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  1. Leong CO, Leong CN, Liew YM, Al Abed A, Aziz YFA, Chee KH, et al.
    Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng, 2021 08;37(8):e3501.
    PMID: 34057819 DOI: 10.1002/cnm.3501
    Infarct extension involves necrosis of healthy myocardium in the border zone (BZ), progressively enlarging the infarct zone (IZ) and recruiting the remote zone (RZ) into the BZ, eventually leading to heart failure. The mechanisms underlying infarct extension remain unclear, but myocyte stretching has been suggested as the most likely cause. Using human patient-specific left-ventricular (LV) numerical simulations established from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of myocardial infarction (MI) patients, the correlation between infarct extension and regional mechanics abnormality was investigated by analysing the fibre stress-strain loops (FSSLs). FSSL abnormality was characterised using the directional regional external work (DREW) index, which measures FSSL area and loop direction. Sensitivity studies were also performed to investigate the effect of infarct stiffness on regional myocardial mechanics and potential for infarct extension. We found that infarct extension was correlated to severely abnormal FSSL in the form of counter-clockwise loop at the RZ close to the infarct, as indicated by negative DREW values. In regions demonstrating negative DREW values, we observed substantial fibre stretching in the isovolumic relaxation (IVR) phase accompanied by a reduced rate of systolic shortening. Such stretching in IVR phase in part of the RZ was due to its inability to withstand the high LV pressure that was still present and possibly caused by regional myocardial stiffness inhomogeneity. Further analysis revealed that the occurrence of severely abnormal FSSL due to IVR fibre stretching near the RZ-BZ boundary was due to a large amount of surrounding infarcted tissue, or an excessively stiff IZ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
  2. Teh CH, Chan YY, Lim KH, Kee CC, Lim KK, Yeo PS, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:1205.
    PMID: 26630916 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2528-1
    The health-enhancing benefits of physical activity (PA) on hypertension and diabetes have been well documented for decades. This study aimed to determine the association of PA with systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as blood glucose in the Malaysian adult population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
  3. Tsai TY, Cheng HM, Chuang SY, Chia YC, Soenarta AA, Minh HV, et al.
    J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich), 2021 03;23(3):467-474.
    PMID: 33249701 DOI: 10.1111/jch.14111
    Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is the most common type of essential hypertension in the elderly and young adults. With rapid industrialization and population aging, the prevalence of ISH in Asia will rise substantially. Asian populations have distinct epidemiological features, risk factors and are especially vulnerable to ISH. There is a pressing need for Asian countries to formulate their unique strategies for control of ISH. In this review, we focus on the (1) epidemiology and pathophysiology, (2) risk factors and impact on outcomes, and (3) treatment goal and strategy for ISH in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
  4. Wan Nor Arifin, Wan Arfah Nadiah, Muhammad Irfan, Chen, Xin Wee, Nani Draman, Nyi, Nyi Naing
    MyJurnal
    To ensure the reliability of manual blood pressure (BP) readings in a clinical trial, sources of error due to measurement must be reduced as much as possible. Apart from following standard procedure for BP measurement and ensuring good equipments, the measurement errors that come from the assessors themselves should be assessed. Objective: To demonstrate the use of two-way random effects, interactions absent, absolute agreement (Type A), single measures (Type 1) intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in the assessment of reliability of manual BP readings among assessors involved in a clinical trial using manual BP measurement, by using an interrater reliability study conducted by the authors as an example study. Methods: The steps involved in obtaining ICC in the study were discussed. Sample size given the number of assessors in the study was calculated. BP was measured using regularly maintained mercury sphygnomanometers, following recommendations by Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) for BP measurement in office setting. The outcomes were systolic and diastolic BP readings. A type of ICC, two-way random effects, interactions absent, absolute agreement (Type A), single measures (Type 1) ICC was chosen for the analysis and specifically discussed. Pre-requisite assumptions for ICC were meticulously checked and described. The interrater reliability for systolic and diastolic BP readings as expressed by ICC (single measure) were presented with confidence interval (CI). The ICCs obtained in the example study were discussed and concluded. The flaws of the study were also criticised. Results: The interrater reliability for systolic and diastolic BP measurements as expressed by ICC (single measure) were 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.722, 0.956) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.560, 0.918) respectively. Conclusion: We demonstrated the steps required to obtain ICC. Since the use of manual BP measurement using mercury sphygmomanometer is still considered as gold standard of BP measurement, it is important that studies in which the BP outcome is measured using such method conduct interrater reliability studies properly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
  5. Dorobantu DM, Wadey CA, Amir NH, Stuart AG, Williams CA, Pieles GE
    Diagnostics (Basel), 2021 Apr 01;11(4).
