Constructed wetlands (CWs) are affordable and reliable green technologies for the treatment of various types of wastewater. Compared to conventional treatment systems, CWs offer an environmentally friendly approach, are low cost, have fewer operational and maintenance requirements, and have a high potential for being applied in developing countries, particularly in small rural communities. However, the sustainable management and successful application of these systems remain a challenge. Therefore, after briefly providing basic information on wetlands and summarizing the classification and use of current CWs, this study aims to provide and inspire sustainable solutions for the performance and application of CWs by giving a comprehensive review of CWs' application and the recent development of their sustainable design, operation, and optimization for wastewater treatment. To accomplish this objective, thee design and management parameters of CWs, including macrophyte species, media types, water level, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and hydraulic loading rate (HLR), are discussed. Besides these, future research on improving the stability and sustainability of CWs are highlighted. This article provides a tool for researchers and decision-makers for using CWs to treat wastewater in a particular area. This paper presents an aid for informed analysis, decision-making, and communication. The review indicates that major advances in the design, operation, and optimization of CWs have greatly increased contaminant removal efficiencies, and the sustainable application of this treatment system has also been improved.
Seagrass is a valuable marine ecosystem engineer. However, seagrass population is declining worldwide. The lack of seagrass research in Malaysia raises questions about the status of seagrasses in the country. The seagrasses in Lawas, which is part of the coral-mangrove-seagrass complex, have never been studied in detail. In this study, we examine whether monthly changes of seagrass population in Lawas occurred. Data on estimates of seagrass percentage cover and water physicochemical parameters (pH, turbidity, salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen) were measured at 84 sampling stations established within the study area from June 2009 to May 2010. Meteorological data such as total rainfall, air temperature, and Southern Oscillation Index were also investigated. Our results showed that (i) the monthly changes of seagrass percentage cover are significant, (ii) the changes correlated significantly with turbidity measurements, and (iii) weather changes affected the seagrass populations. Our study indicates seagrass percentage increased during the El-Nino period. These results suggest that natural disturbances such as weather changes affect seagrass populations. Evaluation of land usage and measurements of other water physicochemical parameters (such as heavy metal, pesticides, and nutrients) should be considered to assess the health of seagrass ecosystem at the study area.
In recent years many models have been proposed for measuring soil water content (θ) based on the permittivity (ε) value. Permittivity is one of the properties used to determine θ in measurements using the electromagnetic method. This method is widely used due to quite substantial differences in values of ε for air, soil, and water, as it allows the θ value to be measured accurately. The performance of six proposed models with one parameter (i.e., permittivity) and five proposed models with two or more parameters (i.e., permittivity, porosity, and dry bulk density of soil) is discussed and evaluated. Secondary data obtained from previous studies are used for comparison to calibrate and evaluate the models. The results show that the models with one parameter proposed by Roth et al. (1992) and Topp et al. (1980) have the greatest R² data errors, while for the model with two parameters, the model proposed by Malicki et al. (1996) agrees very well with the data compared with other models.
This paper presents the development of a PC-based microwave five-port reflectometer for the determination of moisture content in oil palm fruits. The reflectometer was designed to measure both the magnitude and phase of the reflection coefficient of any passive microwave device. The stand-alone reflectometer consists of a PC, a microwave source, diode detectors and an analog to digital converter. All the measurement and data acquisition were done using Agilent VEE graphical programming software. The relectometer can be used with any reflection based microwave sensor. In this work, the application of the reflectometer as a useful instrument to determine the moisture content in oil palm fruits using monopole and coaxial sensors was demonstrated. Calibration equations between reflection coefficients and moisture content have been established for both sensors. The equation based on phase measurement of monopole sensor was found to be accurate within 5% in predicting moisture content in the fruits when compared to the conventional oven drying method.
