Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

    Med J Malaya, 1956 Sep;11(1):63-9; discussion, 69-70.
    PMID: 13399543
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology*
  2. Lam SK
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1987 Apr;16(2):250-1.
    PMID: 3318653
    Viral infections are probably the most important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in the world. In many developing countries in South East Asia and the Western Pacific, priority health problems include acute respiratory infections, acute diarrhoeas and arboviral infections. Where studies have been carried out, there is no significant difference in the aetiological agents involved or in the manifestation of clinical childhood disease. Surveillance of these diseases have improved with the introduction of rapid viral diagnosis. The better understanding of the immunopathogenesis of many diseases have also encouraged research in this area and will lead to the better control and management of these diseases. However, the search for antivirals has been disappointing but fortunately new vaccines are on the horizon and the prospect for bringing some of these diseases under control through vaccination are bright.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology*
  3. Arokiasamy JT
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1996 Mar;51(1):4-11.
    PMID: 10967972
    Microbial diseases continue to occur in Malaysia despite the marked socio-economic development that has been taking place in the country along with improvements in the medical, health, and environmental sectors. This paper highlights the continuing presence of the numerous microbial diseases including the emergence of new problems such as AIDS. Local publications dealing with work on several microbial diseases is reviewed to show that this group of diseases will pose challenges for a long while. Undoubtedly several other diseases that were relatively unrecognised in the past are increasingly being identified owing to recent availability of diagnostic facilities and equipments. The need for continued vigilance is emphasised.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology*
  4. Capeding MR, Chua MN, Hadinegoro SR, Hussain II, Nallusamy R, Pitisuttithum P, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2013;7(7):e2331.
    PMID: 23936565 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002331
    Common causes of acute febrile illness in tropical countries have similar symptoms, which often mimic those of dengue. Accurate clinical diagnosis can be difficult without laboratory confirmation and disease burden is generally under-reported. Accurate, population-based, laboratory-confirmed incidence data on dengue and other causes of acute fever in dengue-endemic Asian countries are needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology*
  5. Suzuki M
    Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol., 1981 Aug;34(4):261-3.
    PMID: 7321300
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology
  6. Ramle M, Wahid MB, Norman K, Glare TR, Jackson TA
    J. Invertebr. Pathol., 2005 May;89(1):85-90.
    PMID: 16039309
    The rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, has emerged as a serious pest of oil palm since the prohibition of burning as a method for maintaining estate hygiene in the 1990s. The abundance of beetles is surprising given that the Malay peninsula was the site of first discovery of the Oryctes virus, which has been used to effect good as a biological control agent in other regions. A survey of adult beetles was carried out throughout Malaysia using pheromone traps. Captured beetles were examined for presence of virus using both visual/microscopic examination and PCR detection methods. The survey indicated that Oryctes virus was common in Malaysia among the adult beetles. Viral DNA analysis was carried out after restriction with HindIII enzyme and indicated at least three distinct viral genotypes. Bioassays were used to compare the viral strains and demonstrate that one strain (type B) is the most virulent against both larvae and adults of the beetle. Virus type B has been cultured and released into healthy populations where another strain (type A) forms the natural background. Capture and examination of beetles from the release site and surrounding area has shown that the spread and persistence of the applied virus strain is accompanied by a reduction in palm frond damage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology*
  7. Chastel C
    Med Mal Infect, 2004 Nov;34(11):499-505.
    PMID: 15620053
    Tropical Africa is not the only area where deadly viruses have recently emerged. In South-East Asia severe epidemics of dengue hemorrhagic fever started in 1954 and flu pandemics have originated from China such as the Asian flu (H2N2) in 1957, the Hong-Kong flu (H3N2) in 1968, and the Russian flu (H1N1) in 1977. However, it is especially during the last ten years that very dangerous viruses for mankind have repeatedly developed in Asia, with the occurrence of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia (1995), avian flu (H5N1) in Hong-Kong (1997), Nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia (1998,) and, above all, the SARS pandemic fever from Southern China (2002). The evolution of these viral diseases was probably not directly affected by climate change. In fact, their emergential success may be better explained by the development of large industry poultry flocks increasing the risks of epizootics, dietary habits, economic and demographic constraints, and negligence in the surveillance and reporting of the first cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology
  8. Saraswathy TS, Zahrin HN, Apandi MY, Kurup D, Rohani J, Zainah S, et al.
    PMID: 19062691
    In 1992 surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases was introduced in Malaysia along with the establishment of a national referral laboratory at the Institute for Medical Research. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, viral etiology and clinical picture of AFP cases below 15 years of age, reported from 2002 to 2007. Six hundred seventy-eight of 688 reported cases were confirmed as AFP by expert review. The clinical presentation of acute flaccid paralysis in these cases was diverse, the most commonly reported being Guillian-Barre syndrome (32.3%). Sixty-nine viruses were isolated in this study. They were Sabin poliovirus (25), Echovirus (22), Cocksackie B (11), EV71 (5), Cocksackie A (1), and untypable (5). Malaysia has been confirmed as free from wild polio since the surveillance was established.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology*
  9. Chan PW
    Singapore Med J, 2002 Mar;43(3):124-7.
    PMID: 12005337
    To determine the risk factors associated with severe viral croup in hospitalised Malaysian children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology
  10. Sultan S, Nasir MI, Rafiq S, Baig MA, Akbani S, Irfan SM
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Aug;39(2):149-154.
    PMID: 28866696
    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion safety commences with healthy donor recruitment. The threat of transfusion transmitted infections is greatly minimized by serological tools but not entirely eliminated. Recently, nucleic-acid testing for blood donor screening has virtually eliminated this jeopardy.