    PMID: 33915862 DOI: 10.3390/diagnostics11040635
    Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has gained importance in the evaluation of adult inherited cardiomyopathies, but its utility in children is not well characterized. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the role of STE in pediatric inherited cardiomyopathies. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, CENTRAL and CINAHL databases were searched up to May 2020, for terms related to inherited cardiomyopathies and STE. Included were dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM). A total of 14 cohorts were identified, of which six were in DCM, four in HCM, three in LVNC and one in ACM. The most commonly reported STE measurements were left ventricular longitudinal strain (Sl), circumferential strain (Sc), radial strain (Sr) and rotation/torsion/twist. Sl, Sc and were abnormal in all DCM and LVNC cohorts, but not in all HCM. Apical rotation and twist/torsion were increased in HCM, and decreased in LVNC. Abnormal STE parameters were reported even in cohorts with normal non-STE systolic/diastolic measurements. STE in childhood cardiomyopathies can detect early changes which may not be associated with changes in cardiac function detectable by non-STE methods. Longitudinal and circumferential strain should be introduced in the cardiomyopathy echocardiography protocol, reflecting current practice in adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
  6. Chan BT, Ahmad Bakir A, Al Abed A, Dokos S, Leong CN, Ooi EH, et al.
    Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng, 2019 06;35(6):e3204.
    PMID: 30912313 DOI: 10.1002/cnm.3204
    Flow energetics have been proposed as early indicators of progressive left ventricular (LV) functional impairment in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), but its correlation with individual MI parameters has not been fully explored. Using electro-fluid-structure interaction LV models, this study investigated the correlation between four MI parameters: infarct size, infarct multiplicity, regional enhancement of contractility at the viable myocardium area (RECVM), and LV mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) with intraventricular vortex and flow energetics. In LV with small infarcts, our results showed that infarct appearance amplified the energy dissipation index (DI), where substantial viscous energy loss was observed in areas with high flow velocity and near the infarct-vortex interface. The LV with small multiple infarcts and RECVM showed remarkable DI increment during systole and diastole. In correlation analysis, the systolic kinetic energy fluctuation index (E') was positively related to ejection fraction (EF) (R2  = 0.982) but negatively correlated with diastolic E' (R2  = 0.970). Diastolic E' was inversely correlated with vortex kinetic energy (R2  = 0.960) and vortex depth (R2  = 0.876). We showed an excessive systolic DI could differentiate infarcted LV with normal EF from healthy LV. Strong flow acceleration, LVMD, and vortex-infarct interactions were predominant factors that induced excessive DI in infarcted LVs. Instead of causing undesired flow turbulence, high systolic E' suggested the existence of energetic flow acceleration, while high diastolic E' implied an inefficient diastolic filling. Thus, systolic E' is not a suitable early indicator for progressive LV dysfunction in MI patients, while diastolic E' may be a useful index to indicate diastolic impairment in these patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
  7. Leong CN, Dokos S, Andriyana A, Liew YM, Chan BT, Abdul Aziz YF, et al.
    Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng, 2020 01;36(1):e3291.
