Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 30 in total

  1. Chin CS, Ong SC
    Med J Malaysia, 1979 Jun;33(4):326-30.
    PMID: 522744
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts/isolation & purification*
  2. Zain MM, Kofli NT, Rozaimah S, Abdullah S
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2011 May 01;14(9):526-32.
    PMID: 22032081
    Bioethanol production using yeast has become a popular topic due to worrying depleting worldwide fuel reserve. The aim of the study was to investigate the capability of Malaysia yeast strains isolated from starter culture used in traditional fermented food and alcoholic beverages in producing Bioethanol using alginate beads entrapment method. The starter yeast consists of groups of microbes, thus the yeasts were grown in Sabouraud agar to obtain single colony called ST1 (tuak) and ST3 (tapai). The growth in Yeast Potatoes Dextrose (YPD) resulted in specific growth of ST1 at micro = 0.396 h-1 and ST3 at micro = 0.38 h-1, with maximum ethanol production of 7.36 g L-1 observed using ST1 strain. The two strains were then immobilized using calcium alginate entrapment method producing average alginate beads size of 0.51 cm and were grown in different substrates; YPD medium and Local Brown Sugar (LBS) for 8 h in flask. The maximum ethanol concentration measured after 7 h were at 6.63 and 6.59 g L-1 in YPD media and 1.54 and 1.39 g L-1in LBS media for ST1 and ST3, respectively. The use of LBS as carbon source showed higher yield of product (Yp/s), 0.59 g g-1 compared to YPD, 0.25 g g-1 in ST1 and (Yp/s), 0.54 g g-1 compared to YPD, 0.24 g g-1 in ST3 . This study indicated the possibility of using local strains (STI and ST3) to produce bioethanol via immobilization technique with local materials as substrate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts/growth & development*; Yeasts/isolation & purification; Yeasts/metabolism*
  3. Lord AT, Mohandas K, Somanath S, Ambu S
    PMID: 20307325 DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-9-11
    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of multidrug resistant yeasts in the faeces of synanthropic wild birds from the Bangsar suburb of Kuala Lumpur.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts/classification; Yeasts/drug effects*; Yeasts/isolation & purification
  4. Tan HW, Tay ST
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Apr;28(1):175-80.
    PMID: 21602784
    This study describes the killer phenotypes of tropical environmental yeasts and the inhibition effects of the culture filtrates on the biofilm of Candida albicans. A total of 26 (10.5%) of 258 yeast isolates obtained from an environmental sampling study demonstrated killer activity to Candida species. The killer yeasts were identified as species belonging to the genus Aureobasidium, Pseudozyma, Ustilago and Candida based on sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the yeasts. Pseudozyma showed the broadest killing effects against sensitive strains of Candida. New species of Ustilago and Pseudozyma demonstrating killer phenotypes were identified in this study. Interestingly, more than 50% reduction in the metabolic activity of Candida albicans biofilm was noted after exposure to the culture filtrates of the nine killer yeasts. Purification and characterization of toxin and metabolites are essential for understanding the yeast killing effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts/classification; Yeasts/drug effects*; Yeasts/isolation & purification*; Yeasts/physiology
  5. Yeo CC, Abu Bakar F, Chan WT, Espinosa M, Harikrishna JA
    Toxins (Basel), 2016 Feb 19;8(2):49.
    PMID: 26907343 DOI: 10.3390/toxins8020049
    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are found in nearly all prokaryotic genomes and usually consist of a pair of co-transcribed genes, one of which encodes a stable toxin and the other, its cognate labile antitoxin. Certain environmental and physiological cues trigger the degradation of the antitoxin, causing activation of the toxin, leading either to the death or stasis of the host cell. TA systems have a variety of functions in the bacterial cell, including acting as mediators of programmed cell death, the induction of a dormant state known as persistence and the stable maintenance of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Some bacterial TA systems are functional when expressed in eukaryotic cells and this has led to several innovative applications, which are the subject of this review. Here, we look at how bacterial TA systems have been utilized for the genetic manipulation of yeasts and other eukaryotes, for the containment of genetically modified organisms, and for the engineering of high expression eukaryotic cell lines. We also examine how TA systems have been adopted as an important tool in developmental biology research for the ablation of specific cells and the potential for utility of TA systems in antiviral and anticancer gene therapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts/genetics
  6. Rad MA, Ahmad MR, Nakajima M, Kojima S, Homma M, Fukuda T
    Scanning, 2017;2017:8393578.
