Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 492 in total

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  1. Santhana Raj L, Hing HL, Baharudin O, Teh Hamidah Z, Aida Suhana R, Nor Asiha CP, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2007 Jun;24(1):105-9.
    PMID: 17568383 MyJurnal
    Mesosomes of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 treated with antibiotics were examined morphologically under the electron microscope. The Transmission Electron Microscope Rapid Method was used to eliminate the artifacts due to sample processing. Mesosomes were seen in all the antibiotic treated bacteria and not in the control group. The main factor that contributes to the formation of mesosomes in the bacteria was the mode of action of the antibiotics. The continuous cytoplasmic membrane with infolding (mesosomes) as in the S. aureus ATCC 25923 is therefore confirmed as a definite pattern of membrane organization in gram positive bacteria assaulted by amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and oxacillin antibiotics. Our preliminary results show oxacillin and vancomycin treated bacteria seemed to have deeper and more mesosomes than those treated with amikacin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the deep invagination and the number of mesosomes formed is associated with the types of antibiotic used.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus/classification; Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects*; Staphylococcus aureus/ultrastructure*
  2. Zajmi A, Mohd Hashim N, Noordin MI, Khalifa SA, Ramli F, Mohd Ali H, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(6):e0128157.
    PMID: 26030925 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128157
    Staphylococci are facultative anaerobes, perfectly spherical un-encapsulated cocci, with a diameter not exceeding 1 micrometer in diameter. Staphylococcus aureus are generally harmless and remain confined to the skin unless they burrow deep into the body, causing life-threatening infections in bones, joints, bloodstream, heart valves and lungs. Among the 20 medically important staphylococci species, Staphylococcus aureus is one of the emerging human pathogens. Streptomycin had its highest potency against Staphylococcus infections despite the likelihood of getting a resistant type of staphylococcus strains. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is the persister type of Staphylococcus aureus and was evolved after decades of antibiotic misuse. Inadequate penetration of the antibiotic is one of the principal factors related to success/failure of the therapy. The active drug needs to reach the bacteria at concentrations necessary to kill or suppress the pathogen's growth. In turn the effectiveness of the treatment relied on the physical properties of Staphylococcus aureus. Thus understanding the cell integrity, shape and roughness is crucial to the overall influence of the therapeutic agent on S. aureus of different origins. Hence our experiments were designed to clarify ultrastructural changes of S. aureus treated with streptomycin (synthetic compound) in comparison to artonin E (natural compound). In addition to the standard in vitro microbial techniques, we used transmission electron microscopy to study the disrupted cell architecture under antibacterial regimen and we correlate this with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to compare results of both techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus/cytology; Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects*; Staphylococcus aureus/ultrastructure*; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/cytology; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/ultrastructure
  3. Zurina Z, Wong HL, Jasminder K, Neoh SH, Cheah IG
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Dec;67(6):631-2.
    PMID: 23770964 MyJurnal
    Parotid abscess is uncommon in neonates. It is frequently related to prematurity, prolonged gavage feeding and dehydration. We report a case of a late preterm infant who developed the classical manifestation of unilateral acute Staphylococcus aureus suppurative parotitis progressing to formation of abscess which responded to surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus*
  4. Abu Hanifah Y
    Malays J Pathol, 1990 Dec;12(2):107-9.
    PMID: 2102965
    448 isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from clinical specimens of patients from the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, were phage-typed. These included 35 strains causing two separate outbreaks of infection, one in surgical Ward 6B and another in the Special Care Nursery (SCN). Antibiograms of these outbreak strains in Ward 6B and SCN were entirely different. Phage-typing revealed that 72% of the MRSA isolates were typable. They were typed entirely by Group III phages, the majority (76%) of which were phage type 85. There was only one isolate in SCN which was typed by Group I (phage 80) and Group III phages. None were typed by phages 94, 95, 96 and Group II phages. 14.6% of the typable isolates gave the long pattern reaction of the phage 6/47/54/75/77/83A/84/85 complex. The majority of the outbreak strains in Ward 6B were of phage type 85, whereas those in the SCN were all of the 6/47/54/75/77/83A/84 phage pattern with the exception of one isolate which was also typed by phage 80, a Group I phage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus/classification*
  5. Al-Talib H, Yean CY, Al-khateeb A, Singh KK, Hasan H, Al-Jashamy K, et al.
    Curr Microbiol, 2010 Jul;61(1):1-6.