    PMID: 31799767 DOI: 10.1002/cnm.3291
    Myocardial infarct extension, a process involving the enlargement of infarct and border zone, leads to progressive degeneration of left ventricular (LV) function and eventually gives rise to heart failure. Despite carrying a high risk, the causation of infarct extension is still a subject of much speculation. In this study, patient-specific LV models were developed to investigate the correlation between infarct extension and impaired regional mechanics. Subsequently, sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the causal factors responsible for the impaired regional mechanics observed in regions surrounding the infarct and border zone. From our simulations, fibre strain, fibre stress and fibre stress-strain loop (FSSL) were the key biomechanical variables affected in these regions. Among these variables, only FSSL was correlated with infarct extension, as reflected in its work density dissipation (WDD) index value, with high WDD indices recorded at regions with infarct extension. Impaired FSSL is caused by inadequate contraction force generation during the isovolumic contraction and ejection phases. Our further analysis revealed that the inadequacy in contraction force generation is not necessarily due to impaired myocardial intrinsic contractility, but at least in part, due to inadequate muscle fibre stretch at end-diastole, which depresses the ability of myocardium to generate adequate contraction force in the subsequent systole (according to the Frank-Starling law). Moreover, an excessively stiff infarct may cause its neighbouring myocardium to be understretched at end-diastole, subsequently depressing the systolic contractile force of the neighbouring myocardium, which was found to be correlated with infarct extension.
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole/physiology
  8. Leong CN, Lim E, Andriyana A, Al Abed A, Lovell NH, Hayward C, et al.
    PMID: 27043925 DOI: 10.1002/cnm.2794
    Infarct extension, a process involving progressive extension of the infarct zone (IZ) into the normally perfused border zone (BZ), leads to continuous degradation of the myocardial function and adverse remodelling. Despite carrying a high risk of mortality, detailed understanding of the mechanisms leading to BZ hypoxia and infarct extension remains unexplored. In the present study, we developed a 3D truncated ellipsoidal left ventricular model incorporating realistic electromechanical properties and fibre orientation to examine the mechanical interaction among the remote, infarct and BZs in the presence of varying infarct transmural extent (TME). Localized highly abnormal systolic fibre stress was observed at the BZ, owing to the simultaneous presence of moderately increased stiffness and fibre strain at this region, caused by the mechanical tethering effect imposed by the overstretched IZ. Our simulations also demonstrated the greatest tethering effect and stress in BZ regions with fibre direction tangential to the BZ-remote zone boundary. This can be explained by the lower stiffness in the cross-fibre direction, which gave rise to a greater stretching of the IZ in this direction. The average fibre strain of the IZ, as well as the maximum stress in the sub-endocardial layer, increased steeply from 10% to 50% infarct TME, and slower thereafter. Based on our stress-strain loop analysis, we found impairment in the myocardial energy efficiency and elevated energy expenditure with increasing infarct TME, which we believe to place the BZ at further risk of hypoxia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
  9. Narayan, K.A., A Rashid, K.
    MyJurnal
    This study was conducted to study the blood pressure pattern and the prevalence of hypertension and its associated factors in a rural community in two coastal villages in rural Kedah, Mahysia. Out of the total population 504 were above 20 years of age and were eligible to participate. There were 227 males and 252 females. The mean systolic blood pressure was found to rise with age, peaking in the 6l·70 years age group, For women the mean blood pressure rose earlier from the age group of 4-l· 50 years. Mean blood pressures rose with increasing body mass index. lt also varied with occupation and education. The retired and unemployed had a higher blood pressure than those employed and there was an inverse relationship with increasing education. The prevalence of hypertension was 33.6%. More females were hypertensive (36.5%) as compared to males (3 0.4%) and this finding was the same for both systolic and diastolic hypertension. Majority (71.4%) of the hypertensives were undiagnosed. 72.5% of hypertensives who were on treatment were not under control. Hypertension was more prevalent among retirees and illiterates. Prevalence of hypertension increased correspondingly with age. Obesity was associated with hypertension. There was no association with family history of hypertension. Multiple logistic regression showed a positive association only for obesity. ln conclusion, given the high prevalence of hypertension at
    present, it appears that the prevalence will increase as each age cohort grows older. Obesity, especially among housewives is a significant assorted factor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
  10. Duncan MT, Husain R, Chen HM, Horvath SM
    Am J Hum Biol, 1995;7(3):329-337.
