It has often been assumed that the translation of Greek medical books into Arabic was the main determinant in establishing Islamic medicine. This assumption must be put into proper perspective. Because, it is certainly true that the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) inspired love and passion for learning and called upon mankind to develop their faculties and intellects. His teaching on medicine indicates that no student of history of Islamic medicine can ignore the importance of the Prophet’s sayings and practices in this regard. This leads us to accept the fact that the principles of medicine in Islam, as a whole, are deeply rooted in the Qur’an and Ahadith of the Prophet (s.a.w), although this Islamic medicine itself came into being, especially during the Abbasid period, as a result of the integration by Muslims of several older traditions of medicine, most importantly Greek.
Test adaptation - the translation and validation of source instruments for use in new social identity groups - plays a vital role in body image research. Previously, Swami and Barron (2019) developed a set of good practice recommendations and reporting guidelines for the test adaptation of body image instruments. However, a number of issues in that article were not covered in depth and new issues have emerged as a result of developments in theory and practice. Here, we offer an addendum to Swami and Barron in the form of frequently asked questions. Issues discussed in this article include various methods for achieving good translations, the appropriateness of revising instrument components prior to empirical analyses, determining the number of factors to extract in exploratory factor analyses (EFA), and the usefulness of EFA versus confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) in determining factorial validity. We also cover methods of analyses that have been infrequently utilised by body image scholars, including exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM), bifactor model analyses, and various methods for establish measurement invariance. When read as an addendum to Swami and Barron, we hope this article helps to clarify issues of importance for body image researchers interested in conducting test adaptation work.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the English and Malay versions of the Driving and Riding Questionnaire.
STUDY DESIGN: An observational study with a mix-method approach by utilising both questionnaire and short debriefing interviews.
METHODS: Forward and backward translations of the original questionnaire were performed. The translated questionnaire was assessed for clarity by a multidisciplinary research team, translators, and several Malay native speakers. A total of 24 subjects participated in the pilot study. Reliability (Cronbach's alpha) and validity (content validity) of the original and translated questionnaires were examined.
RESULTS: The English and Malay versions of the Driving and Riding Questionnaire were found to be reliable tools in measuring driving behaviours amongst older drivers and riders, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.9158 and 0.8919, respectively. For content validity, the questionnaires were critically reviewed in terms of relevance, clarity, simplicity, and ambiguity. The feedback obtained from participants addressed various aspects of the questionnaire related to the improvement of wordings used and inclusion of visual guide to enhance the understanding of the items in the questionnaire. This feedback was incorporated into the final versions of the English and Malay questionnaires.
CONCLUSION: The findings of this study demonstrated both the English and Malay versions of the Driving and Riding Questionnaire to be valid and reliable.
Several self-report measures of conspiracist beliefs have been developed in Western populations, but examination of their psychometric properties outside Europe and North America is limited. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of three widely-used measures of conspiracist beliefs in Iran. We translated the Belief in Conspiracy Theory Inventory (BCTI), Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), and Generic Conspiracist Belief Scale (GCBS) into Persian. Factorial validity was examined using principal-axis factor analysis in a community sample from Tehran, Iran (N = 544). Further, the relationships between scores on these measures and hypothesized antecedents (i.e., education, schizotypal personality, information processing style, superstitious beliefs, religiosity, and political orientation) were examined. Overall, we failed to find support for the parent factor structures of two of the three scales (BCTI and GCBS) and evidence of construct validity for all three scales was limited. These results highlight the necessity of further psychometric work on existing measures of conspiracy theories in diverse culturo-linguistic groups and the development of context-specific measures of conspiracist beliefs.
The Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) is a widely-used, 10-item measure of a core facet of positive body image. To extend its use internationally, we examined the factor structure and conducted a preliminary assessment of the psychometric properties of a novel Hebrew translation of the BAS-2. A sample of 613 Israeli adults (362 women, 251 men; age M = 29.52, SD = 9.47) completed the BAS-2 alongside demographic items and previously-validated measures of life satisfaction, self-esteem, self-compassion, and body investment. Exploratory factor analyses with a semi-random split-half subsample (n = 377) indicated that BAS-2 scores reduced to a single dimension with all 10 items. This factor structure was equivalent across women and men. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with a second split-half subsample (n = 235) showed the 1-dimensional factor structure had adequate fit following one modification and multi-group CFA showed that the model was invariant across sex. Men had significantly higher BAS-2 scores than women, but the effect size was small (d = 0.22). Evidence of construct validity was demonstrated through positive associations with indices of life satisfaction, self-esteem, self-compassion, and body investment. The availability of a validated BAS-2 Hebrew translation should advance future research of body appreciation in Israel.
The development-processes by regional socio-cultural adaptation of an Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q), a cultural adaptation of the Rome III diagnostic questionnaire (R3DQ), and its translation-validation in Asian languages are presented. As English is not the first language for most Asians, translation-validation of EAR3Q is essential. Hence, we aimed to culturally adapt the R3DQ to develop EAR3Q and linguistically validate it to show that the EAR3Q is able to allocate diagnosis according to Rome III criteria.
The term “anti-epileptic drug” refers to the currently available medical treatment against epilepsy. A discussion amongst the authors was sought to critically examine the term and identify possible issues. Translations in other languages were retrieved from literature and the usage confirmed by correspondence with native users of the language working in the medical field. The aim of this article is to initiate a debate by highlighting some negative undertones attached to this terminology.
Introduction: The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) is a recent burnout measure with a focus on fatigue and exhaustion. It has three factors: personal burnout, work-related burnout, and client-related burnout. This study aimed to translate the CBI into the Malay language and to validate the translated version among a group of medical students.
Methods: The forward-backward translation was performed as per standard guidelines. The Malay version of CBI (CBI-M) was distributed to 32 medical students to assess face validity and later to 452 medical students to assess construct validity. The data analysis was performed by Microsoft Excel, SPSS and AMOS.
Results: The face validity index of CBI-M was more than 0.8. The three factors of CBI-M achieved good levels of goodness-of-fit indices (Cmin/df = 2.99, RMSEA = 0.066, GFI = 0.906, CFI = 0.938, NFI = 0.910, TLI = 0.925). The composite reliability values of the three factors ranged from 0.84 to 0.87. The Cronbach's alpha values of the three factors ranged from 0.83 to 0.87.
Conclusions: This study supports the face and construct validity of the CBI-M with a high internal consistency.
The construct of body acceptance by others (i.e., the degree to which an individual perceives acceptance for their appearance by others) is central to conceptual models of positive body image and adaptive eating styles. It is typically measured using the 10-item Body Acceptance by Others Scale (BAOS; Avalos & Tylka, 2006), but emerging research has suggested that a unidimensional model of BAOS scores may be unstable. Here, we examined the factor structure of BAOS scores in a sample of adults from the United Kingdom (N = 1148). Exploratory factor analyses indicated that BAOS scores reduced to two dimensions in women, of which only a primary 6-item factor was stable. In men, all 10 items loaded onto a primary factor. However, the results of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that both models of BAOS scores had poor fit. Although both the unidimensional 10-item and 6-item models had adequate internal consistency, our results are suggestive of factor structure instability. We conclude by suggesting ways in which future research could revise the BAOS to improve its factorial stability and validity.
INTRODUCTION: The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire was first constructed to measure eating behavior in an English population in the United States. It has been validated and translated for various populations in different languages. The aim of this article is to describe a systematic process for translating the questionnaire from English to Malay language.
METHODOLOGY: The report of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcome Research (ISPOR) Task Force was used as the basis for the systematic translation process. The process began with preparation; followed by forward translation (2 independent translators), reconciliation, back translation (2 independent translators), back translation review, harmonization, cognitive debriefing, review of cognitive debriefing results and finalization, proofreading; and ended with the final report. Four independent Malay translators who fluent in English and reside in Malaysia were involved in the process. A team of health care researchers had assisted the review of the new translated questionnaires.
