MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samples were collected prevaccination, 2 weeks and 6 months post-vaccination and tested for total immunoglobulin levels using ELISA method.
RESULTS: A small percentage of HCW (2.2%, 15/677) had elevated anti-S antibody levels in their pre-vaccination plasma samples (median 20.4, IQR 5.8), indicating that they were exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to vaccination. The mRNA vaccine significantly increased anti-S levels of both previously infected and uninfected individuals to saturation levels (median 21.88, IQR.0.88) at 2 weeks postsecond dose of the vaccine. At 6 months post-vaccination, the antibody levels appeared to be maintained among the recipients of the mRNA vaccine. However, at this time point, anti-S antibody levels were lower in individuals given inactivated vaccine (median 20.39, IQR 7.31, n=28), and interestingly, their antibody levels were similar to anti-S levels in pre-vaccination exposed individuals. Antibody levels were not different between the sexes.
CONCLUSION: Anti-S levels differ in individuals given the different vaccines. While further study is required to determine the threshold level for protection against SARSCoV- 2, individuals with low antibody levels may be considered for boosters.
OBJECTIVE: The aim is to describe the pattern and demographic features of all suspected child abuse and neglect (SCAN) cases seen in a single tertiary hospital in Malaysia over a period of five years.
METHODS: A retrospective descriptive review of children suspected of maltreatment, aged 0 to 18 years old who presented to the Hospital Serdang (HS), Selangor, Malaysia from January 2014 to December 2018 was done. A list of registered SCAN cases obtained from One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) HS census. Clinical information of patients was retrieved from the computerised database.
RESULTS: In all, there were a total of 391 SCAN cases over five years with almost a 3-fold increase in the number of cases from 2014 to 2018. Physical abuse was the most common (55%) seen followed by sexual abuse (34%) and neglect (10%). There were four deaths, all involving infants <1 year old who were physically abused by babysitters. The main perpetrator in sexual abuse were people known to the victim. Ninety-three percent of patients were neglected by their biological parents and more than 2/3rd of neglect cases occurred due to inadequate supervision.
DISCUSSION: Child maltreatment is an inevitable burden to our health system and infants are the most vulnerable group to sustain significant injuries leading to death and disabilities.
METHODS: A cross-sectional nationwide online survey was conducted over a 6-week period between May and June 2019. Invitation was sent to all the Heads of pharmacy department or pharmacists in charge of infectious diseases (ID) or antimicrobial pharmacists in tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. A validated questionnaire that consist of 24-items was used for data collection.
RESULTS: Forty-five hospitals were invited and 37 completed the survey (response rate, 82.2%). Five (13.5%) hospitals had a formal antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) team, with each of them having pharmacist representation. Regardless of the existence of an AMS team, hospital pharmacists have implemented AMS strategies, including evaluation of the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescriptions (54.1%) and monitoring of antimicrobial consumption (48.6%). The most common barriers to pharmacists' involvement in ASP were lack of training in AMS and ID (51.4%), lack of pharmacists with ID specialisation (40.5%) and lack of support from hospital administrators (37.8%). The majority of the pharmacists recommended training in AMS and ID (100%), participation on ward rounds (89.2%) and employment of more pharmacists (73%) as strategies to improve pharmacists' participation in ASP.
CONCLUSIONS: Hospital pharmacists are actively involved in AMS activities despite the lack of established AMS teams in most tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. However, lack of training and personnel were major barriers to pharmacist's involvement in ASP.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study at Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz (HCTM) from a period of 15 months. A total of 133 T1DM patients who fulfilled our study's criteria were subjected to otoscopy examination, tuning fork test and free field voice test. The mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) was used to assess the severity of tinnitus. We were careful to categorize the perceived duration of tinnitus.
RESULTS: The prevalence of tinnitus among T1DM patients was 24.1% (32/133 patients). Out of 32 patients, approximately 78.1% (25 patients) had a compensated level of tinnitus distress and the remaining 21.9% (7/32) had moderate tinnitus. The duration of tinnitus ranged from 2 seconds to 2 minutes, whıch was ringing and intermittent in nature. The HbA1c and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) were higher in tinnitus compared to the non-tinnitus group. There was no significant correlation between the severity of tinnitus and HbA1c level or eGFR.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study concluded that tinnitus amongst T1DM patients was likely to be non-pathological in view of its short duration with minimal to no distress to the sufferers. An elevated HbA1c may increase the risk of developıng tinnitus.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a novel retrospective study in a tertiary centre in Malaysia. Case notes of COVID- 19 patients who underwent tracheostomy in Hospital Ampang were collected using the electronic Hospital Information System. Data were analysed using the SPSS system.
