Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

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  1. Furnham A, Paltzer S
    Scand J Psychol, 2010 Jun 1;51(3):216-36.
    PMID: 20338017 DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2009.00772.x
    In 1999, Furnham and Mak published a review of 14 content-analytic studies of sex roles stereotyping in television commercials. All these studies were based on the McArthur and Resko (1975) content categories. This paper updates that review considering 30 studies in over 20 countries published between 2000 and 2008. Studies were from Australasia, Austria, Bulgaria, Ghana, Hong Kong, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Malaysia, Mauritius, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. They examined over 8,000 advertisements. National and cultural differences in gender stereotypes are also considered in the light of this data. The popularity of, and the problems associated with, the research paradigm are considered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping*
  2. Birks MJ, Chapman Y, Francis K
    J Transcult Nurs, 2009 Jan;20(1):116-23.
    PMID: 18840886 DOI: 10.1177/1043659608325849
    Since the emergence of nursing as a distinct discipline, its status has mirrored that of women in society in general. As a predominantly female profession, nursing has been subject to oppressive forces that have affected women at various stages of history. Despite improvements in the standing of both women and nursing during the past century, nursing has still failed to achieve its full potential. In Malaysia, sociocultural factors combine to further limit the development of the profession. This article explores how such factors merge with the oppression of nursing globally to influence the status of nursing in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping*
  3. Ahmadi K, Reidpath DD, Allotey P, Hassali MA
    BMJ Open, 2013;3(5).
    PMID: 23793653 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002755
    HIV/AIDS-related stigma affects the access and utilisation of health services. Although HIV/AIDS-related stigma in the health services has been studied, little work has attended to the relationship between professional development and stigmatising attitudes. Hence, in this study, we will extend earlier research by examining the relationship between the stage of professional development and the kinds of stigmatising attitudes held about people living with HIV/AIDS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping
  4. Azlan HA, Overton PG, Simpson J, Powell PA
    J Behav Med, 2020 06;43(3):377-390.
    PMID: 31865486 DOI: 10.1007/s10865-019-00130-4
    Disgust-driven stigma may be motivated by an assumption that a stigmatized target presents a disease threat, even in the absence of objective proof. Accordingly, even non-contagious diseases, such as cancer, can become stigmatized by eliciting disgust. This study had two parts: a survey (n = 272), assessing the association between disgust traits and cancer stigma; and an experiment, in which participants were exposed to a cancer surgery (n = 73) or neutral video (n = 68), in order to test a causal mechanism for the abovementioned association. Having a higher proneness to disgust was associated with an increased tendency to stigmatize people with cancer. Further, a significant causal pathway was observed between disgust propensity and awkwardness- and avoidance-based cancer stigma via elevated disgust following cancer surgery exposure. In contrast, those exposed to cancer surgery not experiencing elevated disgust reported less stigma than controls. Exposure-based interventions, which do not elicit disgust, may be profitable in reducing cancer stigma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping
  5. Chia EK, Jih CS
    J Psychol, 1994 Sep;128(5):559-65.
    PMID: 7983612
    We examined the effects of stereotyping on impression formation when encountering people dressed to represent a religious faith. We used stimulus photographs of eight male and female models dressed casually and a second photograph of one male and one female model in religious attire that was placed beside the control photos of models dressed causally. From each set of photographs, subjects selected a photo of the person with whom they would associate the various positive personality traits suggested by our stimulus questions. Subjects were students from a U.S. Catholic school, a U.S. public school, and a Malaysian Muslim school. All the subjects attributed more of the positive traits to photos of the models who were religiously attired than to photos of those who were casually dressed, but subjects from U.S. schools attributed more of the positive traits to the photos of religiously dressed models than did the subjects from the Malaysian school.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping*