RESULTS: Majority of the TFEQ-R21 items were experiencing, conceptually and semantically equivalence between original English and translated English. However, certain phrase such as "feels like bottomless pit" was difficult to translate by forward translators. Cognitive debriefing was a very helpful process to ensure the TFEQ-R21 Malay version was appropriate in term of wording and culturally accepted. A total of four redundant comments in regards to response scale wording, word confusion and wording arrangement.
CONCLUSION: The systematic translation process is a way to reduce the linguistic discrepancies between the English and Malay language in order to promote equivalence and culturally adapted TFEQ-R21 questionnaire.
Caregivers face challenges to adapt while handling individual with learning disabilities (LD). The Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale (F-COPES) is a widely used instrument to measure coping strategies among caregivers. The current study performed cross cultural translation of F-COPES in Malay language. This study aims to examine the reliability by testing internal consistency of Malay version of F-COPES which is developed through back to back translation method from original English version.
Introduction: Despite general acknowledgement of the importance in assessing family needs in critical care
patients, there is no psychometric instrument to measure the family needs within Malaysian settings. This
study aimed to perform factorial validation and establish psychometric properties of Malay translated
Critical Care Family Need Inventory (CCFNI-M) for Malaysians. Methods: This study consisted of four
protocols: Forward-Backward translation, validity, internal reliability and inter domain correlations phases.
The factorial validation of the CCFNI-M was based on its administration to 109 family members of critical
care patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.
At validity phase, factorial validation was performed using Exploratory Factor Analysis using Principal
Component Analysis with Varimax rotation. The internal consistency and inter domain correlations were
calculated using Cronbach’s alpha and Pearson correlation coefficient respectively. Results: Preliminary
analyses reported the suitability of data for factorial validation. With reference to the original CCFNI, five
factors were extracted which explained 49.4% of the total variance. After removal of several items for
different reasons, the final items in CCFNI-M were 42. The internal consistency values for five dimensions
ranged from 0.72 to 0.87 with inter domain correlation values (r) among the dimensions ranged between
0.36 and 0.61. Conclusion: The high measures of factorial validity, internal consistency and inter domain
correlations values of the CCFNI-M make it suitable measure for assessing the family needs of critical care
The aim of this study was to validate the translation of the Overactive Bladder (OAB) Screener (OAB V8) to the Malay language. It was to assess the reliability of the screener in the context of a Malaysian population. The original screener consists of eight symptoms indicative of OAB that has been proven to be highly sensitive and reliable. Translation was done with a modification of the Brislin Method using back translation and a panel of experts as a final review panel. The pilot study had two groups; a symptomatic (n=19 patients) and an asymptomatic group (n=18 patients). All patients performed the test twice at two week intervals once at the clinic and subsequently at home. Test-retest method was used for reliability and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. The translated questionnaire demonstrated good internal consistency in both groups of patients for all eight items individually and for the total score. Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.972 to 0.981 for the symptomatic group and from 0.750 to 0.976 for the asymptomatic group. Testretest correlation for all items was highly significant. Intraclass orrelation (ICC) was high for both the asymptomatic (ICC ranging from 0.600 to 0.953) and the symptomatic group (ranging from 0.944 to 0.989).The Malay OAB V8 showed itself to be suitable for use, reliable in distinguishing symptomatic and asymptomatic patients and a valid instrument.
Background: Up to date, there are handful questionnaires that have been validated in Bahasa Malaysia (BM). This study aimed to translate the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21-item (DASS-21) and measure its psychometric properties. Objectives: To determine the construct validity and acceptability of the DASS, BM. Methods: Two forward and backward translations were done in BM in accordance to guideline, and its validation was determined by using confirmatory factor analysis. A total of 263 subjects were selected by systematic random sampling to represent Malaysian population for reliability and validity purposes. Results: The BM DASS-21 had very good Cronbach’s alpha values of .84, .74 and .79, respectively, for depression, anxiety and stress. In addition, it had good factor loading values for most items (.39 to .73). Correlations among scales were between .54 and .68. Conclusions: BM DASS-21 is correctly and adequately translated to Bahasa Malaysia with high psychometric properties. Further studies are required to support these findings.