    PMID: 28557027 DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.1310070309
    The interaction of race and climatic adaptation on patterns of cardiovascular reactivity among young adult males was examined. Malay and Chinese subjects living in a tropical climate in the Orient and Caucasians living in a sub-tropical climate in North America were investigated. The cold pressor test with hand immersion in cold water was used as the stressor. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, cardiac frequency, cardiac output, and stroke volume were measured. The results provided limited evidence for absence of differences in cardiac reactivity among racial groups and for greater vascular reactivity in the Caucasians. Cold immersion also elicited differential responses which could be partially attributed to differences in acclimatizations status. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
  11. Malina Jasamai, Nurul Hanis Samsudin, Norazrina Azmi, Endang Kumolosasi
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1221-1226.
    Durian or scientifically known as Durio zibethinus is one of the most well-known seasonal fruits in the Southeast Asia
    region. However, its safe consumption in individuals with hypertension is still controversial. This study was conducted
    to investigate the effect of durian on blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rat model. Four groups of rats (n=5)
    were fed with either a low dose durian (26 g/kg), a high dose durian (52 g/kg), sugar solution (8 mL/kg) which has
    similar sugar composition in the durian as placebo control, and distilled water as vehicle control (8 mL/kg) for 14 days.
    The durian doses for rats were obtained by converting from human doses. Baseline reading of blood pressure and heart
    rate were recorded before the first oral administration of durian. The blood pressure and heart rate were also measured
    1 h after the durian oral administration on day 1, 3, 7 and 14 of the experiment. In conclusion, durian fruit possessed
    an acute effect on the blood pressure of hypertensive rats but heart rate was unaffected. High dose administration of
    durian led to significant elevation of blood pressure after 1 h of consumption. Meanwhile, low dose of durian (26 g/kg)
    caused an insignificant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Tolerance to the durian fruit was observed after
    three to seven days of the oral administration and low dose consumption of durian fruit was safe in the hypertensive rat.
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
  12. Ng CC, Sybil Shah MHB, Chaw SH, Mansor MB, Tan WK, Koong JK, et al.
    Expert Rev Med Devices, 2021 Feb;18(2):203-210.
    PMID: 33322949 DOI: 10.1080/17434440.2021.1865796
    Background: Supraglottic airway devices have increasingly been used as the airway technique of choice in laparoscopic surgeries. This study compared the efficacy and safety of the Baska Mask with endotracheal tube (ETT) in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy.Research design and methods: This single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial recruited 60 patients aged 18-75 years with American Society of Anesthesiologists' classifications I to III. The time taken to achieve effective airway, number of attempts, ease of insertion, ventilation parameters, hemodynamics data, and pharyngolaryngeal complications were recorded.Results: The time taken to achieve effective airway was shorter for the Baska group (26.6 ± 4.7 vs. 47.2 ± 11.8 s; p
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
  13. Ibrahim HS, Omar E, Froemming GR, Singh HJ
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:298401.