  6. Marhani, M., Ruzanna, Z., Raynuha, M., Ang, J.K.
    MyJurnal
    Living with borderline personality disorder (BPD) involves a lot of emotional suffering which may be hidden behind the complex and controversial nature of the condition and treatment. The condition is still largely under-diagnosed, undertreated and stigmatized. This paper described the emotional battle faced by a patient living with the disorder and the application of psychosocial treatments in helping her to recover.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping
  7. Segaran R., Olga, Wilfred
    MyJurnal
    Students taking up nursing course bring with them stereotypes and prejudice towards mentally-ill clients. Nurses harbouring such stigmatising attitude can have a profound effect on their subsequent therapeutic relationship and quality of care rendered for the mentally-ill clients. Typically, students who harbour stigmatising views, develop positive mindset after psychiatric posting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping
  8. Al Hadid LA, Al-Rajabi O, Al Barmawi M, Alhadidi M, Jaradat AM
    J Am Coll Health, 2021 Jun 02.
    PMID: 34077693 DOI: 10.1080/07448481.2021.1891918
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychological symptoms (PS) among university students and the predictors associated with seeking counseling and psychological help among students. Participants: A total of 663 students from three Jordanian universities participated in this study. Methods: A cross-sectional, correlational design was applied. Participants reported on the Attitude toward Seeking Professional Help Scale and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-21. Results: Students reported higher mean scores on the symptom checklist and had a poor attitude toward seeking counseling with low confidence in the counseling services. PS predicted that less than 7% of students would seek counseling with no difference among all age groups, gender, or specializations. Conclusion: High prevalence and low confidence influenced students' behavior toward seeking counseling and psychological help. There is a need to incorporate topics explaining the importance of counseling into different university courses, while emphasizing that it is neither stigmatizing nor shameful to seek professional help.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping
  9. Ng, C.G., Zainal N.Z.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Depression is the most common psychological sequelae in cancer patients. It is challenging to diagnose depression in cancer patients. Furthermore, the presentation is influenced by the patients’ cultural background. Objectives: This literature review aims to determine the prevalence of depression in cancer patients across regions of different cultural background. Methods: A literature search was undertaken by using Pubmed electronic database. Studies were included in this review if they (a) examined the prevalence of depression in cancer patients and (b) published in English peer-review journal between 2000 and 2009. Results: A total of 59 studies from 21 countries were reviewed and summarised. The prevalence of depression in cancer patients ranged from 3% to 72%. Studies from Asia reported the lowest prevalence (3-39%) and Europe reported the highest prevalence (7-72%). Conclusion: Cultural influence may play a role in the prevalent difference of depression in cancer patients. Somatization and stigmatization are suggested as the possible reasons of lower prevalence of depression in Asia region. The biopsychiatric model of mental illness and western psychologization explain the higher prevalence in Western region. Future research on the cross-cultural variability in the presentation of depression in cancer patients is recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping
  10. Berry C, Michelson D, Othman E, Tan JC, Gee B, Hodgekins J, et al.
    Early intervention in psychiatry, 2020 02;14(1):115-123.
    PMID: 31111672 DOI: 10.1111/eip.12832
    AIM: Mental health problems are prevalent among young people in Malaysia yet access to specialist mental health care is extremely limited. More context-specific research is needed to understand the factors affecting help-seeking in youth, when mental health problems typically have first onset. We aimed to explore the attitudes of vulnerable young Malaysians regarding mental health problems including unusual psychological experiences, help-seeking and mental health treatment.