    METHODS: This prospective study was conducted from February 2015 to February 2016. Samples from seronegative donors were run on multiplex assay (Cobas, S-201 system platform, Roche) in a batch of six [MP-NAT]. In case of reactive pool, tests were run on every individual sample [IDNAT].

    RESULTS: Of 16957 donors, 16836 (99.2%) were replacement donors and the remaining 121 (0.7%) were voluntary donors, with a mean age of 29.09 ± 7.04 years. After serologic screening of all 16957 donors, 955 (5.6%) were found to be reactive; 291(1.71%) were reactive for hepatitis-B surface antigen, 361 (2.12%) for antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), 14 (0.08%) for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus, 287 (1.69%) for syphilis and 2 (0.01%) for malaria. 14 (0.08%) NAT reactive donors were identified after testing the 16002 seronegative donors, with an overall NAT yield of one reactivity out of 1143 blood donations; 10 donors for HBV-DNA (HBV NAT yield-1:1600) and remaining 4 for HCV-RNA (HCV-NAT yield-1:4000). None were HIV positive.

    CONCLUSION: NAT has improved the safety attributes in blood products. Although the positivity rate for NAT testing is low but in view of the high prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in our country, we recommend the parallel use of both serology and NAT screening of all donated blood.

    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology*
  11. Nathan AM, Teh CSJ, Jabar KA, Teoh BT, Tangaperumal A, Westerhout C, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2020;15(2):e0228056.
    PMID: 32059033 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0228056
    INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia in children is a common disease yet determining its aetiology remains elusive.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the a) aetiology, b) factors associated with bacterial pneumonia and c) association between co-infections (bacteria + virus) and severity of disease, in children admitted with severe pneumonia.

    METHODS: A prospective cohort study involving children aged 1-month to 5-years admitted with very severe pneumonia, as per the WHO definition, over 2 years. Induced sputum and blood obtained within 24 hrs of admission were examined via PCR, immunofluorescence and culture to detect 17 bacteria/viruses. A designated radiologist read the chest radiographs.

    RESULTS: Three hundred patients with a mean (SD) age of 14 (±15) months old were recruited. Significant pathogens were detected in 62% of patients (n = 186). Viruses alone were detected in 23.7% (n = 71) with rhinovirus (31%), human metapneumovirus (HMP) [22.5%] and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) [16.9%] being the commonest. Bacteria alone was detected in 25% (n = 75) with Haemophilus influenzae (29.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (24%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.7%) being the commonest. Co-infections were seen in 13.3% (n = 40) of patients. Male gender (AdjOR 1.84 [95% CI 1.10, 3.05]) and presence of crepitations (AdjOR 2.27 [95% CI 1.12, 4.60]) were associated with bacterial infection. C-reactive protein (CRP) [p = 0.007]) was significantly higher in patients with co-infections but duration of hospitalization (p = 0.77) and requirement for supplemental respiratory support (p = 0.26) were not associated with co-infection.