    PMID: 24167814 DOI: 10.1155/2013/298401
    Raised leptin levels have been reported in the placentae and serum of women with elevated blood pressure and proteinuria during pregnancy. The role of leptin in this however remains unknown. This study investigates the effect of leptin administration on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and proteinuria and serum markers of endothelial activation during pregnancy in Sprague Dawley rats. From day 1 of pregnancy, 24 rats were randomised into those given either saline (group 1) or leptin at 60 or 120 μ g/kg/body weight/day (groups 2 and 3 resp.). SBP was measured every 5 days and 24-h urinary protein was measured at days 0 and 20 of pregnancy. Animals were euthanised on day 20 of pregnancy, and serum was collected for estimation of E-selectin and ICAM-1. Compared to group 1, SBP during the latter part of the pregnancy was significantly higher in the leptin-treated group (P < 0.01). Urinary protein excretion, serum E-selectin, and ICAM-1 were significantly higher in leptin-treated rats (P < 0.05). It seems that leptin administration to normotensive Sprague Dawley rats during pregnancy significantly increases SBP, urinary protein excretion, and markers of endothelial activation. However, further studies are required to examine the underlying mechanism responsible for this and its relevance to preeclampsia in humans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole/drug effects
  14. Chia YC, Yeoh ES, Ng CJ, Khoo EM, Chua CT
    Singapore Med J, 2009 May;50(5):500-5.
    PMID: 19495520
    INTRODUCTION: Calcium channel blockers are well established modalities for the treatment of hypertension. However, in spite of the availability of many efficacious agents, hypertension control continues to be poor. One reason is poor tolerability due to adverse events. Racial differences also exist. Lercanidipine, a third-generation calcium channel blocker, is associated with better tolerability. However, it has not been studied in the Asian population. This study examines its efficacy and tolerability in Asian subjects of different ethnicities.
    METHODS: This was an eight-week open label study of adults with mild to moderate hypertension. Blood pressure (BP), pulse rate, self-administered symptom check and laboratory evaluations were done at baseline. Patients were prescribed 10 mg lercanidipine, with up-titration to 20 mg if BP was not controlled at Week 4. Baseline evaluations were repeated at Week 8. Adverse events were also enumerated.
    RESULTS: 27 patients (mean age 53.4 +/- 12.1 years) completed the study. The baseline systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP) and heart rate was 159 +/- 12.2, 96.6 +/- 7.7 mmHg and 71 +/- 13/min, respectively. Three racial groups were represented. SBP and DBP decreased significantly after four weeks of therapy. A further reduction to 139 +/- 14.3 and 88 +/- 9.8 (p-value is less than 0.0001) was seen in Week 8. The absolute SBP and DBP reduction was 20.5 mmHg (95 percent confidence interval [CI] 16.5-24.5, p-value is less than 0.0001) and 9.3 mmHg (95 percent CI 6.2-12.5, p-value is less than 0.0001), respectively. All adverse symptoms, except for palpitations, were reduced at the end of the study.
    CONCLUSION: Lercanidipine is efficacious and well tolerated in Asians of different ethnicities. Its BP lowering effects and tolerability in Asians appear to be similar to other studies on Caucasians and other calcium channel blockers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole/drug effects
  15. Aftab RA, Khan AH, Adnan AS, Sulaiman SAS, Khan TM
    Sci Rep, 2017 12 18;7(1):17741.
    PMID: 29255272 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-17437-4
    The aim of current study was to assess the effectiveness of losartan 50 mg in reducing blood pressure among post-dialysis euvolemic hypertensive patients, observing their survival trends and adverse events during the course of study. A multicentre, prospective, randomised, single-blind trial was conducted to assess the effect of losartan 50 mg every other day (EOD), once a morning (OM) among post-dialysis euvolemic hypertensive patients. Post-dialysis euvolemic assessment was done by a body composition monitor (BCM). Covariate Adaptive Randomization was used for allocation of participants to the standard or intervention arm. Of the total 229 patients, 96 (41.9%) were identified as post-dialysis euvolemic hypertensive. Final samples of 88 (40.1%) patients were randomized into standard and intervention arms. After follow-up of 12 months' pre-dialysis systolic (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole/drug effects
  16. Aziz AF, Aziz NA, Nordin NA, Ali MF, Sulong S, Aljunid SM
    J Neurosci Rural Pract, 2013 Oct;4(4):413-20.
