Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 126 in total

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  1. Hwa IA, Reimann K, Lim PK, Lai LC
    Int J Mol Med, 1999 Aug;4(2):175-8.
    PMID: 10402485
    Oestrogens play an important role in the development of breast cancer. A very important source of active oestrogens in the breast is oestrone sulphate which is converted to oestrone by oestrone sulphatase. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of IGF-I and IGF-II on oestrone sulphatase activity in, as well as cell growth of, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Cells were grown in supplemented DMEM and treated with varying concentrations of IGFs. At the end of the treatment period, intact cell monolayers were washed and assayed for oestrone sulphatase activity and the number of cell nuclei determined on a Coulter Counter. Oestrone sulphatase activity was significantly stimulated by IGF-I and II at concentrations of 100 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml in MCF-7 cells. IGF-I had no effect on oestrone sulphatase activity in MDA-MB-231 cells over the range of concentrations tested. Significant inhibition of oestrone sulphatase was observed in MDA-MB-231 cells at higher concentrations of IGF-II (50 ng/ml, 100 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml). Both IGF-I and IGF-II at higher concentrations (100 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml) significantly inhibited MCF-7 and stimulated MDA-MB-231 cell growth. Since IGF-I and II have effects on cell growth and oestrone sulphatase activity in breast cancer cell lines they may play a role in the development and progression of human breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured/cytology; Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects; Tumor Cells, Cultured/enzymology
  2. Wong SF, Reimann K, Lai LC
    Pathology, 2001 Nov;33(4):454-9.
    PMID: 11827412
    Oestrogens play an important role in the development of breast cancer. Oestrone sulphate (E1S) acts as a huge reservoir of oestrogens in the breast and is converted to oestrone (E1) by oestrone sulphatase (E1STS). E1 is then reversibly converted to the potent oestrogen, oestradiol (E2) by oestradiol-17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (E2DH). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) on cell growth, E1STS and E2DH activities in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II alone or in combination inhibited cell growth of both cell lines but no additive or synergistic effects were observed. The treatments significantly stimulated E1STS activity in the MCF-7 cell line, except for TGFbeta1 alone and TGFbeta1 and IGF-I in combination, where no effects were seen. Only TGFbeta1 and IGF-II acted synergistically to stimulate E1STS activity in the MCF-7 cells. There was no significant effect on E1STS activity in the MDA-MB-231 cells with any of the treatments. In the MCF-7 cells, TGFbeta1 and IGF-I, IGF-I and IGF-II, and TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II acted synergistically to stimulate the reductive E2DH activity, while only TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II synergistically stimulated the oxidative E2DH activity. There were no additive or synergistic effects on both oxidative and reductive E2DH activities in the MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II may have effects on oestrogen metabolism, especially in the MCF-7 cell line where they stimulated the conversion of E1S to E1 and E1 to E2 and, thus, may have roles to play in the development of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects*; Tumor Cells, Cultured/enzymology; Tumor Cells, Cultured/pathology
  3. Roychoudhury PK, Gomes J, Bhattacharyay SK, Abdulah N
    Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol, 1999 Sep-Nov;27(5-6):399-402.
    PMID: 10595439
    Studies were carried out in T-flasks and bioreactor to produce urokinase enzyme using HT 1080 human kidney cell line. While growing the cell line it has been observed that the lag phase is reduced considerably in the bioreactor as compared to T-flask culture. The HT 1080 cell adhesion rate and urokinase production were observed to be the function of serum concentration in the medium. The maximum urokinase activity of 3.1 x 10(-4) unit ml(-1) was achieved in the bioreactor at around 65 h of batch culture. Since HT 1080 is an anchorage dependent cell line, therefore, the hydrodynamic effects on the cell line were investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured/metabolism
  4. Lim MN, Leong CF, Cheong SK, Seow HF
    Malays J Pathol, 2003 Dec;25(2):107-12.