    CONCLUSIONS: Bacteria remain an important cause of very severe pneumonia in developing countries with one in four children admitted isolating bacteria alone. Male gender and presence of crepitations were significantly associated with bacterial aetiology. Co-infection was associated with a higher CRP but no other parameters of severe clinical illness.

    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology
  12. Yaseen SG, Ahmed SA, Johan MF, Kiron R, Daher AM
    Transfus. Apher. Sci., 2013 Dec;49(3):647-51.
    PMID: 23890575 DOI: 10.1016/j.transci.2013.07.003
    Transmission of infectious diseases is a recognized complication of blood transfusion and blood products. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) may contribute to improved efficiency of blood screening and thereby increase the safety margin for transfused blood.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology
  13. Tesh RB, Gajdusek DC, Garruto RM, Cross JH, Rosen L
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1975 Jul;24(4):664-75.
    PMID: 1155702
    Plaque reduction neutralization tests, using five group A arboviruses (chikungunya, Ross River, Getah, Bebaru and Sindbis), were done on sera from human populations in 44 Southeast Asia and Pacific island localities. Specificity of the plaque neutralization test was determined by examining convalescent sera from patients with known alphavirus infections. Chikungunya-specific neutralizing antibodies were demonstrated in sera of persons living in South Vietnam, Northern Malaysia, Indonesia (Kalimantan and Sulawesi), as well as Luzon, Marinduque, Cebu and Mindanao islands in the Philippines. Evidence of Ross River virus infection was found among populations living in West New Guinea and Papua New Guinea mainland, the Bismark Archipelago, Rossel Island and the Solomon Islands. There appeared to be no geographic overlap in the distribution of chikungunya and Ross River viruses, with the separation in their distribution corresponding with Weber's line in the Pacific. Sindbis neutralizing antibodies were found in 7 of 21 populations sampled, but in general the prevalence of infection was low. Four sera, from Vietnam, Malaysia and Mindanao gave monospecific reactions with Getah virus. No evidence of specific Bebaru virus infection was detected. The epidemiology of these five alphaviruses in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology
  14. Caplan CE
    CMAJ, 1999 Jun 1;160(11):1607.
    PMID: 10374006
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology
  15. Khor CS, Sam IC, Hooi PS, Quek KF, Chan YF
    BMC Pediatr, 2012;12:32.
    PMID: 22429933 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-32
    Viral respiratory tract infections (RTI) are relatively understudied in Southeast Asian tropical countries. In temperate countries, seasonal activity of respiratory viruses has been reported, particularly in association with temperature, while inconsistent correlation of respiratory viral activity with humidity and rain is found in tropical countries. A retrospective study was performed from 1982-2008 to investigate the viral etiology of children (≤ 5 years old) admitted with RTI in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology*
  16. Wolfe N
    Sci. Am., 2009 Apr;300(4):76-81.
    PMID: 19363924
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology
  17. Kilbourn AM, Karesh WB, Wolfe ND, Bosi EJ, Cook RA, Andau M
    J. Wildl. Dis., 2003 Jan;39(1):73-83.
    PMID: 12685070
    Baseline data on health of free-ranging wildlife is essential to evaluate impacts of habitat transformation and wildlife translocation, rehabilitation, and reintroduction programs. Health information on many species, especially great apes, is extremely limited. Between 1996 and 1998, 84 free-ranging orangutans captured for translocation, underwent a complete health evaluation. Analogous data were gathered from 60 semi-captive orangutans in Malaysia. Baseline hematology and serology; vitamin, mineral and pesticide levels; and results of health evaluations, including physical examination, provide a baseline for future monitoring. Free-ranging and semi-captive orangutans shared exposure to 11 of 47 viruses. The semi-captive orangutans had significantly higher prevalence of antibodies to adenovirus (P < 0.0005) and rota (SA 11) virus (P < 0.008). More free-ranging than semi-captive animals had antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus (P < 0.08) and foamy virus (P = 0.05). Exposure to parainfluenza and langat viruses was detected exclusively in semi-captive animals and exposure to sinbis virus was only found in free-ranging orangutans. There was evidence of exposure to respiratory syncytial virus, coxsackie virus, dengue virus, and zika virus in both groups. Ebstein-Barr virus was ubiquitous in both groups. Prevalence of antibodies against mumps virus changed from 0% in 1996 to 45% in 1998. No antibodies were detected to many important zoonotic viral pathogens, including herpesvirus and hepatitis virus. Prevalence of Balantidium coli and Plasmodium pitheci infections and exposure to mycobacterium was higher in the semi-captive animals. Differences in exposure to pathogens between the groups may be due to environmental factors including differences in exposures to other species, habitat quality, nutritional status, and other potential stressors. Differences in health parameters between captive and free-ranging orangutans need to be considered when planning conservation areas, translocation procedures, and rehabilitation protocols. Because survival of the orangutan is linked to animal and ecosystem health, results of this study will assist wildlife conservation programs by providing baseline health information.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology
  18. Jänisch T, Junghanss T
    Med. Klin. (Munich), 2000 Jul 15;95(7):392-9.
    PMID: 10943100
    Viruses have become more mobile alongside with increasing human mobility and speed of travel. At the same time we get access to information on viral outbreaks and epidemics from large parts of the world faster than ever before. Two recent epidemics will be presented to explore the value and the consequences of communicating epidemiological information through the Internet. The epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and prophylaxis of imported viral infections are presented. Risk factors for the emergence and resurgence of viral diseases are being discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology*
  19. Etemadi MR, Jalilian FA, Othman N, Lye MS, Ansari S, Yubbu P, et al.
    J. Virol. Methods, 2019 07;269:1-6.
    PMID: 30910688 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.03.013
    BACKGROUND: The role of respiratory viruses as the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) in children is becoming increasingly evident due to the use of sensitive molecular detection methods. The aim of this study was to use conventional and molecular detection methods to assess the epidemiology of respiratory viral infections in children less than five years of age that were hospitalized with ALRTIs.