    METHODS: In the present study, nine young people (aged 16-23 years) from low-income backgrounds participated in a semi-structured interview about their perspectives on mental health problems, unusual psychological experiences and help-seeking.

    RESULTS: Four themes were developed using thematic analysis. "Is it that they [have] family problems?" reflected participants' explanatory models of mental health problems. "Maybe in Malaysia" was concerned with perceptions of Malaysian culture as both encouraging of open sharing of problems and experiences, but also potentially stigmatizing. "You have to ask for help" emphasized the importance of mental health help-seeking despite potential stigma. "It depends on the person" addressed the challenges of engaging with psychological therapy.

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that young people in Malaysia may hold compassionate, non-stigmatizing views towards people experiencing mental health problems and a desire to increase their knowledge and understandings. Yet societal stigma is a perceived reputational risk that may affect mental health problem disclosure and help-seeking. We suggest that efforts to improve mental health literacy would be valued by young Malaysians and could support reduced stigma and earlier help-seeking.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping
  11. Hadi AM, Lee PY, Adibah HI
    Malays Fam Physician, 2020;15(2):43-45.
    PMID: 32843944
    Despite the advancements made in the knowledge and treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) since it was first discovered, people living with HIV (PLWH) continue to be stigmatized. This paper presents the case of an HIV-infected patient who delayed the necessary treatment due to stigma and ultimately presented with AIDS. Through social support, however, he was able to overcome his internalized stigma; he was finally willing to start on antiretroviral treatment (ART). This case report addresses the effect of stigma on and the role of social support in the management of an individual with HIV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping
  12. Razali SM, Ismail Z
    J Ment Health, 2014 Aug;23(4):176-80.
    PMID: 24784779 DOI: 10.3109/09638237.2014.910644
    The stigma attached to mental disorders has been recognized as a major concern in healthcare services across societies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping*
  13. Chan W, Mccrae RR, De Fruyt F, Jussim L, Löckenhoff CE, De Bolle M, et al.
    J Pers Soc Psychol, 2012 Dec;103(6):1050-1066.
    PMID: 23088227 DOI: 10.1037/a0029712
    Age trajectories for personality traits are known to be similar across cultures. To address whether stereotypes of age groups reflect these age-related changes in personality, we asked participants in 26 countries (N = 3,323) to rate typical adolescents, adults, and old persons in their own country. Raters across nations tended to share similar beliefs about different age groups; adolescents were seen as impulsive, rebellious, undisciplined, preferring excitement and novelty, whereas old people were consistently considered lower on impulsivity, activity, antagonism, and Openness. These consensual age group stereotypes correlated strongly with published age differences on the five major dimensions of personality and most of 30 specific traits, using as criteria of accuracy both self-reports and observer ratings, different survey methodologies, and data from up to 50 nations. However, personal stereotypes were considerably less accurate, and consensual stereotypes tended to exaggerate differences across age groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping*
  14. Atherton G, Sebanz N, Cross L
    PLoS One, 2019;14(5):e0216585.
    PMID: 31086399 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0216585
    Stereotyping is a pervasive societal problem that impacts not only minority groups but subserves individuals who perpetuate stereotypes, leading to greater distance between groups. Social contact interventions have been shown to reduce prejudice and stereotyping, but optimal contact conditions between groups are often out of reach in day to day life. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a synchronous walking intervention, a non-verbal embodied approach to intergroup contact that may reduce the need for optimal contact conditions. We studied attitude change towards the Roma group in Hungary following actual and imagined walking, both in a coordinated and uncoordinated manner. Results showed that coordinated walking, both imagined and in vivo, led to explicit and implicit reductions in prejudice and stereotyping towards both the Roma individual and the wider Roma social group. This suggests that coordinated movement could be a valuable addition to current approaches towards prejudice reduction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping*
  15. Lim, Kheng-Seang, Tan, Chong-Tin
    Neurology Asia, 2014;19(1):1-10.
    MyJurnal