Kinetic studies of the enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses were conducted using glucoamylase. Central Sugar Refinery SDN BHD contains 13-20% glucose. The molasses was diluted and the kinetic experiments were conducted at 67 degrees C with 100-1000 mg/l of glucoamylase. The glucose contents of the molasses were enhanced after hydrolysis of molasses solution with 1000 mg/l glucoamylase. A Lineweaver-Burk plot was obtained based on enzyme kinetic data. The rate constant, Km and maximum reaction rate, Vmax for 500 mg/l of glucoamylase were 100 mmol/l (18 g/l) and 5 mmol/l min (0.9 g/l min), respectively. The maximum reaction rate, Vmax for 1000 mg/l of glucoamylase was doubled, to 100 mmol/l (18 g/l) and the rate constant, Km was the same for 500 mg/l of glucoamylase. The substrate inhibition model was noncompetitive based on the resulting Lineweaver-Burk plot for enzyme concentration of 500 and 1000 mg/l.
Discharge of household greywater into water bodies can lead to an increase in contamination levels in terms of the reduction in dissolved oxygen resources and rapid bacterial growth. Therefore, the quality of greywater has to be improved before the disposal process. The present review aimed to present a hybrid treatment system for the greywater generated from households. The hybrid system comprised a primary stage (a natural filtration unit) with a bioreactor system as the secondary treatment combined with microalgae for greywater treatment, as well as the natural flocculation process. The review discussed the efficiency of each stage in the removal of elements and nutrients. The hybrid system reviewed here represented an effective solution for the remediation of household greywater.
Emerging contaminants (ECs) in wastewater have recently attracted the attention of researchers as they pose significant risks to human health and wildlife. This paper presents the state-of-art technologies used to remove ECs from wastewater through a comprehensive review. It also highlights the challenges faced by existing EC removal technologies in wastewater treatment plants and provides future research directions. Many treatment technologies like biological, chemical, and physical approaches have been advanced for removing various ECs. However, currently, no individual technology can effectively remove ECs, whereas hybrid systems have often been found to be more efficient. A hybrid technique of ozonation accompanied by activated carbon was found significantly effective in removing some ECs, particularly pharmaceuticals and pesticides. Despite the lack of extensive research, nanotechnology may be a promising approach as nanomaterial incorporated technologies have shown potential in removing different contaminants from wastewater. Nevertheless, most existing technologies are highly energy and resource-intensive as well as costly to maintain and operate. Besides, most proposed advanced treatment technologies are yet to be evaluated for large-scale practicality. Complemented with techno-economic feasibility studies of the treatment techniques, comprehensive research and development are therefore necessary to achieve a full and effective removal of ECs by wastewater treatment plants.
The performance of local plants was tested using synthetic turbid water resembling real wastewater by measuring their ability to remove turbidity. The selected plants were A. indica, S. palustris, D. linearis, S. polyanthum, M. esculenta, P. sarmentosum, and M. malabathricum which can easily be found locally. The experiment was run based on coagulant dosages varied from 0 to 10 g/L for each plant with a rapid mixing speed at 180 rpm for 3 min, slow mixing speed at 10 rpm for 20 min, and settling time for 30 min. The results demonstrated that each plant has been capable of reducing turbidity by different amounts, with an increase in the coagulant dosage. The optimum coagulant dosages achieved for A. indica, S. palustris, S. polyanthum, and D. linearis were 10 g/L with turbidity removal at 26.9%, 24.9%, 24.9%, and 17.5%, respectively. P. sarmentosum and M. esculenta attained optimum coagulant dosages at 5 g/L with turbidity removal at 24.2% and 22.2%, and lastly M. malabathricum at 0.1 g/L (12.2%). P. sarmentosum was suggested to the best natural coagulant which achieved the highest removal of turbidity with a low dosage used.
Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors), polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types.
Demand for online and real-time measurements techniques to meet environmental regulation and treatment compliance are increasing. However the conventional techniques, which involve scheduled sampling and chemical analysis can be expensive and time consuming. Therefore cheaper and faster alternatives to monitor wastewater characteristics are required as alternatives to conventional methods. This paper reviews existing conventional techniques and optical and fibre optic sensors to determine selected wastewater characteristics which are colour, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). The review confirms that with appropriate configuration, calibration and fibre features the parameters can be determined with accuracy comparable to conventional method. With more research in this area, the potential for using FOS for online and real-time measurement of more wastewater parameters for various types of industrial effluent are promising.