    PMID: 20033170 DOI: 10.1007/s00284-009-9567-8
    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Hence, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of MRSA is a vital constituent of control measures. The present study evaluated five different methods for the identification of MRSA. A total of 207 S. aureus clinical isolates that consisted of 89 MRSA and 118 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains confirmed by PCR were tested. MRSA strains were evaluated by five different methods: chromogenic MRSA agar (CMRSA), oxacillin resistance screening agar base (ORSAB), mannitol salt oxacillin agar (MSO), mannitol salt cefoxitin agar with two different concentrations of cefoxitin [4 microg/ml (MSC-4) and 6 microg/ml (MSC-6)]. The results of the different methods were compared to mecA PCR as the gold standard. MSC-6 showed only six false-positive MRSA in comparison with PCR. The sensitivities and specificities of MSC-6, MSC-4, MSO-4, ORSAB, and CMRSA were as follows: 98.9/94.9%, 100/83.1%, 89.9/87.3%, 97.8/96.6%, and 95.5/94.9%, respectively. In comparison with PCR, it was found that both MSC-6 and ORSAB were relatively the least expensive screening tests ($0.70 and $1.00, respectively). In conclusion, all methods were comparable, but MSC-6 was the least expensive medium for MRSA screening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects; Staphylococcus aureus/genetics; Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development; Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification*
  6. Lim YS, Jegathesan M, Koay AS
    Singapore medical journal, 1985 Jun;26(3):304-6.
    PMID: 4048994
    Cultures of Staphylococcus aureus from eight food poisoning incidents in Malaysia were examined for their ability to produce enterotoxins. Five of the eight strains were found to be enterotoxigenic, the enterotoxins detected being A and E (three strains), A and C (one strain), and C (one strain). Penicillinase production was observed in four of the five enterotoxigenic strains; the penicillin·sensitive strain was also found to be coagulase-negative. The bacteriological and epidemiological investigations for confirming staphylococcal food poisoning are presented. The preventive measures to be taken in reducing such outbreaks are emphasized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects; Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism*
  7. Hanifah YA
    Singapore medical journal, 1991 Dec;32(6):438-40.
    PMID: 1788605
    Twenty-one isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Malaysia (M-MRSA) derived from various sources associated with nosocomial infections were phage-typed and compared with 54 international isolates associated with epidemic and sporadic episodes of infections. It appeared that the majority of M-MRSA were non-typable by the international basic set of phages. Two (9.5%) were typed by phage 85. Phage-typing of MRSA revealed that the strains were almost completely restricted to phage groups III and a lesser portion to phage groups I and III.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus/classification*; Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
  8. Jamali H, Radmehr B, Ismail S
    J Dairy Sci, 2014;97(4):2226-30.