    Stigma is conceptually broad and culturally variable. Understanding stigma from the conceptual theories, culturally application based on the word stigma in other languages, the definition of stigma and its synonyms, as well as the medical implications in other stigmatized disease such as AIDS, will help us to understand the complexity of stigma in epilepsy. This review investigated the meaning and types of stigma from different perspectives, leading to staging stigma into 5 levels, i.e. social identity, stereotype, prejudice, discrimination and social disability. In addition to the conventional categorization of stigma into social, felt, self-perceived or internalized stigma, new categories of stigma i.e. personal and general attitudes towards epilepsy based on a newly developed Public Attitudes Toward Epilepsy (PATE) scale was introduced. Courtesy stigma was further elaborated in related to Asian culture. Based on well-established and recently developed theories, the causation and impact of epilepsy stigma was discussed in an Asian context, especially from the aspects of language and society values which are culturally specific. Integrating these theories of causation, illness and stereotype perceptions were proposed to be the mediating mechanism of stigma, which led to the development of a practical and multi-dimensional stigmatization model, aiming to guide, widen and deepen the scope of future stigma research in epilepsy. Using the established model, together with review of related studies, research priorities in epilepsy stigma research especially in Asia focusing on five aspects, i.e. expanding population studies especially on significant others, understanding stigma from personal attitude perspective, investigating the cultural and social causation of stigma, and the impacts of stigma on patients as well as the family members, were proposed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping
  16. Redhwan Ahmed, Al-Naggar
    MyJurnal
    Objective: Globally, there is growing evidence of stigmatization of people with mental illnesses and mental illness is more stigmatizing than physical illnesses. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the attitudes of university students towards persons with mental illness. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Management and Science University students during the academic year 2012. Prior ethical approval was taken for conducting the study. A total of 300 medical and health science students was recruited in this study and the response rate was 93%. The survey questionnaire was adopted from a previous study with 15 statements about attitude towards mental health illness and sociodemographic characteristics. Classes were chosen randomly and students also randomly selected. The inclusion criterion for this research was medical and health science students while the exclusion criterion was students from other faculties, staff and lecturers. Data was analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 13.0. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis of the basic demographics and survey items of the questionnaire. T-test and multiple linear regression were used to explore the relationship between the socio-demographic and the attitude. Results: A total number of 279 students participated in this study. The majority of them were female, age 20 years and above, single, Malay, from International Medical School (IMS) and from urban areas (68.5%, 88.2%, 96.4%, 58.1%, 60.2%, 77.8% respectively). In this study, the majority of the participants showed a moderate to good attitude towards people with mental illness. Univariate analysis showed that marital status influenced the attitudes of university students towards people with mental illness (p=0.015). In multivariate analysis, multiple linear regression showed that gender, marital status, smoking and drinking alcohol significantly influenced the attitude of university students towards people with mental illness (p=0.014, p=0.012; p=0.009, p=0.013; respectively). Conclusion: This study showed that the undergraduate university students had a moderate to good attitude towards people with mental illness. Gender, marital status, smoking and drinking alcohol significantly influenced the attitude of undergraduate university students towards people with mental illness. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 14 (1): January - June 2013: XX XX.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping
  17. Chew, B.H., Cheong, A.T.
    MyJurnal
    Medical students are future doctors who are trained to treat all kinds of diseases including people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) without prejudice. Teaching basic scientific knowledge and technical skills is no longer adequate for today’s medical students. There is also a need for them to be provided with high personal and professional values. This study examined stigmatizing attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) among the medical students in a public medical school. The participants were stratified to preclinical-year (year 1 and year 2) and clinical-year (year 3 and year 4) medical students. Simple random sampling was carried out to select 170 participants from each category of students. Self-administered questionnaires captured socio-demographic data, HIV/AIDS knowledge and stigmatisation attitudes towards PLWHA. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between ethnic groups and stigmatization attitude. Three hundred and forty participants were recruited. Malay medical students who did not have previous encounter with PLWHA were associated with stigmatizing attitude towards HIV/AIDS patients, whereas clinical-year medical students who had no clinical encounter with PLWHA were more likely to feel uncomfortable with PLWHA. Malay ethnicity and medical students in clinical years who had not encounter a PLWHA were more likely to have stigmatizing attitude towards PLWHA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping
  18. Chan YC, Binti Mawardi M, Ismail Daud AH
    Malays Fam Physician, 2021 Mar 25;16(1):31-38.
    PMID: 33948140 DOI: 10.51866/oa0001
    Background: Stigmatizing attitudes expressed by health care providers prevent some members of at-risk populations from accessing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening and care. This attitude contributes to the continuity of the infection dissemination within our community, which gives an impact on the healthcare service and the curtailment of the global HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic.