RESULTS: From a total of 30 patients, 15 patients survived. All patients underwent either open or percutaneous tracheostomy. The median age is 53 (range: 28-69) with a significant p-value of 0.02. Amongst comorbidities, it was noted that diabetes mellitus was significant with a p-value of 0.014. The median time from the onset of COVID-19 to tracheostomy is 30 days. The median duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay is 30.5 days, with the median duration of hospital length of stay of 44 days (p = 0.009 and <0.001, respectively). No complications that contributed to patient death were found. Survivors had a median of 29.5 days from tracheostomy to oxygen liberation.
CONCLUSION: Tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients that requires prolonged ventilation is unavoidable. It is a safe procedure and mortality is not related to the procedure. Mortality is primarily associated with COVID-19.
AIM: Our aim is to develop and validate a pharmaceutical assessment screening tool (PAST) to guide medical ward pharmacists in our local hospitals to effectively prioritise patient care.
METHOD: This study involved 2 major phases; (1) development of PAST through literature review and group discussion, (2) validation of PAST using a three-round Delphi survey. Twenty-four experts were invited by email to participate in the Delphi survey. In each round, experts were required to rate the relevance and completeness of PAST criteria and were given chance for open feedback. The 75% consensus benchmark was set and criteria with achieved consensus were retained in PAST. Experts' suggestions were considered and added into PAST for rating. After each round, experts were provided with anonymised feedback and results from the previous round.
RESULTS: Three Delphi rounds resulted in the final tool (rearranged as mnemonic 'STORIMAP'). STORIMAP consists of 8 main criteria with 29 subcomponents. Marks are allocated for each criteria in STORIMAP which can be combined to a total of 15 marks. Patient acuity level is determined based on the final score and clerking priority is assigned accordingly.
CONCLUSION: STORIMAP potentially serves as a useful tool to guide medical ward pharmacists to prioritise patients effectively, hence establishing acuity-based pharmaceutical care.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The validated exam developed by the BEST collaborative group was used to assess TM knowledge of doctors, from junior residents up to senior specialists. Scores of 42%, 62%, and 82%, corresponding to basic, intermediate, and expert levels of knowledge, respectively. Convenience sampling was done from eight blood-using departments at University Malaya Medical Centre. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the candidates' exam scores between different variables.
RESULTS: A total of 184 doctors were assessed. The overall mean score was 40.1% (SD 12.7%). The most senior doctors had a significantly lower mean score compared with resident trainees and specialists. Doctors from haematology, anesthesiology, and internal medicine had significantly higher scores (51%, 47.4%, and 46.4% respectively, p<0.05). No correlations were found between the exam scores and the self-reported amount, or quality of prior TM teaching, nor with the year of postgraduate training. Participants did poorly on questions related to transfusion reactions, especially the question on transfusion-related acute lung injury.
CONCLUSION: Inadequate transfusion medicine knowledge was found across all the departments and levels of appointment. It is concerning that the most senior decision-making doctors had especially poor knowledge. TM training is needed by all residents, and regular updates should be given to established specialists.
METHODS: Data were retrospectively extracted from all the Chemotherapy Return Forms in 2016, which is a compulsory documentation accompanying each return of parenteral chemotherapy regimen. The following data were extracted: patient's diagnosis, gender, location of treatment (i.e. ward/daycare clinic), start date of chemotherapy regimen, type of cytotoxic drug returned, dose of cytotoxic drug returned, number of cytotoxic drug preparations returned and reason for return as well as whether the returned cytotoxic drug preparations could be re-dispensed. The cost of wastage was calculated based on the cost per mg (or per unit) of the particular returned cytotoxic drug.
RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-nine cases of returned chemotherapy regimen comprising of 231 parenteral cytotoxic drug preparations were analysed. The total cost of returned chemotherapy regimen for 2016 was €3632, with €756 (20.8%) worth of chemotherapy regimens returned due to preventable reasons and €2876 (79.2%) worth of chemotherapy regimens returned due to non-preventable reasons. Approximately 50% of cases returned chemotherapy regimen were due to deterioration of patient's clinical condition and another 24.5% of cases of returned chemotherapy regimen were attributed to adverse drug reactions.
CONCLUSION: Wastage associated to non-preventable reasons such as adverse drug reactions and preventable causes like refusal of patients can be further reduced by using newer healthcare innovations and establishment of written institutional protocols or standard operating procedures as references for in-charge healthcare personnel when cytotoxic drug-related issues occur. Adoption of cost-saving strategies that have been proven by studies could further improve current cost containment strategies.