Introduction: There is an appealing need to have a validated Bahasa Malaysia (BM) questionnaire that is able to gauge stress coping styles among Malaysian population. A culturally accepted questionnaire will generate further research in the aspect of stress coping patterns in the Malaysia population. Objective: To translate the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) questionnaire into BM and to determine the construct validity, reliability and other psychometric properties of the translated BM version of the English CISS 48-item. Method: Two parallel forward and backward translations were done in BM in accordance to guideline and its validation was determined by using confirmatory factor analysis among 200 Malaysian subjects. Results: The BM CISS had very good Cronbach’s alpha values, 0.91, 0.89 and 0.85 respectively for Task-, Emotional- and Avoidance-oriented. The overall Cronbach’s alpha was 0.91. It also had good factor loading for most of its items where 44 items out of 48 had Confirmatory Factor Analysis values of more than 4.0. Conclusions: BM CISS had been adequately and correctly translated into Bahasa Malaysia with high psychometric properties. Minimal readjustment may be required in a few of its items to obtain excellent results.
Background: The Malay short version of Depressive Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) has been widely used as a tool to measure psychological parameters in studies in Malaysia. The version has been found to be reliable for clinical and non-clinical populations. Objectives: To analyse and establish the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the DASS 42-item (BM DASS-42) among medical students. Methods: Concurrent forward and backward translations of original English DASS-42 were completed. Construct validity of the DASS-42 was established by looking at its exploratory factor analysis. Malay DASS-42 and Malay HADS were administered to a total of 411 medical students. Results: Reliability of DASS-
42 revealed excellent Cronbach’s alpha values of 0.94, 0.90 and 0.87 for depressive, anxiety and stress domains respectively. Construct validity yielded 38 items out of 42 items (90%) had good factor loadings of 0.4 and more. DASS and HADS were strongly correlated for both anxiety (r=0.87) and depression (r=0.68) domains. Conclusions: The BM DASS-42 had admirable psychometric properties among the tested population. Further studies are needed to verify these preliminary outcomes in other Malaysian subjects.
The Aging Male Symptoms Scale (AMS) measures health-related quality of life in aging men. The objective of this paper is to describe the translation and validation of the AMS into Bahasa Melayu (BM). The original English version of the AMS was translated into BM by 2 translators to produce BM1 and BM2, and subsequently harmonized to produce BM3. Two other independent translators, blinded to the English version, back-translated BM3 to yield E2 and E3. All versions (BM1, BM2, BM3, E2, E3) were compared with the English version. The BM pre-final version was produced, and pre-tested in 8 participants. Proportion Agreement, Weighted Kappa, Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient, and verbatim responses were used. The English and the BM versions showed excellent equivalence (weighted Kappa and Spearman Rank Coefficients, ranged from 0.72 to 1.00, and Proportion Agreement values ranged from 75.0% to 100%). In conclusion, the BM version of the AMS was successfully translated and adapted.
Background: Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS) by Yardley et al. (1992) is one of the disease specific
questionnaires used widely in clinical settings. It is conducted in English and had been translated into six languages including Dutch, French, German, Spanish, Swedish, and Turkish. It has been acknowledged as a good subjective tool to determine the severity of balance disorders. Objective: To develop a valid Malay version of VSS (MVVSS) using appropriate translation methods and validation technique. Method: Forward and backward translation was performed by four professionals from different fields. The translated questionnaire was then assessed for its test reliability based on an experiment on 30 normal subjects. Further, to determine the cultural adaptation issues, the face validity of MVVSS was assessed from 32 normal subjects. They were asked to fill in the MVVSS questionnaire accordingly and give opinions regarding its language, understanding and overall format of questionnaire. Results: Final results of the translation process showed sufficient concurrence among the professionals involved. The reliability test among the normal subjects also showed a high Cronbach’s alpha value (0.90). The face validity method on 32 subjects (mean age of 29.9 ± 9.2 years) showed good feedbacks in terms of language, understanding and overall format of the MVVSS. Conclusion: The translation process was successful and the further validation showed an adequate face validity response. This suggests that our MVVSS has been culturally adapted and can be used in all Malay conversing patients.