    PMID: 29109826 DOI: 10.1155/2017/8393578
    The preparation and observations of spheroplast W303 cells are described with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM). The spheroplasting conversion was successfully confirmed qualitatively, by the evaluation of the morphological change between the normal W303 cells and the spheroplast W303 cells, and quantitatively, by determining the spheroplast conversion percentage based on the OD800 absorbance data. From the optical microscope observations as expected, the normal cells had an oval shape whereas spheroplast cells resemble a spherical shape. This was also confirmed under four different mediums, that is, yeast peptone-dextrose (YPD), sterile water, sorbitol-EDTA-sodium citrate buffer (SCE), and sorbitol-Tris-Hcl-CaCl2 (CaS). It was also observed that the SCE and CaS mediums had a higher number of spheroplast cells as compared to the YPD and sterile water mediums. The OD800 absorbance data also showed that the whole W303 cells were fully converted to the spheroplast cells after about 15 minutes. The observations of the normal and the spheroplast W303 cells were then performed under an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The normal cells showed a smooth cell surface whereas the spheroplast cells had a bleb-like surface after the loss of its integrity when removing the cell wall.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts/cytology*
  7. Lim SL, Tay ST
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Aug;28(2):438-43.
    PMID: 22041766
    The biodiversity and the killer activity of yeasts isolated from various types of fermented food in Malaysia were investigated in this study. Of 252 yeasts isolated from 48 fermented food samples in this study, 19 yeast species were identified based on sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 partial fragments of the yeasts. A total of 29 (11.5%) of the yeast isolates demonstrated killer activity to at least one Candida species tested in this study; including 22 isolates of Trichosporon asahii, 4 isolates of Pichia anomala, and one isolate each of Pichia norvegensis, Pichia fermentans and Issatchenkia orientalis, respectively. The presence of killer yeasts reflects antagonism that occurs during microbial interaction in the fermented food, whereby certain yeasts produce killer toxins and possibly other toxic substances in competition for limited nutrients and space. The anti-Candida activity demonstrated by killer yeasts in this study should be further explored for development of alternative therapy against candidiasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts/classification*; Yeasts/isolation & purification*; Yeasts/physiology
  8. Goh, W.N., Rosma, A., Kaur, B., Fazilah, A., Karim, A.A., Rajeev Bhat
    The yield and properties of cellulose produced from bacterial fermentation of black tea broth (known as Kombucha) were investigated in this study. The tea broth was fermented naturally over a period of up to 8 days in the presence of sucrose. Tea broth with a sucrose concentration of 90 g/l produced highest yield of bacterial cellulose (66.9%). The thickness and yield of bacterial cellulose increased with fermentation time. The bacterial cellulose production increased correspondingly with increased surface area:depth ratio. Changes in pH were related to the symbiotic metabolic activities of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, and the counts of both of these in the tea broths were relatively higher than those in the cellulose layer. Findings from this study suggest that the yield of cellulose depends on many factors that need to be optimized to achieve maximum yield.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts
  9. Sasidharan S, Zuraini Z, Yoga Latha L, Sangetha S, Suryani S
    Foodborne Pathog Dis, 2008 Jun;5(3):303-9.
    PMID: 18767977 DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2007.0078
    Consecutive chloroform, ethanol, and ethyl acetate partitions of extracts from winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC] root, stem, leaf, and pod extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 19 microbial species, including 11 bacterial pathogens, four yeasts, and four molds using the disk diffusion assay technique. The pod extract was found to be most effective against all of the tested organisms, followed by the stem, root, and leaf extracts, and the ethanol fraction showed the most significant (p < 0.05) antimicrobial activity against all of the tests among three soluble fractions of extract, followed by the ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of extracts determined by the broth dilution method ranged from 1.25 to 10.0 mg/mL. The MIC of ethanol fraction of pod extracts was the lowest by comparison with the other two extracts. The MIC for fungi was at or below 2.5 mg/mL and for bacteria was at or above 2.5 mg/mL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts/drug effects*; Yeasts/growth & development
  10. Shah SH, Kar RK, Asmawi AA, Rahman MB, Murad AM, Mahadi NM, et al.
    PLoS One, 2012;7(11):e49788.
