METHODS: In this work, we present a bit-plane slicing (BPS) and local binary pattern (LBP) based novel approach for glaucoma diagnosis. Firstly, our approach separates the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) channels from the input color fundus image and splits the channels into bit planes. Secondly, we extract LBP based statistical features from each of the bit planes of the individual channels. Thirdly, these features from the individual channels are fed separately to three different support vector machines (SVMs) for classification. Finally, the decisions from the individual SVMs are fused at the decision level to classify the input fundus image into normal or glaucoma class.
RESULTS: Our experimental results suggest that the proposed approach is effective in discriminating normal and glaucoma cases with an accuracy of 99.30% using 10-fold cross validation.
CONCLUSIONS: The developed system is ready to be tested on large and diverse databases and can assist the ophthalmologists in their daily screening to confirm their diagnosis, thereby increasing accuracy of diagnosis.
METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed AAC were identified prospectively over a 12-month period (November 2011 to October 2012) by active surveillance through the Scottish Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit reporting system. Data were collected at case identification and at 6 months follow-up.
RESULTS: There were 114 cases (108 patients) reported, giving an annual incidence of 2.2 cases (95% CI 1.8 to 2.6) or 2 patients (95% CI 1.7 to 2.4) per 1 00 000 in the whole population in Scotland. Precipitating factors were identified in 40% of cases. Almost one in five cases was associated with topical dilating drops. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation ranged from 6/6 to perception of light. The mean presenting intraocular pressure (IOP) was 52 mm Hg (SD 11). Almost 30% cases had a delayed presentation of 3 or more days. At 6 months follow-up, 75% had BCVA of 6/12 or better and 30% were found to have glaucoma at follow-up. Delayed presentation (≥3 days) was associated with higher rate of glaucoma at follow-up (22.6% vs 60.8%, p<0.001), worse VA (0.34 vs 0.74 LogMAR, p<0.0001) and need for more topical medication (0.52 vs 1.2, p=0.003) to control IOP.
CONCLUSION: The incidence of AAC in Scotland is relatively low compared with the Far East countries, but in line with previous European data. Almost one in five cases were associated with pupil dilation for retinal examination.
METHOD: This is a case report of a 76-year-old Chinese female, presented as an emergency with spontaneous left eye bleeding. She had underlying uncontrolled hypertension, no other systemic illness and not on anticoagulant. She has a history of right eye cataract operation, right eye angle-closure glaucoma and left eye absolute glaucoma complicated with painless left blind eye. Ocular examination over left eye showed no light perception and demonstrated presence of fresh bleed, expulsion of lens and prolapsed uveal contents, while right eye examination was unremarkable. Patient subsequently underwent evisceration and was uneventful.
RESULTS: Routine blood investigations including coagulation profile came back as normal. Surgical findings include perforated cornea more than three-fourths with prolapsed uveal contents and fragile conjunctiva. No other significant macroscopic conditions were noted. Histology and culture came back with growth of Pseudomonas aeuroginosa with no evidence of malignancy.
DISCUSSION: SESCH is a rare but serious sight-threatening ocular condition associated with multiple risk factors including arteriosclerosis, vascular disease, glaucoma, diabetes, intraocular malignancy and diseased eye wall. The predisposing factors involved in this case include advanced age, glaucoma with persistent high intraocular pressure, uncontrolled hypertension and presence of infection.
Results: This study showed that only 25.2% of our respondents were aware of glaucoma and it is associated with ethnicity, religion, education, and household income. Besides, among those who were aware, they fall into the group of poor knowledge of glaucoma. On the other hand, the knowledge of glaucoma was associated with occupation and the awareness of glaucoma by definition. The validated questionnaire was distributed and the data were analyzed by SPSS software using t-test, one-way ANOVA, and chi-square test.
Conclusion: Awareness and knowledge of glaucoma in this population is low. These findings suggest that there is a need for an efficient information and education strategy to be designed and conducted to increase the awareness and knowledge of glaucoma so that early detection can be made and effective management of individuals with this condition can be delivered.
METHODS: All diabetic patients were screened in Retinal Disease Awareness Programme (RDAP) and those who had significant DR changes were referred to the hospital for further management. Descriptive analyses were done to determine the prevalence of DR and sociodemographic characteristics among patients with diabetic. Univariate and multivariable analysis using Logistic regression were performed to find association and predictor factors in this screening.
RESULTS: A total of 3305 patients aged 40y and above were screened for DR. Of the patients screened, 9% patients were found to have DR and other visual complication such as maculopathy (0.9%), cataract (4.8%) and glaucoma (0.4%). The mean age of patients without retinopathy was 57.82±8.470y and the mean age of patients with DR was 63.93±9.857y. About 61.5% of the patients screened were aged below 60y and 38.5% were aged 60y and above. Majority of the patients screened were women 58.5% and Malay in the age group of 50-59y, while 27% were aged 60-69y. Significant association were found between age, sex, race, visual loss and DR.
CONCLUSION: Although the prevalence of DR among patients is not alarming, effective interventions need to be implemented soon to avert a large burden of visual loss from DR.