients with leptospirosis for early detection and prevention of haemorrhagic complications.
SJV Chelvanayakam (1898-1977), a ranking civil lawyer and legislator, was probably the well known Parkinson disease victim in the 20th century Sri Lanka. He was born in Ipoh, Malaya, where his father had moved in the last decade of the 19th century for professional advancement. Ipoh was then an attractive location for migrants from China and the Indian subcontinent since it was in the Kinta valley--touted then, as the world's richest single tin field. Chelvanayakam was brought to Jaffna peninsula when he was aged four (in 1902 or 1903) by his mother, who returned to her native Tellipalai town partly due to indifferent health during her stay in Kinta region. In this communication, I present a hypothesis that organotin exposure as a foetus or during infancy at his place of birth is likely to have been a contributing factor to Chelvanayakam's Parkinsonism. It seems to fit the available circumstantial evidence.
The present paper provides a taxonomic revision of the genus Fecenia with emphasis on the characteristics of the pre-epigynes which are integrated for the first time into an identification key. As a result, one species is revalidated, Fecenia protensa Thorell, 1891, stat. n., and two new junior synonyms for Fecenia protensa are recognised: Fecenia sumatrana Kulczyński, 1908, syn. n. and Fecenia nicobarensis (Tikader, 1977), syn. n. New records are reported: Fecenia ochracea (Doleschall, 1859)from Malaysian Borneo, Fecenia macilenta (Simon, 1885) from Sumatra, Indonesia, Fecenia protensa from Thailand and Malaysia, Fecenia travancoria Pocock, 1899 from Sri Lanka and Thailand, and Fecenia cylindrata Thorell, 1895 from Thailand and Laos. Additional information on the biology of Fecenia is provided and the validity of characters for identifying Fecenia species is discussed.
The genus Enispa Walker, 1866, type species: Enispa eosarialis Walker, 1866 [Borneo, Sarawak] (= Micraeschus Butler, 1878, type species: Hyria elataria Walker, 1861 [Sri Lanka]), contains several species, about 20 of which described and many still undescribed, some also probably misplaced. The genus occurs in Indo-Australian tropics and subtropics. Presently there are 5 species known from Borneo, with mention of several undescribed Enispa-like species (Holloway, 2009). From Thailand there are 8 species illustrated in Kononenko & Pinratana's (2013) book, 5 of which unidentified and some others, based on specimens originated from present author, which most probably are not Enispa. Nielsen & al. (1996) mentioned 7 species in Australia.
Citation: Pathmanathan I, Liljestrand J, Martins JM, Rajapaksa LC, Lissner C, de Silva A, et al. Investing in Maternal Health: Learning from Malaysia and Sri Lanka. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications; 2003.
The difference between maternal mortality in the industrialized and developing world is greater than any other development indicator. The apparent lack of progress in this area has generated a sense of hopelessness. Malaysia and Sri Lanka are two of the very few developing countries that have succeeded in reducing maternal mortality to levels comparable to many industrialized countries. This study provides the first comprehensive, in-depth analysis of the factors that contributed to maternal mortality decline in Malaysia and Sri Lanka over the last 50-60 years. It considers policy issues, health system developments, health system expenditures in maternal health, and the use in both countries, of professionally trained midwives.
Healthy farming systems play a vital role in improving agricultural productivity and sustainable food production. The present study aimed to propose an efficient framework to evaluate ecologically viable and economically sound farming systems using a matrix-based analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and weighted linear combination method with geo-informatics tools. The proposed framework has been developed and tested in the Central Highlands of Sri Lanka. Results reveal that more than 50% of farming systems demonstrated moderate status in terms of ecological and economic aspects. However, two vulnerable farming systems on the western slopes of the Central Highlands, named WL1a and WM1a, were identified as very poor status. These farming systems should be a top priority for restoration planning and soil conservation to prevent further deterioration. Findings indicate that a combination of ecologically viable (nine indicators) and economical sound (four indicators) criteria are a practical method to scrutinize farming systems and decision making on soil conservation and sustainable land management. In addition, this research introduces a novel approach to delineate the farming systems based on agro-ecological regions and cropping areas using geo-informatics technology. This framework and methodology can be employed to evaluate the farming systems of other parts of the country and elsewhere to identify ecologically viable and economically sound farming systems concerning soil erosion hazards. The proposed approach addresses a new dimension of the decision-making process by evaluating the farming systems relating to soil erosion hazards and suggests introducing policies on priority-based planning for conservation with low-cost strategies for sustainable land management.