    PMID: 24347948 DOI: 10.4103/0976-3147.120243
    CONTEXT: Poststroke care in developing countries is inundated with poor concordance and scarce specialist stroke care providers. A primary care-driven health service is an option to ensure optimal care to poststroke patients residing at home in the community.

    AIMS: We assessed outcomes of a pilot long-term stroke care clinic which combined secondary prevention and rehabilitation at community level.

    SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective observational study of stroke patients treated between 2008 and 2010 at a primary care teaching facility.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Analysis of patients was done at initial contact and at 1-year post treatment. Clinical outcomes included stroke risk factor(s) control, depression according to Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), and level of independence using Barthel Index (BI).

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Differences in means between baseline and post treatment were compared using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon-signed rank test. Significance level was set at 0.05.

    RESULTS: Ninety-one patients were analyzed. Their mean age was 62.9 [standard deviation (SD) 10.9] years, mean stroke episodes were 1.30 (SD 0.5). The median interval between acute stroke and first contact with the clinic 4.0 (interquartile range 9.0) months. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased by 9.7 mmHg (t = 2.79, P = 0.007), while mean diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged at 80mmHg (z = 1.87, P = 0.06). Neurorehabilitation treatment was given to 84.6% of the patients. Median BI increased from 81 (range: 2-100) to 90.5 (range: 27-100) (Z = 2.34, P = 0.01). Median PHQ9 scores decreased from 4.0 (range: 0-22) to 3.0 (range: 0-19) though the change was not significant (Z= -0.744, P = 0.457).

    CONCLUSIONS: Primary care-driven long-term stroke care services yield favorable outcomes for blood pressure control and functional level.

    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
  17. Mokhtar S, Azizi ZA, Govindarajanthran N
    Asian J Surg, 2008 Jul;31(3):124-9.
    PMID: 18658010
    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of posture and also intermittent foot and calf compression on peak systolic flow of the popliteal artery in a normal population.

    METHODS: This was a prospective study carried out in normal subjects at the Vascular Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, from March 2006 to September 2006. The study compared the popliteal artery blood flow during change of posture from the horizontal (supine) to the sitting position and the effect of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) of the foot and calf on popliteal artery blood flow immediately and 10 minutes after cessation of compression.

    RESULTS: A total of 15 subjects involving 30 limbs were examined in this study. On comparing flows between the horizontal and sitting position, there was a mean reduction in blood flow of 23% (p < 0.005). Immediately after compression of the foot and calf, there was an increase in blood flow of between 4% and 35% with a mean of 15% (p < 0.05). Peak systolic flows at 10 minutes postcompression were 536 +/- 95 mL/min, which was still significantly higher than precompression measurements.

    CONCLUSION: There is a significant reduction in popliteal artery blood flow on changing from the supine to the sitting position. Popliteal artery blood flow is higher than baseline after 15 minutes of intermittent pneumatic foot and calf compression. The increase in popliteal artery blood flow is still present 10 minutes after cessation of IPC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
  18. Kwon WK, Sung TY, Yu GY, Sidik H, Kang WS, Lee Y, et al.
    J Anesth, 2016 Apr;30(2):223-31.
    PMID: 26577248 DOI: 10.1007/s00540-015-2094-9
    BACKGROUND: The direct impact of sevoflurane on intraoperative left ventricular (LV) systolic performance during cardiac surgery has not been fully elucidated. Peak systolic tissue Doppler velocities of the lateral mitral annulus (S') have been used to evaluate LV systolic long-axis performance. We hypothesized that incremental sevoflurane concentration (1.0-3.0 inspired-vol%) would dose-dependently reduce S' in patients undergoing cardiac surgery due to mitral or aortic insufficiency.

    METHODS: In 20 patients undergoing cardiac surgery in sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia, we analyzed intraoperative S' values which were determined after 10 min exposure to sevoflurane at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 inspired-vol% (T1, T2, and T3, respectively) with a fixed remifentanil dose (1.0 μg/kg/min) using transesophageal echocardiography.