We sampled extensively (29 stations) at the Klang estuarine system over a 3-day scientific expedition. We measured physical and chemical variables (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, dissolved inorganic nutrients) and related them to the spatial distribution of phototrophic picoplankton (Ppico). Multivariate analysis of variance of the physicochemical variables showed the heterogeneity of the Klang estuarine system where the stations at each transect were significantly different (Rao's F₁₈, ₃₆ = 8.401, p < 0.001). Correlation analyses also showed that variables related to Ppico abundance and growth were mutually exclusive. Distribution of Ppico was best explained by the physical mixing between freshwater and seawater whereas Ppico growth was correlated with temperature.
The objective of this study was to investigate the cycling of arsenic in the water column of a post-mining lake. This study is part of a research project to develop health risk assessment for the surrounding population. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) and Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) have been used to analyze the total amount and speciation, respectively. A computer program, called MINTEOA2, which was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was used for predicting arsenic, iron, and manganese as functions of pH and solubility. Studying the pH values and cycle of arsenic shows that the percentage of bound arsenate, As(V) species in the form of HAsO4- increases with range pH from 5 to 7, as well as Fe(II) and Mn(III). As expected phases of arsenic oxides are FeAsO4 and Mn3(AsO4), as a function of solubility, however none of these phases are over saturated and not precipitated. It means that the phases of arsenic oxides have a high solubility.
Speciation of arsenic and selenium was carried out on water samples taken from rivers used as water intake points in the vicinity of landfill areas used for land-based waste disposal system. Leachates from these landfill areas may contaminate the river water through underground seepage or overflowing, especially after a heavy downpour. Preconcentration of the chemical species was done using a mixture of ammonium pyrrolidinethiocarbamate-chloroform (APDTC-CHCl3). Because only the reduced forms of both arsenic and selenium species could be extracted by the preconcentrating mixture, suitable reducing agents such as 25% sodium thiosulfate for As(III) and 6M HCl for Se(IV) were used throughout the studies. Care was taken to exclude the interfering elements such as the alkali and alkali earth metals from the inorganic arsenic and selenium species by introducing 12% EDTA solution as the masking agent. The extracted mixture was irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 4 x 10(12)/cm/s from a TRIGA Mk.II reactor at the Malaysia Institute of Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). Gamma rays of 559 keV and 297 keV from 76As and 75Se, respectively, were used in the quantitative determination of the inorganic species. Mixed standards of As(III) and Se(IV) used in the percentage efficiency procedure were prepared from salts of Analar grade. The water quality evaluation was viewed from the ratio of the inorganic species present.
Children who are born in a community with insufficient micronutrients, particularly iodine in remote rural areas are associated with low intellectual functions and mental retardation. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the mental performance of the schoolchildren in Bario, a highland settlement of the Kelabit people in the district of Baram, Sarawak and to determine its correlation with the availability of iodine in the environment, as well as other micronutrients such as selenium, copper and manganese. A total of 25 schoolchildren in Bario age ranging from 7 to 12 years old participated in the study. Mental performance of the schoolchildren were tested using TONI-2 (Test of Nonverbal Intelligence--second edition), a cognitive ability measures with a response format which eliminates language and reduces motoric and cultural factors. The iodine levels from several wells, soils and salt found in Bario were determined using HPLC (software version 3.05.01) whilst serum levels of selenium, copper and manganese were measured using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (GFAAS). The results showed that the median and mode scores of intelligence quotient for Bario were 82 and 75, respectively, whilst median and mode scores of intelligence percentile were 11.0 and 5.0, respectively. The maximum score achieved were at the average level with the quotient score between 90-110. It was found that salt produced from one of the wells in Bario contained high quantity of iodine. Based on standards established by the Trace Elements Laboratory, Roben Institute, University of Surrey, United Kingdom, schoolchildren in Bario are having sufficient blood levels of copper and a high selenium and manganese levels. Despite the remoteness of the study area, the schoolchildren in Bario, Sarawak showed higher mental performance compared to other isolated areas. This is probably correlated with the high micronutrients availability, particularly iodine, found naturally in Bario.