    PMID: 16196366
    Dendritic cells (DC) are efficient and potent antigen-presenting cells. Pilot clinical trials indicated that DC loaded with tumour antigen could induce tumour-specific immune responses in various cancers including B-cell lymphoma, melanoma and prostate cancer. Owing to extensively low number of DC in the blood circulation, a variety of sources have been used to generate DC including monocytes, CD34+ stem cells and even with leukaemic blast cells. We demonstrate here a simple method to generate DC from acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells and monocytes from healthy donor or remission samples. AML cells or monocytes were cultured in RPMI 1640 media supplemented with foetal bovine serum or autologous serum where possible and different combinations of cytokines GM-CSF, IL-4 and TNF-alpha. The generated DC were evaluated for their morphology by phase contrast microscopy and May Grunwald Giemsa staining. Viability of cells was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion. Percentage of yields and immunophenotypes were carried out by flow cytometry. We found that cultured AML cells and monocytes developed morphological and immuno-phenotypic characteristics of DC. Monocytes are better than AML blast in generating DC and serve as a ready source for dendritic cell vaccine development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects; Tumor Cells, Cultured/immunology*
  5. Rasouli E, Basirun WJ, Rezayi M, Shameli K, Nourmohammadi E, Khandanlou R, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:6903-6911.
    PMID: 30498350 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S158083
    Introduction: In the present research, we report a quick and green synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) in aqueous solution using ferric and ferrous chloride, with different percentages of natural honey (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0% w/v) as the precursors, stabilizer, reducing and capping agent, respectively. The effect of the stabilizer on the magnetic properties and size of Fe3O4-NPs was also studied.

    Methods: The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Results: The XRD analysis indicated the presence of pure Fe3O4-NPs while the TEM images indicated that the Fe3O4-NPs are spherical with a diameter range between 3.21 and 2.22 nm. The VSM study demonstrated that the magnetic properties were enhanced with the decrease in the percentage of honey. In vitro viability evaluation of Fe3O4-NPs performed by using the MTT assay on the WEHI164 cells demonstrated no significant toxicity in higher concentration up to 140.0 ppm, which allows them to be used in some biological applications such as drug delivery.

    Conclusion: The presented synthesis method can be used for the controlled synthesis of Fe3O4-NPs, which could be found to be important in applications in biotechnology, biosensor and biomedicine, magnetic resonance imaging and catalysis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured
  6. Amran EN, Sudik S, Omar AF, Mail MH, Seeni A
    Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther, 2019 Sep;27:380-384.
    PMID: 31301437 DOI: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2019.07.006
    The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between the color changes of phenol red and the growth of cancer cells, i.e., HeLa and DU145 cells, over a specific period of time. Normal mouse skin fibroblasts (L929 cells) were used as a reference. In this research, the color changes of phenol red due to the acidification of the cell culture medium from the growth of the cells over a period of nine hours showed potential colorimetric characteristics of cancer cells. The color changes of phenol red were observed using visible absorbance spectroscopy. The transformation of the absorbance spectra into coefficients of determination against the examined range of wavelengths created a distinctive spectral signature that signifies phenol red discoloration in cancer and normal cell culture lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured
  7. Ali AM, Mackeen MM, Hamid M, Aun QB, Zauyah Y, Azimahtol HL, et al.
    Planta Med, 1997 Feb;63(1):81-3.
    PMID: 9063100
    The cytotoxicity of goniothalamin was found to be strong towards both cancerous (HGC-27, MCF-7, PANC-1, HeLa), and non-cancerous (3T3) cell lines, especially in cases of dividing cells. Drug exposure studies indicated that the cytotoxic action of goniothalamin was time- and dose-dependent. At the ultrastructural level, goniothalamin-induced cytotoxicity revealed a necrotic mode of cell death towards MCF-7 cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured
  8. Choo CY, Chan KL, Takeya K, Itokawa H
    Phytother Res, 2001 May;15(3):260-2.
    PMID: 11351365
    The plant Typhonium flagelliforme (Araceae), commonly known as the 'rodent tuber', is often included as an essential ingredient in various herbal remedies recommended for cancer therapies in Malaysia. Various extracts prepared from either the roots, tubers, stems or leaves were tested for cytotoxic activity on murine P388 leukaemia cells using the MTT assay method. Both the chloroform (IC50 = 6.0 microg/mL) and hexane (IC50 = 15.0 microg/mL) extract from the 'roots and tubers' exhibited weak cytotoxic activity. The hexane extract (IC50 = 65.0 microg/mL) from the 'stems and leaves' exhibited weaker cytotoxic activity than the chloroform extract (IC50 = 8.0 microg/mL). Although the juice extract from the 'roots and tubers' is frequently consumed for cancer treatment, it exhibited poor cytotoxic activity. Further analysis using an amino acid analyser revealed that the juice extract contained a high concentration of arginine (0.874%). A high tryptophan content (0.800%) was confirmed by NMR and HPLC analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects
  9. Nesaretnam K, Dorasamy S, Darbre PD
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2000;51 Suppl:S95-103.
