METHODS: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion was administered orally by gavages for 28 consecutive days. Blood sample was obtained by cardiac puncture and dissection of the testes and cauda epididymis was performed to obtain sperm. The effects of fenitrothion on the body and organ weight, biochemical and oxidative stress, sperm characteristics, histology and ultrastructural changes in the testes were evaluated.
RESULTS: Fenitrothion significantly decreased the body weight gain and weight of the epididymis compared with the control group. Fenitrothion also decreased plasma cholinesterase activity compared with the control group. Fenitrothion altered the sperm characteristics, such as sperm concentration, sperm viability and normal sperm morphology, compared with the control group. Oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, total glutathione and glutathione S-transferase, were significantly increased and superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in the fenitrothion-treated group compared with the control group. The histopathological and ultrastructural examination of the testes of the fenitrothion-treated group revealed alterations corresponding with the biochemical changes compared with the control group.
CONCLUSION: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion caused deleterious effects on the sperm and testes of Sprague-Dawley rats.
OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the protective effect of Malaysian propolis on diabetes-induced subfertility/infertility. Additionally, its combined beneficial effects with metformin were investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into five groups, namely normal control, diabetic control, diabetic + Malaysian propolis (300 mg/k.g. b.w.), diabetic + metformin (300 mg/kg b.w.) and diabetic + Malaysian propolis + metformin. Diabetes was induced using a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg b.w.) and treatment lasted for 4 weeks. During the 4th week, mating behavioural experiments were performed using sexually receptive female rats. Thereafter, fertility parameters were assessed in the female rats.
RESULTS: Malaysian propolis increased serum and intratesticular free testosterone levels, up-regulated the mRNA levels of AR and luteinizing hormone receptor, up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD in the testes of diabetic rats. Furthermore, Malaysian propolis up-regulated testicular MCT2, MCT4 and lactate dehydrogenase type C mRNA levels, in addition to improving sperm parameters (count, motility, viability and normal morphology) and decreasing sperm nDNA fragmentation in diabetic rats. Malaysian propolis improved mating behaviour by increasing penile guanosine monophosphate levels. Malaysian propolis also improved fertility outcome as seen with decreases in pre- and post-implantation losses, increases in gravid uterine weight, litter size per dam and foetal weight. Malaysian propolis's effects were comparable to metformin. However, their combination yielded better results relative to the monotherapeutic interventions.
CONCLUSION: Malaysian propolis improves fertility potential in diabetic state by targeting steroidogenesis, testicular lactate metabolism, spermatogenesis and mating behaviour, with better effects when co-administered with metformin. Therefore, Malaysian propolis shows a promising complementary effect with metformin in mitigating Diabetes mellitus-induced subfertility/infertility.