Contamination of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in tap water is an emerging global issue, and there are abundant influencing factors that have an ambivalent eﬀect on their transportation and fate. Different housing types vary in terms of water distribution system operation and design, water consumption choices, and other hydraulic factors, which potentially affect the dynamics, loadings, and partitioning of pollutants in tap water. Thus, this study analyzed 18 multiclass EDCs in tap water from different housing types (i.e., landed and high-rise) and the associated health risks. Sample analyses revealed the presence of 16 EDCs, namely hormones (5), pharmaceuticals (8), a pesticide (1), and plasticizers (2) in tap water, with the prevalent occurrence of bisphenol A up to 66.40 ng/L in high-rise housing. The presence of caffeine and sulfamethoxazole distribution in tap water was significantly different between landed and high-rise housings (t(152) = -2.298, p = 0.023 and t(109) = 2.135, p = 0.035). Moreover, the salinity and conductivity of tap water in high-rise housings were significantly higher compared to those in landed housings (t(122) = 2.411, p = 0.017 and t(94) = 2.997, p = 0.003, respectively). Furthermore, there were no potential health risks of EDCs (risk quotient water intake. However, EDC variation in different housing types requires simulation of the occurrence, transport, and fate of EDCs in the distribution system and investigation of the underlying factors for effective mitigation, prevention, and intervention.
The composite nature of Ennore Creek, receiving polluted waters from Buckingham canal, River Kortalaiyar, and the presence of numerous industries rapidly degrade the coastal environment. In this study, multivariate statistical technique was used to assess the nature of pollution and to identify the factors responsible for the enrichment of trace metals in the creek sediments. Forty samples were collected during pre- and post-monsoon periods to evaluate the seasonal variations on the concentration of trace metals in the sediments. The results indicate that not much seasonal variation exists in the concentration of trace metals in the sediments of Ennore creek. Results of the cluster analysis illustrate that the enrichment of trace metals was mainly from anthropogenic sources. Meanwhile, correlation coefficient among the metals reveals that some of the metals (Fe and Al) derived were of natural origin. The complex data matrix of the sediment were interpreted after reduction to three factors and the results illustrate the extent of the influence of anthropogenic activities. The spatial distribution diagrams demonstrate and demarcate the region of enrichment of metals in the sediments of Ennore creek.
The microbial composition in coastal water of the Port Dickson beach in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia was analyzed using several microbial indicators for the purpose of selecting the best indicator for marine water pollution. The indicators studied were total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), fecal streptococci (FS) and coliphage. Five locations were selected along the Port Dickson beaches and samplings were carried out in 1998 and 2001. The results showed an increase in the number of total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC) and fecal streptococci (FS) between these two sampling by 98.12%, 86.12% and 99%, respectively. The numbers of TC, FC and FS exceeded the recommended limit for recreational seawater based on U.S. EPA 1986 standard. There was a positive correlation between TC, FC and FS and negative to coliphages.
Nowadays, water pollution has become a global issue affecting most countries in the world. Water quality should be monitored to alert authorities on water pollution, so that action can be taken quickly. The objective of the review is to study various conventional and modern methods of monitoring water quality to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. The methods include the Internet of Things (IoT), virtual sensing, cyber-physical system (CPS), and optical techniques. In this review, water quality monitoring systems and process control in several countries, such as New Zealand, China, Serbia, Bangladesh, Malaysia, and India, are discussed. Conventional and modern methods are compared in terms of parameters, complexity, and reliability. Recent methods of water quality monitoring techniques are also reviewed to study any loopholes in modern methods. We found that CPS is suitable for monitoring water quality due to a good combination of physical and computational algorithms. Its embedded sensors, processors, and actuators can be designed to detect and interact with environments. We believe that conventional methods are costly and complex, whereas modern methods are also expensive but simpler with real-time detection. Traditional approaches are more time-consuming and expensive due to the high maintenance of laboratory facilities, involve chemical materials, and are inefficient for on-site monitoring applications. Apart from that, previous monitoring methods have issues in achieving a reliable measurement of water quality parameters in real time. There are still limitations in instruments for detecting pollutants and producing valuable information on water quality. Thus, the review is important in order to compare previous methods and to improve current water quality assessments in terms of reliability and cost-effectiveness.