    PMID: 11271861
    The vitamin E component of palm oil provides a rich source of tocotrienols which have been shown previously to be growth inhibitory to two human breast cancer cell lines: responsive MCF7 cells and unresponsive MDA-MB-231 cells. Data presented here shows that the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil and individual fractions (alpha, gamma and delta) can also inhibit the growth of another responsive human breast cancer cell line, ZR-75-1. At low concentrations in the absence of oestrogen tocotrienols stimulated growth of the ZR-75-1 cells, but at higher concentrations in the presence as well as in the absence of oestradiol, tocotrienols inhibited cell growth strongly. As for MCF7 cells, alpha-tocopherol had no effect on growth of the ZR-75-1 cells in either the absence or presence of oestradiol. In studying the effects of tocotrienols in combination with antioestrogens, it was found that TRF could further inhibit growth of ZR-75-1 cells in the presence of tamoxifen (10(-7) M and 10(-8) M). Individual tocotrienol fractions (alpha, gamma, delta) could inhibit growth of ZR-75-1 cells in the presence of 10(-8) M oestradiol and 10(-8) M pure antioestrogen ICI 164,384. The immature mouse uterine weight bioassay confirmed that TRF could not exert oestrogen antagonist action in vivo. These results provide evidence of wider growth-inhibitory effects of tocotrienols beyond MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and with an oestrogen-independent mechanism of action, suggest a possible clinical advantage in combining administration of tocotrienols with antioestrogen therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects
  10. Tanaka S, Yoichi S, Ao L, Matumoto M, Morimoto K, Akimoto N, et al.
    Phytother Res, 2001 Dec;15(8):681-6.
    PMID: 11746860
    In the search for agents effective against immune-mediated disorders and inflammation, we have screened Malaysian medicinal plants for the ability to inhibit the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on the surface of murine endothelial cells (F-2), and mouse myeloid leukaemia cells (M1), respectively. Of 41 kinds (29 species, 24 genera, 16 families) of Malaysian plants tested, 10 and 19 plant samples significantly downregulated the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, respectively. Bioassay-directed fractionation of an extract prepared from the bark of Goniothalamus andersonii showed that its ingredients, goniothalamin (1) and goniodiol (2) inhibited the cell surface expression of both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. The present results suggest that Malaysian medicinal plants may be abundant natural resources for immunosuppressive and antiinflammatory substances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects
  11. Kobayashi A, Autsavapromporn N, Ahmad TAFT, Oikawa M, Homma-Takeda S, Furusawa Y, et al.
    Radiat Prot Dosimetry, 2019 May 01;183(1-2):142-146.
    PMID: 30535060 DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncy249
    Bi-directional signaling involved in radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) between irradiated carcinoma cells and their surrounding non-irradiated normal cells is relevant to radiation cancer therapy. Using the SPICE-NIRS microbeam, we delivered 500 protons to A549-GFP lung carcinoma cells, stably expressing H2B-GFP, which were co-cultured with normal WI-38 cells. The level of γ-H2AX, a marker for DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), was subsequently measured up to 24-h post-irradiation in both targeted and bystander cells. As a result, inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) attenuated DSB repair in targeted A549-GFP cells, and suppressed RIBE in bystander WI-38 cells but not in distant A549-GFP cells. This suggests that GJIC plays a two-way role through propagating DNA damage effect between carcinoma to normal cells and reversing the bystander signaling, also called 'rescue effect' from bystander cells to irradiated cells, to enhance the DSB repair in targeted cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured/radiation effects*
  12. Alfizah H, Noraziah MZ, Chao MY, Rahman MM, Ramelah M
    Clin Ter, 2013;164(4):301-5.
    PMID: 24045512 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2013.1577
    Helicobacter pylori strains secrete a vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), plays an important role for the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastro-duodenal diseases. vacA gene is responsible to regulate the activity of the vacuolating cytotoxin. The objective of this study was molecular detection of vacA gene and observes the vacuolating activity on human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured
  13. Liew KL, Jee JM, Yap I, Yong PV
    PLoS One, 2016;11(4):e0153356.
