AIMS: We assessed outcomes of a pilot long-term stroke care clinic which combined secondary prevention and rehabilitation at community level.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective observational study of stroke patients treated between 2008 and 2010 at a primary care teaching facility.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Analysis of patients was done at initial contact and at 1-year post treatment. Clinical outcomes included stroke risk factor(s) control, depression according to Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), and level of independence using Barthel Index (BI).
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Differences in means between baseline and post treatment were compared using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon-signed rank test. Significance level was set at 0.05.
RESULTS: Ninety-one patients were analyzed. Their mean age was 62.9 [standard deviation (SD) 10.9] years, mean stroke episodes were 1.30 (SD 0.5). The median interval between acute stroke and first contact with the clinic 4.0 (interquartile range 9.0) months. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased by 9.7 mmHg (t = 2.79, P = 0.007), while mean diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged at 80mmHg (z = 1.87, P = 0.06). Neurorehabilitation treatment was given to 84.6% of the patients. Median BI increased from 81 (range: 2-100) to 90.5 (range: 27-100) (Z = 2.34, P = 0.01). Median PHQ9 scores decreased from 4.0 (range: 0-22) to 3.0 (range: 0-19) though the change was not significant (Z= -0.744, P = 0.457).
CONCLUSIONS: Primary care-driven long-term stroke care services yield favorable outcomes for blood pressure control and functional level.
METHODS: This was a prospective study carried out in normal subjects at the Vascular Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, from March 2006 to September 2006. The study compared the popliteal artery blood flow during change of posture from the horizontal (supine) to the sitting position and the effect of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) of the foot and calf on popliteal artery blood flow immediately and 10 minutes after cessation of compression.
RESULTS: A total of 15 subjects involving 30 limbs were examined in this study. On comparing flows between the horizontal and sitting position, there was a mean reduction in blood flow of 23% (p < 0.005). Immediately after compression of the foot and calf, there was an increase in blood flow of between 4% and 35% with a mean of 15% (p < 0.05). Peak systolic flows at 10 minutes postcompression were 536 +/- 95 mL/min, which was still significantly higher than precompression measurements.
CONCLUSION: There is a significant reduction in popliteal artery blood flow on changing from the supine to the sitting position. Popliteal artery blood flow is higher than baseline after 15 minutes of intermittent pneumatic foot and calf compression. The increase in popliteal artery blood flow is still present 10 minutes after cessation of IPC.
METHODS: In 20 patients undergoing cardiac surgery in sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia, we analyzed intraoperative S' values which were determined after 10 min exposure to sevoflurane at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 inspired-vol% (T1, T2, and T3, respectively) with a fixed remifentanil dose (1.0 μg/kg/min) using transesophageal echocardiography.
RESULTS: Linear mixed-effect modeling demonstrated dose-dependent declines in S' according to the end-tidal sevoflurane concentration increments (C(ET)-sevoflurane, p < 0.001): the mean value of S' reduction for each 1.0 vol%-increment of C(ET)-sevoflurane was 1.7 cm/s (95 % confidence interval 1.4-2.1 cm/s). Medians of S' at T1, T2, and T3 (9.6, 8.9, and 7.5 cm/s, respectively) also exhibited significant declines (by 6.6, 15.6, and 21.2 % for T1 vs. T2, T2 vs. T3, and T1 vs. T3, p < 0.001, =0.002, and <0.001 in Friedman pairwise comparisons, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Administering sevoflurane as a part of a sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia regimen appears to dose-dependently reduce S', indicating LV systolic performance, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Further studies may be required to evaluate the clinical implications of these findings.