    PMID: 24534509 DOI: 10.3168/jds.2013-7509
    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis in Varamin, Tehran Province, Iran. All of the isolated Staph. aureus were identified by morphology and culture and confirmed using the API Staph identification system (bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France). Antibiotic resistance genes were detected by PCR with oligonucleotide primers specific for each gene. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 43 of 207 (20.1%) bovine clinical milk samples. Using disk diffusion, methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus was detected in 5 of 43 (11.6%) samples. The pathogen showed high resistance against penicillin G (86%) and tetracycline (76.7%). The blaZ (penicillin) (86%), tetM (tetracycline), and ermC (erythromycin) genes (39.5% each) were the most prevalent antibiotic resistance genes. The findings of this study are useful for designing specific control programs for bovine clinical mastitis caused by Staph. aureus in this region of Iran.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects*; Staphylococcus aureus/genetics; Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism
  9. Salim MM, Malek NANN
    PMID: 26652350 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.09.099
    The antibacterial activity of regenerated NaY zeolite (thermal treatment from cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified NaY zeolite and pretreatment with Na ions) loaded with silver ions were examined using the broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method against Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 11229) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 6538). X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and chemical elemental analyses were used to characterize the regenerated NaY and AgY zeolites. The XRD patterns indicated that the calcination and addition of silver ions on regenerated NaY zeolite did not affect the structure of the regenerated NaY zeolite as the characteristic peaks of the NaY zeolite were retained, and no new peaks were observed. The regenerated AgY zeolite showed good antibacterial activity against both bacteria strains in distilled water, and the antibacterial activity of the samples increased with increasing Ag loaded on the regenerated AgY zeolite; the regenerated AgY zeolite was more effective against E. coli than S. aureus. However, the antibacterial activity of the regenerated AgY was not effective in saline solution for both bacteria. The study showed that CTAB-modified NaY zeolite materials could be regenerated to NaY zeolite using thermal treatment (550°C, 5h) and this material has excellent performance as an antibacterial agent after silver ions loading.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development*
  10. Santiago C, Pang EL, Lim KH, Loh HS, Ting KN
    PMID: 26060128 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0699-z
    The inhibition of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) is a promising solution in overcoming resistance of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A potential approach in achieving this is by combining natural product with currently available antibiotics to restore the activity as well as to amplify the therapeutic ability of the drugs. We studied inhibition effects of a bioactive fraction, F-10 (isolated from the leaves of Duabanga grandiflora) alone and in combination with a beta-lactam drug, ampicillin on MRSA growth and expression of PBP2a. Additionally, phytochemical analysis was conducted on F-10 to identify the classes of phytochemicals present.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects; Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development; Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects*; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism
  11. Lim YS, Jegathesan M, Koay AS, Kang SH
    Med J Malaysia, 1983 Mar;38(1):27-30.
    PMID: 6633330
    Enterotoxin production by strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods unconnected with outbreaks offood poisoning was investigated. Twenty-three percent of 217 strains examined produced enterotoxins A, B, C, D or E. Enterotoxin C was found to occur most frequently. Enterotoxin A was not detected alone from any of the strains examined, but occurred together with other enterotoxins. The overall number of strains isolated from raw foods which produced one or more enterotoxins was higher than that for cooked foods. Antibiotic sensitivities were unrelated to enterotoxin production and no correlation could be found between methicillin resistance and enterotoxigenicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism*
  12. Faizah, M. H., Anisah, N., Yusof, S., Noraina, A. R., Adibah, M. R.
    Medicine & Health, 2017;12(2):286-292.
    MyJurnal
    Acanthamoeba spp. merupakan ameba hidup bebas yang biasa ditemui
    di persekitaran. Ia merupakan agen penyebab keratitis Acanthamoeba (AK)
    dan ensefalitis ameba bergranuloma (GAE). Ameba ini juga mampu menjadi
    perumah kepada pelbagai bakteria termasuklah yang bersifat patogenik seperti
    Mycobacterium, Legionella dan Staphylococcus aureus rintang metisilin (MRSA).
    Berdasarkan maklumat ini, satu kajian dijalankan untuk mengesan kehadiran tiga
    bakteria endosimbion berkepentingan perubatan di dalam Acanthamoeba spp. yang
    telah dipencilkan dari bolong penghawa dingin yang terdapat di wad and dewan
    bedah di Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Kehadiran bakteria
    endosimbion ini disaring menggunakan pasangan primer khusus bagi setiap genus
    menggunakan reaksi rantai polimerase (PCR) konvensional dan disahkan dengan
    analisis penjujukan. Dua puluh sembilan (80.56%) pencilan Acanthamoeba spp.
    didapati mengandungi bakteria endosimbion patogenik yang disasarkan dengan
    sekurang-kurangnya satu genus bakteria bagi setiap pencilan. Mycobacterium
    (82.76 %) adalah bakteria yang paling banyak dikesan, diikuti dengan Legionella sp.