    METHODS: The cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the occurrence of respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytisl virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), influenza virus A and B (IFV-A and B), parainfluenzavirus 1, 2, 3 and 4 (PIV 1, 2, 3 and 4), human rhinoviruses (HRV), human enterovirus (HEV), human coronaviruses (HCoV) 229E and OC43, human bocavirus (HBoV) and human adenovirus (HAdV) in hospitalized children with ALRTIs, at Hospital Serdang, Malaysia, from June 16 to December 21, 2009. The study was also designed in part to assess the performance of the conventional methods against molecular methods.

    RESULTS: Viral pathogens were detected in 158 (95.8%) of the patients. Single virus infections were detected in 114 (67.9%) patients; 46 (27.9%) were co-infected with different viruses including double-virus infections in 37 (22.4%) and triple-virus infections in 9 (5.5%) cases. Approximately 70% of samples were found to be positive using conventional methods compared with 96% using molecular methods. A wide range of respiratory viruses were detected in the study. There was a high prevalence of RSV (50.3%) infections, particularly group B viruses. Other etiological agents including HAdV, HMPV, IFV-A, PIV 1-3, HBoV, HCoV-OC43 and HEV were detected in 14.5, 9.6, 9.1, 4.8, 3.6, 2.4 and 1.8 percent of the samples, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated the increased sensitivity of molecular detection methods compared with conventional methods for the diagnosis of ARTIs in hospitalized children. This is the first report of HMPV infections in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology
  20. Furuse Y, Suzuki A, Kishi M, Galang HO, Lupisan SP, Olveda RM, et al.
    J. Med. Virol., 2010 May;82(6):1071-4.
    PMID: 20419824 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.21763
    Several novel viruses have been recently identified in respiratory samples. However, the epidemiology of these viruses in tropical countries remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of the epidemiology of novel respiratory viruses, including human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, new subtypes of human coronavirus (NL63 and HKU1), KI virus, WU virus, and Melaka virus in the Philippines, a tropical country. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from 465 patients with influenza-like illness were collected in 2006 and 2007. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR were performed to detect viruses from culture-negative specimens. Human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, human coronavirus HKU1, KI virus, and WU virus were detected for the first time in the Philippines; Melaka virus was not found.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virus Diseases/epidemiology*
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