    PMID: 27054608 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153356
    Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated basidiomycetous yeast commonly associated with pigeon droppings and soil. The opportunistic pathogen infects humans through the respiratory system and the metabolic implications of C. neoformans infection have yet to be explored. Studying the metabolic profile associated with the infection could lead to the identification of important metabolites associated with pulmonary infection. Therefore, the aim of the study was to simulate cryptococcal infection at the primary site of infection, the lungs, and to identify the metabolic profile and important metabolites associated with the infection at low and high multiplicity of infections (MOI). The culture supernatant of lung epithelial cells infected with C. neoformans at MOI of 10 and 100 over a period of 18 hours were analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The metabolic profiles obtained were further analysed using multivariate analysis and the pathway analysis tool, MetaboAnalyst 2.0. Based on the results from the multivariate analyses, ten metabolites were selected as the discriminatory metabolites that were important in both the infection conditions. The pathways affected during early C. neoformans infection of lung epithelial cells were mainly the central carbon metabolism and biosynthesis of amino acids. Infection at a higher MOI led to a perturbance in the β-alanine metabolism and an increase in the secretion of pantothenic acid into the growth media. Pantothenic acid production during yeast infection has not been documented and the β-alanine metabolism as well as the pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis pathways may represent underlying metabolic pathways associated with disease progression. Our study suggested that β-alanine metabolism and the pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis pathways might be the important pathways associated with cryptococcal infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured
  14. Abdullah D, Ford TR, Papaioannou S, Nicholson J, McDonald F
    Biomaterials, 2002 Oct;23(19):4001-10.
    PMID: 12162333
    Biocompatibility of two variants of accelerated Portland cement (APC) were investigated in vitro by observing the cytomorphology of SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cells in the presence of test materials and the effect of these materials on the expression of markers of bone remodelling. Glass ionomer cement (GIC), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and unmodified Portland cement (RC) were used for comparison. A direct contact assay was undertaken in four samples of each test material, collected at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scored. Culture media were collected for cytokine quantification using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). On SEM evaluation, healthy SaOS-2 cells were found adhering onto the surfaces of APC variant, RC and MTA. In contrast, rounded and dying cells were observed on GIC. Using ELISA, levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-18 and OC were significantly higher in APC variants compared with controls and GIC (p<0.01), but these levels of cytokines were not statistically significant compared with MTA. The results of this study provide evidence that both APC variants are non-toxic and may have potential to promote bone healing. Further development of APC is indicated to produce a viable dental restorative material and possibly a material for orthopaedic
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured
  15. Vimala S, Norhanom AW, Yadav M
    Br. J. Cancer, 1999 Apr;80(1-2):110-6.
    PMID: 10389986
    Zingiberaceae rhizomes commonly used in the Malaysian traditional medicine were screened for anti-tumour promoter activity using the short-term assay of inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) in Raji cells. The inhibition of TPA-induced EBV-EA was detected using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot technique. The indirect IFA detected the expression/inhibition of EBV-EA-D (diffused EA antigen), whereas the Western blot technique detected the expression/inhibition of both EBV-EA-D and EA-R (restricted EA antigen). Seven rhizomes were found to possess inhibitory activity towards EBV activation, induced by TPA; they are: Curcuma domestica, C. xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga, Zingiber cassumunar, Z. officinale, Z. officinale (red variety), and Z. zerumbet. A cytotoxicity assay was carried out to determine the toxicity of the Zingiberaceae rhizome extracts. The rhizome extracts that exhibited EBV activation inhibitory activity had no cytotoxicity effect in Raji cells. Therefore, the present study shows that several Zingiberaceae species used in Malaysian traditional medicine contain naturally occurring non-toxic compounds that inhibit the EBV activation, which, if further investigated, could contribute in the development of cancer prevention methods at the tumour-promoting stage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured
  16. Xu YJ, Chiang PY, Lai YH, Vittal JJ, Wu XH, Tan BK, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2000 Oct;63(10):1361-3.
    PMID: 11076552
    Leaf extracts of Garcinia parvifolia provided relatively high yields of four novel, cytotoxic prenylated depsidones. The structures were determined mainly by detailed NMR spectral analysis and X-ray crystallography.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured
  17. Pettit GR, Tan R, Melody N, Kielty JM, Pettit RK, Herald DL, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem, 1999 May;7(5):895-9.