    (65.52 %) dan Pseudomonas spp. (62.07 %). Tiada bakteria MRSA dikesan daripada
    mana-mana pencilan dalam kajian ini. Dua endosimbion Mycobacterium yang
    dikenalpasti telah dikelompokkan ke dalam strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
    Kami membuat kesimpulan bahawa, kebanyakan Acanthamoeba berpotensi untuk
    menjadi perumah bagi pelbagai bakteria patogenik, namun implikasi interaksi ini
    terhadap patogenisiti kedua-dua organisma masih kurang jelas dan memerlukan
    penyelidikan yang lebih lanjut.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  13. Bitrus AA, Zunita Z, Khairani-Bejo S, Othman S, Ahmad Nadzir NA
    Microb Pathog, 2018 Oct;123:323-329.
    PMID: 30053600 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2018.07.033
    This study was designed to screen for SCCmec types and to characterize the attachment site (attB) and universal insertion site (orfX) of SCCmec in a collection of 27 isolates (n = 11) methicillin resistant S. aureus and (n = 16) methicillin susceptible S. aureus isolates in Malaysia. Screening of SCCmec types and characterization of the attachment site was carried out using PCR amplification and Sanger's sequencing method. The result showed that a large proportion of the MRSA isolates carried SCCmec type III 7/11 (63%). Three isolates 3/11 (27%) and 1/11 (9.0%) carried SCCmec type II and IVd respectively. Amplification of the universal insertion site of the SCCmec (orfX) and attachment site (attB) showed that all 16 S. aureus isolates were positive for the orfX gene, while only 7 were positive for the attB gene. Phylogenetic diversity showed that the isolates clustered around strains with features similar to a community acquired MRSA. In conclusion, a high carriage rate of SCCmec type III was observed. The result also showed that all the S. aureus isolates have the orfX structure; however, not all isolates possesses the attB site on the 3' end of the orfX region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  14. Tan YJ, Tan YS, Yeo CI, Chew J, Tiekink ERT
    J. Inorg. Biochem., 2019 03;192:107-118.
    PMID: 30640150 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2018.12.017
    Four binuclear phosphanesilver(I) dithiocarbamates, {cyclohexyl3PAg(S2CNRR')}2 for R = R' = Et (1), CH2CH2 (2), CH2CH2OH (3) and R = Me, R' = CH2CH2OH (4) have been synthesised and characterised by spectroscopy and crystallography, and feature tri-connective, μ2-bridging dithiocarbamate ligands and distorted tetrahedral geometries based on PS3 donor sets. The compounds were evaluated for anti-bacterial activity against a total of 12 clinically important pathogens. Based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and cell viability tests (human embryonic kidney cells, HEK 293), 1-4 are specifically active against Gram-positive bacteria while demonstrating low toxicity; 3 and 4 are active against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Across the series, 4 was most effective and was more active than the standard anti-biotic chloramphenicol. Time kill assays reveal 1-4 to exhibit both time- and concentration-dependent pharmacokinetics against susceptible bacteria. Compound 4 demonstrates rapid (within 2 h) bactericidal activity at 1 and 2 × MIC to reach a maximum decrease of 5.2 log10 CFU/mL against S. aureus (MRSA).
    Matched MeSH terms: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development*
  15. Mohd Zain Z, Johari MF, Mohd Husin NS, Rozman NS, Ab Rashid A, Bahanuddin L, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage and detection of S. aureus leukotoxins among medical students of Universiti Teknologi MARA. Methods: Both sides of the anterior nares of 136 volunteers, comprising 68 preclinical and 68 clinical medical students, were swabbed and immediately cultured onto mannitol salt agar for growth of S. aureus. Standard microbiological techniques were conducted to identify and confirm the S. aureus colonies and susceptibility test against oxacillin were conducted by using Kirby-Bauer method to determine their resistance to methicillin. Polymerase chain reaction was performed for detection of leukotoxins, i.e., Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) and -haemolysin genes. Results: Nineteen students (14%) consisting of 10 preclinical (14.7%) and 9 clinical (13.2%) were nasal carriers of S. aureus. However, none of the S. aureus isolates were MRSA. No PVL gene was detected but eight of them were positive for -haemolysin gene. Conclusion: There were no MRSA nasal carriers among the medical students, but a low prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriers was detected. These carriers do not pose as high risk because none of the strains of S. aureus possess both the -haemolysin toxin and the PVL toxin that are associated with tissue necrosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus*
  16. Ramli SR, Neoh HM, Aziz MN, Hussin S
    Infectious disease reports, 2012 Jan 2;4(1):e20.