Drowning among young adults is high in Sri Lanka. Water safety education is a recommended strategy for drowning prevention but is often overlooked for young adults. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an adapted educational intervention, "Swim for Safety" on improving water safety knowledge, attitudes and survival swimming skills among undergraduates (19-28 years) in Sri Lanka. This study employed a parallel-group, two-arm randomized controlled trial design. The intervention group (n = 78) received a face-to-face, 12-lesson education programme, and the control group (n = 78) received a brochure and weekly mobile phone messages for six consecutive weeks. Baseline, post-intervention and three-month follow-up knowledge, attitudes and skills were evaluated. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire and skills were evaluated following a skills assessment protocol. In total 116 participants, 60 intervention group and 56 control group, completed the study. At baseline there were no differences between groups in median scores of water safety knowledge, attitudes and survival swimming skills. The intervention group demonstrated statistically significant increases in median water safety knowledge, attitudes and survival swimming skill scores compared with the control group, following the intervention and maintained at three-month follow-up (p < 0.05). The adapted Swim for Safety programme significantly improved water safety knowledge, attitudes, and survival swimming skills among young adults in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it is recommended that the SfS programme be implemented widely to prevent drowning in young adults.
Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Apiaceae), a small annual plant that grows in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and other parts of Asia, is well-known as a medicinal herb with a long history of therapeutic uses. The bioactive compounds present in C. asiatica leaves include ursane-type triterpene sapogenins and saponins-asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, and madecassoside. Various bioactivities have been shown for these compounds, although most of the steps in the biosynthesis of triterpene saponins, including glycosylation, remain uncharacterized at the molecular level. This chapter describes an approach that integrates partial enzyme purification, proteomics methods, and transcriptomics, with the aim of reducing the number of cDNA candidates encoding for a glucosyltransferase involved in saponin biosynthesis and facilitating the elucidation of the pathway in this medicinal plant.
Fully mapped tree census plots of large area, 25 to 52 hectares, have now been completed at six different sites in tropical forests, including dry deciduous to wet evergreen forest on two continents. One of the main goals of these plots has been to evaluate spatial patterns in tropical tree populations. Here the degree of aggregation in the distribution of 1768 tree species is examined based on the average density of conspecific trees in circular neighborhoods around each tree. When all individuals larger than 1 centimeter in stem diameter were included, nearly every species was more aggregated than a random distribution. Considering only larger trees (>/= 10 centimeters in diameter), the pattern persisted, with most species being more aggregated than random. Rare species were more aggregated than common species. All six forests were very similar in all the particulars of these results.
This study attempted to investigate the effect of kiln drying on the rate of formation of ball copra. Three samples containing fifty partially dried-coconuts were placed as a single layer in three compartmentalized blocks namely, Front: Blok-1, Middle: Block-2, and Rear: Block-3 in the copra bed of the modified-Ceylon copra kiln. From each of the three blocks, thirty coconuts were selected randomly for labeling and their fresh weights were recorded. The samples were subjected to intermittent drying in the kiln by thirty five firing cycles using charcoal dust as the fuel source. The temperature distribution pattern of the three blocks during the first six firing was monitored at three hourly intervals. The weight losses of individual coconuts in each block were measured after the completion of each firing. The results showed that, there was a significant (p