A study has been conducted to determine the composition of surfactants in runoff water in the semi-urban area of Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Runoff samples were collected from five different locations with contrasting functional activities and the colorimetric method was used to analyze the concentrations of surfactants as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) for anionic surfactants and as disulphine blue active substances (DBAS) for cationic surfactants. The results showed that the highest surfactant concentrations of MBAS and DBAS in runoff water were recorded in the samples collected at the residential area, with the concentrations of 3.192 ± 0.727 and 0.170 ± 0.028 μmol/L, respectively. Anionic surfactants as MBAS were found to dominate the concentration of surfactants in both runoff and rainwater. The concentrations of both anionic and cationic surfactants in runoff water were recorded as being higher than in rainwater.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data
In Malaysia, most municipal wastes currently are disposed into poorly managed 'controlled tipping' systems with little or no pollution protection measures. This study was undertaken to assist the relevant governmental bodies and service providers to identify an improved waste disposal management strategy. The study applied the choice experiment technique to estimate the nonmarket values for a number of waste disposal technologies. Implicit prices for environmental attributes such as psychological fear, land use, air pollution, and river water quality were estimated. Compensating surplus estimates incorporating distance from the residences of the respondents to the proposed disposal facility were calculated for a number of generic and technology-specific choice sets. The resulting estimates were higher for technology-specific options, and the distance factor was a significant determinant in setting an equitable solid waste management fee.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution/prevention & control
It has been widely reported that allozyme frequency variation is a potential indicator of heavy metal-induced impacts in aquatic populations. In the present study, wild populations of horseshoe crab (Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda) were collected from contaminated and uncontaminated sites of Peninsular Malaysia. By adopting horizontal starch gel electrophoresis, seven enzyme systems were used to study allozyme polymorphisms. Nine polymorphic loci were observed in C. rotundicauda. The relationships of allozyme variations with the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn in sediments and in muscle tissues of horseshoe crabs were determined. Based on genetic distance, the lower mean value of Nei's D (0.017) indicated that both of the contaminated populations of Kg. Pasir Puteh and Kuala Juru were very closely related when compared to the relatively uncontaminated Pantai Lido population. Higher heterozygosities were shown by the contaminated populations when compared to the uncontaminated population. Different allelic frequencies could be observed for the aldolase (ALD; E.C. 220.127.116.11) locus between the contaminated and uncontaminated populations of C. rotundicauda. The dendrogram of genetic relationships of the three populations of C. rotundicauda showed the same clustering pattern as the dendrograms are based on heavy metals in the sediments and in the horseshoe crabs' abdominal muscles. From the F statistics, the present study showed that the three populations of horseshoe crabs were considered to have undergone moderate genetic differentiation with a mean F (ST) value of 0.092 .The current results suggest that allozyme polymorphism in horseshoe crabs is a potential biomonitoring tool for metal contamination, although further validation is required.
Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/prevention & control*
The bioremediation of polluted groundwater, wastewater aeration pond and biopond sites was investigated using bacteria isolated from these sites located at the oil refinery Terengganu Malaysia. Out of 62 isolates, only 16 isolates from groundwater (8) and wastewater aeration pond (3) and biopond (5) were chosen based on growth medium containing 1% (v/v) Tapis crude oil. Only four isolates; Acinetobacter faecalis, Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas putida and Neisseria elongata showed percentage biodegradation of crude oil more than 50% after 5 days using Mineral Salts Medium (MSM). The effect of physical parameters (temperature, pH and agitation) on growth by all four strains showed a maximum growth in MSM medium with 1% Tapis crude oil at 37 degrees C with pH 7 and agitation of 130 rpm.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/analysis*
Water-based cooling towers and their water supply at two hospitals in Johor were surveyed for the presence Legionella pneumophila. L. pneumophila were grown from 19 (76%) out of 25 collected water samples. One hospital cooling tower was contaminated with L. pneumophila serogroup 1.
Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionida) fulfil important ecosystem functions and are one of the most threatened freshwater taxa globally. Knowledge of freshwater mussel diversity, distribution and ecology in Peninsular Malaysia is extremely poor, and the conservation status of half of the species presumed to occur in the region has yet to be assessed. We conducted the first comprehensive assessment of Peninsular Malaysia's freshwater mussels based on species presence/absence and environmental data collected from 155 sites spanning all major river catchments and diverse habitat types. Through an integrative morphological-molecular approach we recognised nine native and one widespread non-native species, i.e. Sinanodonta woodiana. Two species, i.e. Pilsbryoconcha compressa and Pseudodon cambodjensis, had not been previously recorded from Malaysia, which is likely a result of morphological misidentifications of historical records. Due to their restriction to single river catchments and declining distributions, Hyriopsis bialata, possibly endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, Ensidens ingallsianus, possibly already extinct in the peninsula, and Rectidens sumatrensis, particularly require conservation attention. Equally, the Pahang, the Perak and the north-western river catchments are of particular conservation value due to the presence of a globally unique freshwater mussel fauna. Statistical relationships of 15 water quality parameters and mussel presence/absence identified acidification and nutrient pollution (eutrophication) as the most important anthropogenic factors threatening freshwater mussel diversity in Peninsular Malaysia. These factors can be linked to atmospheric pollution, deforestation, oil-palm plantations and a lack of functioning waste water treatment, and could be mitigated by establishing riparian buffers and improving waste water treatment for rivers running through agricultural and residential land.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/analysis*
The developed microbial granules containing photosynthetic pigments had successfully achieved approximately 18-21% of carbon dioxide (CO2) removal in POME for one complete SBR cycle. Also, the granules had reached CO2 removal at 15-29% within 24h and removal of 25% after 5 days. Both results were inconsistent possibly due to the slow mass transfer rate of CO2 from gas to liquid as well as the simultaneous effect of CO2 production and respiration among the microbes. Furthermore, results showed the removal of CO2 from air increases proportionally with the CO2 removed in liquid. The CO2 biofixation of granules attained was approximately 0.23g/L/day for a week. Using the regression model, the removal of CO2 between liquid and gas, CO2 biofixation rate were highly correlated with the treatment time. A statistically significant relationship was obtained between CO2 concentration in liquid, biomass productivity and treatment time for the CO2 biofixation rate of the granules.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/analysis