MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ovariectomized adult female rats were given testosterone (1 mg/kg/day) alone or in combination with flutamide or finasteride between days 6 to 8 of sex-steroid replacement treatment, which was considered the period of uterine receptivity. Ultramorphology of tight junctions was visualized by transmission electron microscopy while distribution and expression of claudin-4 and occludin were examined by immunofluorescence and real-time polymerase chain reaction respectively.
RESULTS: Administration of testosterone caused loss of tight junction complexity and down-regulated expression of claudin-4 and occludin in the uterus.
CONCLUSION: Decreased endometrial tight junction complexity and expression of claudin-4 and occludin in the uterus during receptivity period by testosterone may interfere with embryo attachment and subsequent implantation.
METHODS: This study was designed to investigate the effect of SynacinnTM and its individual biomarkers on drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 (Midazolam), CYP3A4 (Testosteron)), to assess its herb-drug interaction potential through cytochrome P450 inhibition assay. This study was conducted using liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) using probe substrates using human liver microsomes against CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 (Midazolam) and CYP3A4 (Testosteron).
RESULTS: Result showed that SynacinnTM at maximum concentration (5000 µg/ml) 100% inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 (Midazolam) and CYP3A4 (Testosteron). IC50 values determined were 0.23, 0.60, 0.47, 0.78, 1.23, 0.99, 1.01, and 0.91 mg/ml for CYP 1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4 (midazolam) and 3A4 (testosterone), respectively. Meanwhile, all individual biomarkers showed no, less or moderate inhibitory effect towards all the tested CYP450 except for curcumin that showed inhibition of CYP2C8 (91%), CYP2C9 (81%) and CYP2C19 (72%) at 10µM.
CONCLUSION: Curcumin was found to be an active constituent that might contribute to the inhibition of SynacinnTM against CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. It can be suggested that SynacinnTM can be consumed separately from a drug known to be metabolized by all tested CYP450 enzymes.
METHODS: Orchidectomized, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated subcutaneously with 125 μg/kg/day and 250 μg/kg/day testosterone with or without flutamide (androgen receptor blocker) and finasteride (5α-reductase inhibitor) for seven (7) days. Following treatment completion, in vivo perfusion of vas deferens lumen was performed and changes in fluid secretion rate, pH and HCO3- content were measured with and without bafilomycin, a V-ATPase inhibitor. Rats were then sacrificed and vas deferens were harvested and subjected for V-ATPase A1 and B1/2 protein expression and distribution analysis by western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
RESULTS: In sham-operated and testosterone-treated orchidectomized rats, higher fluid secretion rate, which was not antagonized by bafilomycin but lower HCO3- content and pH which were antagonized by bafilomycin were observed when compared to orchidectomized-only and orchidectomized, testosterone-treated rats receiving flutamide or finasteride, respectively. Bafilomycin had no effect on fluid secretion rate, HCO3- content and pH in orchidectomized and testosterone-treated orchidectomized rats receiving flutamide and finasteride. V-ATPase A1 and B1/2 proteins were expressed at high levels in vas deferens and were highly distributed at the apical membrane of luminal epithelium and in muscle layer of this organ, mainly in sham and testosterone-treated orchidectomized rats.
CONCLUSIONS: V-ATPase is involved in acidification of vas deferens fluid under testosterone influence.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 120 men, aged 40-70 years, with TD (serum total testosterone [TT] ≤ 12 nmol/L) were randomised to receive either i.m. TU (1000 mg) or placebo. In all, 58 and 56 men in the placebo and treatment arm, respectively, completed the study. Participants were seen six times in the 48-week period and the following data were collected: physical examination results, haemoglobin, haematocrit, TT, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, sex hormone-binding globulin, liver function test, prostate- specific antigen (PSA) and adverse events.
RESULTS: The mean (sd) age of the participants was 53.4 (7.6) years. A significant increase in serum TT (P < 0.001), PSA (P = 0.010), haematocrit (P < 0.001), haemoglobin (P < 0.001) and total bilirubin (P = 0.001) were seen in the treatment arm over the 48-week period. Two men in the placebo arm and one man in the treatment arm developed myocardial infarction. Common adverse events observed in the treatment arm included itching/swelling/pain at the site of injection, flushing and acne. Overall, TU injections were well tolerated.
CONCLUSIONS: TU significantly increases serum testosterone in men with TD. PSA, haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly elevated but were within clinically safe limits. There was no significant adverse reaction that led to the cessation of treatment.