Fruit wastes constituting up to half of total fruit weight represent a large pool of untapped resources for isolation of starch with diverse applications. In this work, the possibility of isolating starch from tropical fruit wastes and its extended application as a natural coagulant was elucidated. Amongst the 12 various parts of fruit wastes selected, only jackfruit seeds contained more than 50% of total starch content. Using alkaline extraction procedures, starch has been successfully isolated from local jackfruit seeds with a yield of approximately 18%. Bell-shaped starch granules were observed under SEM with a granule size ranging from 1.1 to 41.6 μm. Detailed starch characteristics were performed to provide a comparison between the isolated seed starch and also conventional starches. Among them, chemical properties such as the content of starch, amylose, amylopectin and the corresponding molecular weights are some of the key characteristics which governed their performance as natural coagulants. The potential use of isolated seed starch as an aid was then demonstrated in both suspensions of kaolin (model synthetic system) and Chlorella sp. microalga (real-time application) with plausible outcomes. At optimized starch dosage of 60 mg/L, the overall turbidity removal in kaolin was enhanced by at least 25% at a fixed alum dosage of 2.1 mg/L. Positive turbidity and COD removals were also observed in the treatment of Chlorella suspensions. Starches which served as bridging agents aided in the linkage of neighbouring microflocs and subsequently, forming macroflocs through a secondary coagulation mechanism: adsorption and bridging.
To date, experimental and epidemiological evidence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) adversely affecting human and animal populations has been widely debated. Notably, human health risk assessment is required for risk mitigation. The lack of human health risk assessment and management may thus unreliably regulate the quality of water resources and efficiency of treatment processes. Therefore, drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) may be still unwarranted in assuring safe access to potable drinking water. Drinking water supply, such as tap water, is an additional and crucial route of human exposure to the health risks associated with EDCs. A holistic system, incorporating continuous research in DWSS monitoring and management using multi-barrier approach, is proposed as a preventive measure to reduce human exposure to the risks associated with EDCs through drinking water consumption. The occurrence of EDCs in DWSSs and corresponding human health risk implications are analyzed using the Needs, Approaches, Benefits, and Challenges (NABC) method. Therefore, this review may act as a supportive tool in protecting human health and environmental quality from EDCs, which is essential for decision-making regarding environmental monitoring and management purposes. Subsequently, the public could have sustainable access to safer and more reliable drinking water.
Managers of water quality and water monitoring programs are often faced with constraints in terms of budget, time, and laboratory capacity for sample analysis. In such situation, the ideal solution is to reduce the number of sampling sites and/or monitored variables. In this case, selecting appropriate monitoring sites is a challenge. To overcome this problem, this study was conducted to statistically assess and identify the appropriate sampling stations of monitoring network under the monitored parameters. To achieve this goal, two sets of water quality data acquired from two different monitoring networks were used. The hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) were used to group stations with similar characteristics in the networks, the time series analysis was then performed to observe the temporal variation of water quality within the station clusters, and the geo-statistical analysis associated Kendall's coefficient of concordance were finally applied to identify the most appropriate and least appropriate sampling stations. Based on the overall result, five stations were identified in the networks that contribute the most to the knowledge of water quality status of the entire river. In addition, five stations deemed less important were identified and could therefore be considered as redundant in the network. This result demonstrated that geo-statistical technique coupled with Kendall's coefficient of concordance can be a reliable method for water resource managers to identify appropriate sampling sites in a river monitoring network.
Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are typical endocrine disruptors found in common pharmaceuticals and personal care products, which are frequently detected in aquatic environments, especially surface water treated for drinking. However, current treatment technologies are inefficient for removing emerging endocrine disruptors, leading to the potential contamination of tap water. This study employed an optimized analytical method comprising solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) to detect APIs in tap water in Putrajaya, Malaysia. Several therapeutic classes of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, including anti-inflammatory drugs (dexamethasone and diclofenac), antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and triclosan), antiepileptics (primidone), antibacterial agents (ciprofloxacin), beta-blockers (propranolol), psychoactive stimulants (caffeine), and antiparasitic drugs (diazinon), were detected in the range of water pollutants. Diclofenac accounted for the highest concentration (21.39 ng/L), followed by triclosan and ciprofloxacin (9.74 ng/L and 8.69 ng/L, respectively). Caffeine was observed in all field samples with the highest distribution at 35.32%. Caffeine and triclosan exhibited significantly different distributions in household tap water (p water; however, the estimated risk was negligible (risk quotient water quality monitoring indicators for water resource conservation and water supply safety related to emerging organic contaminants; thus, API detection is important for safeguarding the environment and human health.
A solid phase extraction (SPE) method has been developed using a newly synthesized titanium (IV) butoxide-cyanopropyltriethoxysilane (Ti-CNPrTEOS) sorbent for polar selective extraction of aromatic amines in river water sample. The effect of different parameters on the extraction recovery was studied using the SPE method. The applicability of the sorbents for the extraction of polar aromatic amines by the SPE was extensively studied and evaluated as a function of pH, conditioning solvent, sample loading volume, elution solvent and elution solvent volume. The optimum experimental conditions were sample at pH 7, dichloromethane as conditioning solvent, 10 mL sample loading volume and 5 mL of acetonitrile as the eluting solvent. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for solid phase extraction using Ti-CNPrTEOS SPE sorbent (0.01-0.2; 0.03-0.61 µg L(-1)) were lower compared with those achieved using Si-CN SPE sorbent (0.25-1.50; 1.96-3.59 µg L(-1)) and C18 SPE sorbent (0.37-0.98; 1.87-2.87 µg L(-1)) with higher selectivity towards the extraction of polar aromatic amines. The optimized procedure was successfully applied for the solid phase extraction method of selected aromatic amines in river water, waste water and tap water samples prior to the gas chromatography-flame ionization detector separation.
The analysis of total organic carbon (TOC) by the American Public Health Association (APHA) closed-tube reflux colorimetric method requires potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), silver sulfate (AgSO4), and mercury (HgSO4) sulfate in addition to large volumes of both reagents and samples. The method relies on the release of oxygen from dichromate on heating which is consumed by carbon associated with organic compounds. The method risks environmental pollution by discharging large amounts of chromium (VI) and silver and mercury sulfates. The present method used potassium monochromate (K2CrO4) to generate the K2Cr2O7 on demand in the first phase. In addition, miniaturizing the procedure to semi microanalysis decreased the consumption of reagents and samples. In the second phase, mercury sulfate was eliminated as part of the digestion mixture through the introduction of sodium bismuthate (NaBiO3) for the removal of chlorides from the sample. The modified method, the potassium monochromate closed-tube colorimetry with sodium bismuthate chloride removal (KMCC-Bi), generates the potassium dichromate on demand and eliminates mercury sulfate. The semi microanalysis procedure leads to a 60% reduction in sample volume and ≈ 33.33 and 60% reduction in monochromate and silver sulfate consumption respectively. The LOD and LOQ were 10.17 and 33.90 mg L-1 for APHA, and 4.95 and 16.95 mg L-1 for KMCC-Bi. Recovery was between 83 to 98% APHA and 92 to 104% KMCC-Bi, while the RSD (%) ranged between 0.8 to 5.0% APHA and 0.00 to 0.62% KMCC-Bi. The method was applied for the UV-Vis spectrometry determination of COD in water and wastewater. Statistics was done by MINITAB 17 or MS Excel 2016. ᅟ Graphical abstract.