    PMID: 10400343
    A Montana soil actinomycete, Streptomyces anulatus, produced (1 x 10(-2)% yield) a new cancer cell growth inhibitory cyclooctadepsipeptide named montanastatin (1) accompanied by the potent anticancer antibiotic valinomycin (2) in very high (5.1%) yields. Valinomycin but not montanastatin inhibited growth of a number of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Interpretation of high-field (500 MHz) NMR and high-resolution FAB mass spectral data allowed assignment of the structure cyclo-(D-Val-L-Lac-L-Val-D-Hiv) to montanastatin. Valinomycin (2) was also isolated from actinomycetes cultured from a tree branch and animal feces collected in Malaysia. Streptomyces exfoliatus, isolated from the tree branch, was found to contain valinomycin in 1.6% yield, while the fecal isolate, S. anulatus, gave valinomycin in 0.9% yield.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured
  18. Chowdhury SM, Omar AR, Aini I, Hair-Bejo M, Jamaluddin AA, Wan KL, et al.
    J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Biophys., 2002 Jun;6(3):229-32.
    PMID: 12186760
    Two areas in the chicken anemia virus (CAV) genome have high G:C content with secondary structures. These two G:C rich areas could not be sequenced with Perkin Elmer's Big Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit. Several modifications were carried out to solve the problem. Finally, a package of modified method was developed to sequence the high G:C areas. The result showed that the Perkin Elmer's Big Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit with the normal procedures are not suitable for sequencing the high G:C regions of the CAV genome. The present developed method made the Perkin Elmer's Kit useful for the first time to sequence the G:C rich hairpin structures of the CAV genome. The system may be useful to sequence all other G:C rich DNA templates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured
  19. Nesaretnam K, Guthrie N, Chambers AF, Carroll KK
    Lipids, 1995 Dec;30(12):1139-43.
    PMID: 8614304
    The tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil consists of tocotrienols and some alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T). Tocotrienols are a form of vitamin E having an unsaturated side-chain, rather than the saturated side-chain of the more common tocopherols. Because palm oil has been shown not to promote chemically-induced mammary carcinogenesis, we tested effects of TRF and alpha-T on the proliferation, growth, and plating efficiency (PE) of the MDA-MB-435 estrogen-receptor-negative human breast cancer cells. TRF inhibited the proliferation of these cells with a concentration required to inhibit cell proliferation by 50% of 180 microgram/mL whereas alpha-T had no effect at concentrations up to 1000 microgram/mL as measured by incorporation of [3H]thymidine. The effects of TRF and alpha-T also were tested in longer-term growth experiments, using concentrations of 180 and 500 microgram/mL. We found that TRF inhibited the growth of these cells by 50%, whereas alpha-T did not. Their effect on the ability of these cells to form colonies also was studied, and it was found that TRF inhibited PE, whereas alpha T had no effect. These results suggest that the inhibition is due to the presence of tocotrienols in TRF rather than alpha T.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured
  20. Hawariah A, Stanslas J
    Anticancer Res, 1998 Nov-Dec;18(6A):4383-6.
    PMID: 9891496
    Previous studies have shown that a styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) from a local tropical plant had antiprogestin and antiestrogenic effects in early pregnant mice models (Azimahtol et al. 1991). Antiprogestins and antiestrogens can be exploited as a therapeutic approach to breast cancer treatment and thus the antitumor activity of SPD was tested in three different human breast cancer cell lines that is: MCF- 7, T47D and MDA-MB-231, employing, the antiproliferative assay of Lin and Hwang (1991) slightly modified. SPD (10(-10) - 10(-6) M) exhibited strong antiproliferative activity in estrogen and progestin-dependent MCF-7 cells (EC50 = 2.24 x 10(-7) M) and in hormone insensitive MDA-MB-231 (EC50 = 5.62 x 10(-7) M), but caused only partial inhibition of the estrogen- insensitive T47D cells (EC50 = 1.58 x 10(-6) M). However, tamoxifen showed strong inhibition of MCF-7 cells (EC50 = 1.41 x 10(-6) M) and to a lesser extent the T47D cells (EC50 = 2.5 x 10(-6) M) but did not affect the MDA-MB-231 cells. SPD at 1 microM exerted a beffer antiestrogenic activity than 1 microM tamoxifen in suppressing the growth of MCF-7 cells stimulated by 1 nM estradiol. Combined treatment of both SPD and tamoxifen at 1 microM showed additional inhibition on the growth of MCF-7 cells in culture. The antiproliferative properties of SPD are effective on both receptor positive and receptor negative mammary cancer cells, and thus appear to be neither dependent on cellular receptor status nor cellular hormone responses. This enhances in vivo approaches as tumors are heterogenous masses with varying receptor status.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Cells, Cultured
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