    Objective: This study was conducted to identify stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and their determinants among primary health care providers in Kinta District, Perak.

    Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 36 primary care clinics in Kinta District, Perak. Using stratified random sampling, 365 primary health care providers were recruited into the study. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic data as well as information on the healthcare experiences of healthcare providers, their knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and attitudes toward PLWHA. Determinants were identified using multiple linear regression.

    Results: More than half of the respondents (54.1%) had never provided care to HIV/AIDS patients. A minority (29.9%) had received training on HIV/AIDS. This study shows that doctors (Coef.= -9.50, 95% CI: -18.93, -0.07, p= 0.048), respondents with HIV-positive relatives, (Coef.= -5.61, 95% CI: -10.57, -0.65, p= 0.027), those who had provided care to HIV/AIDS patients (Coef.= -2.38, 95% CI: -4.31, -0.45, p= 0.016), and those with a higher knowledge score on HIV/AIDS (Coef.= -0.86, 95% CI: -1.59, -0.13, p= 0.021) were less likely to show stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWHA.

    Conclusion: The issue of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWHA among primary health care providers needs to be addressed. This study finds that knowledge, profession, experiences with caring for PLWHA, gender, and having HIV-positive relatives are significant predictors of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWHA among primary health care providers in Kinta District, Perak. Interventional programs to improve knowledge and awareness, as well as decrease stigma toward PLWHA, should be implemented among all health care providers, especially those who have no opportunity to provide direct care.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping
  19. Munawar K, Mukhtar F, Choudhry FR, Ng ALO
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2021 May 08.
    PMID: 33963816 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12475
    BACKGROUND: Mental health problems in Malaysia are on a rise. This study aimed at performing a systematic review of mental health literacy (MHL) in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Medline, Embase, ERIC/Proquest, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Scopus, EBM Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Emcare and reference lists of included studies were searched in February 2020. Studies that evaluated at least one of the main components of MHL, including (1) knowledge related to mental health issues, and (2) stigma, were included irrespective of study design. As secondary findings, the review also synthesized results related to facilitators and barriers to seeking mental health services. Depending on the research design, the quality of each study was assessed through checklists.

    RESULTS: Forty six studies published between 1995 to 2019 were included. Most studies used cross-sectional designs to investigate MHL. Findings indicate that most Malaysians have stigmatizing attitudes towards mental health problems. Participants in the included studies endorsed multifactorial explanations of mental health issues with a dominance of supernatural and religious aetiologies. Likewise, the commonest barrier was considering sources other than professional sources of mental-health services. Presence of adequate knowledge and considering providers as competent facilitated help-seeking. Additionally, there was considerable heterogeneity in studies and a lack of standardized measures assessing MHL.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is an increase in studies on MHL in Malaysia. A few of these studies, based on experimental design, have shown positive effects. Researchers, practitioners, and policymakers should develop standardized measures and interventional studies based on all the components of MHL.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping
  20. Owuamalam C, Zagefka H
    Br J Psychol, 2013 Nov;104(4):543-62.
    PMID: 24094283 DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12006
    This article examines the implications of perceived negativity from members of a dominant outgroup on the world views and perceived relative group worth of members of disadvantaged groups. We hypothesized that concerns about the negative opinions a dominant outgroup is perceived to hold of the ingroup (i.e., meta-stereotypes) would undermine group members' views about societal fairness. We expected this trend to be mediated by recall of previous personal experiences of discrimination. We further hypothesized that members' views about societal fairness would predict their perception of the ingroup's worth relative to the outgroup - such that undermined views about societal fairness would be associated with lower perceived ingroup worth relative to the outgroup. Taken jointly, results from two studies using two real intergroup contexts support these hypotheses and are discussed in terms of their implications for the social mobility of members of disadvantaged groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stereotyping*
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