    PMID: 24470927 DOI: 10.4081/idr.2012.e20
    In a 3-month study done in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), 7 out of 320 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were confirmed as heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) using the glycopeptide resistance detection e-test and population analysis, giving a prevalence rate of 2.19%. This is the first report of hVISA in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  17. Lee KG, Cheng MO
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Oct;67(5):529.
    PMID: 23770874 MyJurnal
    Varicella-zoster (chickenpox) infection is a common infectious disease and generally considered to be selflimiting. However, severe bacterial complications associated with the disease have been reported. We describe a case of varicella-zoster infection with secondary Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, preseptal orbital cellulitis and extensive facial abscesses. She was aggressively treated with intravenous antibiotics and repeated surgical drainage, and eventually made good recovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus
  18. Atshan SS, Nor Shamsudin M, Sekawi Z, Lung LT, Hamat RA, Karunanidhi A, et al.
    J. Biomed. Biotechnol., 2012;2012:976972.
    PMID: 22701309 DOI: 10.1155/2012/976972
    Clinical information about genotypically different clones of biofilm-producing Staphylococcus aureus is largely unknown. We examined whether different clones of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA) differ with respect to staphylococcal microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) in biofilm formation. The study used 60 different types of spa and determined the phenotypes, the prevalence of the 13 MSCRAMM, and biofilm genes for each clone. The current investigation was carried out using a modified Congo red agar (MCRA), a microtiter plate assay (MPA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Clones belonging to the same spa type were found to have similar properties in adheringto the polystyrene microtiter plate surface. However, their ability to produce slime on MCRA medium was different. PCR experiments showed that 60 clones of MSSA and MRSA were positive for 5 genes (out of 9 MSCRAMM genes). icaADBC genes were found to be present in all the 60 clones tested indicating a high prevalence, and these genes were equally distributed among the clones associated with MSSA and those with MRSA. The prevalence of other MSCRAMM genes among MSSA and MRSA clones was found to be variable. MRSA and MSSA gene expression (MSCRAMM and icaADBC) was confirmed by RT-PCR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics*; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity
  19. Zarizal S, Yeo CC, Faizal GM, Chew CH, Zakaria ZA, Jamil Al-Obaidi MM, et al.
    PMID: 29873865 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13090
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to profile the antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of resistance and virulence genes of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA nasal carriage, by means of genotypic analyses, in students of a tertiary institution in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 370 agricultural biotechnology students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin in Besut, Terengganu, were enrolled in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were evaluated by standard methods. PCR detection of resistance and virulence genes was performed on S. aureus that were methicillin-resistant, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB )-positive phenotype and/or positive for the leukocidin (pvl) gene followed by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), staphylococcal protein A (spa) and accessory gene regulator (agr) typing.

    RESULTS: One hundred and nineteen of 370 students carried S. aureus (32%); 18 of the isolates were MRSA (15%). Erythromycin resistance was detected in 20% (24/119) of which 15% (18/119) were MRSA and 5% (6/119) MSSA. Among the 24 erythromycin-resistant isolates, D-test was positive in 29% (7/24) displaying inducible MLSB , whereas the remaining 71% (17/24) showed constitutive MLSB phenotypes. Nine (7.6%) of 119 isolates were pvl positive: 44% MRSA (4/9) and 56% MSSA (5/9). Staphylococcal surface protein sasX gene was present in 92% of MRSA and 8% of MSSA isolates. The majority of MRSA isolates were agr type I (15/18; 83%). Five spa types identified with spa t037 were predominant, followed by spa types (t304 and t8696) as newly reported Malaysian MRSA in a community setting.

    CONCLUSION: The presence of MRSA with SCCmec of hospital-associated features and globally recognised spa types in community setting is worrisome. Furthermore, the presence of MLSB strains among multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. aureus with sasX as well as pvl-positive isolates highlights the potential risk of a community setting in facilitating the dissemination of both virulence and resistance determinants.

    Matched MeSH terms: Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification*; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification*
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