    RESULTS: Linear mixed-effect modeling demonstrated dose-dependent declines in S' according to the end-tidal sevoflurane concentration increments (C(ET)-sevoflurane, p < 0.001): the mean value of S' reduction for each 1.0 vol%-increment of C(ET)-sevoflurane was 1.7 cm/s (95 % confidence interval 1.4-2.1 cm/s). Medians of S' at T1, T2, and T3 (9.6, 8.9, and 7.5 cm/s, respectively) also exhibited significant declines (by 6.6, 15.6, and 21.2 % for T1 vs. T2, T2 vs. T3, and T1 vs. T3, p < 0.001, =0.002, and <0.001 in Friedman pairwise comparisons, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: Administering sevoflurane as a part of a sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia regimen appears to dose-dependently reduce S', indicating LV systolic performance, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Further studies may be required to evaluate the clinical implications of these findings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
  19. Rampal, L., Somayeh, A. B., Salmiah, M. S., Faisal, I., Sharifah Zainiyah, S. Y.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: In Malaysia, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been the leading cause of death for the past 40 years. Hypertension is the leading treatable risk factor for CVD mortality.
    Objectives: to determine the prevalence and factors associated with hypertension among University Putra Malaysia staff.
    Methods: A Cross sectional study design was used in this study. The sample was selected using table of random numbers. Two blood pressure measurements were taken from respondents aged 30 years and above. Data on socio-demographic variables and lifestyle-related risk factors were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Weight and height measurements were also taken.
    Results: Out of 517 respondents selected, 454 subjects agreed to participate, giving a response rate of 87.8%. The overall mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) for 454 respondents was 126.2 mmHg and 80.17 mmHg respectively. The mean SBP was significantly higher in males (129.68 mmHg) as compared to the females (122.65 mmHg). The mean SBP and DBP significantly increased with age in both males and females (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between SBP and BMI (r = 0.55, r2 = 0.30 p <0.001) and diastolic blood pressure and BMI (r = 0.53, r2 = 0.28, p <0.001). The overall prevalence of hypertension was 34.4% and 33.9% had pre hypertension. Hypertension was significantly associated with age, gender, family history of hypertension, BMI and alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension is high. There is an urgent need for implementation of a comprehensive CVD prevention program. Routine blood pressure measurements should be taken to improve the detection, prevention and treatment of hypertension.
    Keywords: Hypertension, Prevalence, Risk Factors, University Staff, Prevalence
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
  20. Sheila Rani Kovil George, Sivalingam Nalliah
    MyJurnal
    The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the maternal cardiac haemodynamic and structural changes that occur
    in pregnancies with uncomplicated hyperemesis gravidarum in a selected Malaysian population. Nine women underwent serial echocardiography beginning at 12 weeks of gestation and throughout pregnancy at monthly intervals. Their echocardiograms were repeated at 6 and 12 weeks following delivery to reflect the pre-pregnancy haemodynamic state. Cardiac output was measured by continuous wave Doppler at the aortic valve. Interventricular septum thickness was determined by M- mode echocardiography and ventricular diastolic function by assessing flow at the mitral valve with Doppler recording. Cardiac output showed an increase of 32.9% at 36 weeks and maintained till 40 weeks of gestation. Heart rate increased from 79 ± 6 to 96 ± 8 beats/min at 36 weeks. Stroke volume increased by 16.4 % at 40 weeks of gestation when compared to the baseline
    value. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not appreciably change but showed a lower reading during the mid-trimester period. Early inflow velocity of left ventricle did not show a rise while peak atrial velocity showed an increasing trend; thus the ratio of early inflow to peak atrial transport showed a declining trend from early pregnancy to term. End diastolic dimension of left ventricle and interventricular septum thickness showed an increased value at term. Uncomplicated hyperemesis gravidarum did not alter the haemodynamic changes throughout pregnancy and concur with established data for normal pregnancy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Systole
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