    PMID: 23209600 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049788
    Exotic functions of antifreeze proteins (AFP) and antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGP) have recently been attracted with much interest to develop them as commercial products. AFPs and AFGPs inhibit ice crystal growth by lowering the water freezing point without changing the water melting point. Our group isolated the Antarctic yeast Glaciozyma antarctica that expresses antifreeze protein to assist it in its survival mechanism at sub-zero temperatures. The protein is unique and novel, indicated by its low sequence homology compared to those of other AFPs. We explore the structure-function relationship of G. antarctica AFP using various approaches ranging from protein structure prediction, peptide design and antifreeze activity assays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies and molecular dynamics simulation. The predicted secondary structure of G. antarctica AFP shows several α-helices, assumed to be responsible for its antifreeze activity. We designed several peptide fragments derived from the amino acid sequences of α-helical regions of the parent AFP and they also showed substantial antifreeze activities, below that of the original AFP. The relationship between peptide structure and activity was explored by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation. NMR results show that the antifreeze activity of the peptides correlates with their helicity and geometrical straightforwardness. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation also suggests that the activity of the designed peptides can be explained in terms of the structural rigidity/flexibility, i.e., the most active peptide demonstrates higher structural stability, lower flexibility than that of the other peptides with lower activities, and of lower rigidity. This report represents the first detailed report of downsizing a yeast AFP into its peptide fragments with measurable antifreeze activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts/metabolism; Yeasts/chemistry*
  11. Latha LY, Sasidharan S, Zuraini Z, Suryani S, Shirley L, Sangetha S, et al.
    Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med, 2006 Aug 28;4(1):59-63.
    PMID: 20162073
    The extract of the Psophocarpus tetragonolobus pods has been tested for antimicrobial activity in a disk diffusion assay on eight human pathogenic bacteria and two human pathogenic yeasts. The extracts of P. tetragonolobus possessed antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. The ethanolic extract of P. tetragonolobus pods was further tested for in vivo brine shrimp lethality test and in vitro sheep erythrocyte cytotoxic assay. The brine shrimp lethality test exhibited no significant toxicity (LC(50)=1.88 mg/ml) against Artemia salina, whereas sheep erythrocyte test showed significant toxicity. The reason for haemolysis of erythrocyte was discussed. The P. tetragonolobus extract with high LC(50) value signified that this plant is not toxic to human. This result also suggested that the ethanolic extract of P. tetragonolobus pods is potential source for novel antimicrobial compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts
  12. Khan AH, Tye GJ, Noordin R
    Mol Biotechnol, 2020 Sep;62(9):401-411.
    PMID: 32749657 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-020-00265-9
    A broad range of cell lines with characteristic features are used as bio-factories to produce recombinant proteins for basic research and therapeutic purposes. Genetic engineering strategies have been used to manipulate the genome of mammalian cells, insects, and yeasts for heterologous expression. One reason is that the glycosylation pattern of the expression hosts differs somehow from mammalian cells, which may cause immunogenic reactions upon administration in humans. CRISPR-Cas9 is a simple, efficient, and versatile genome engineering tool that can be programmed to precisely make double-stranded breaks at the desired loci. Compared to the classical genome editing methods, a CRISPR-Cas9 system is an ideal tool, providing the opportunity to integrate or delete genes from the target organisms. Besides broadened applications, limited studies have used CRISPR-Cas9 for editing the endogenous pathways in expression systems for biopharmaceutical applications. In the present review, we discuss the use of CRISPR-Cas9 in expression systems to improve host cell lines, increase product yield, and humanize glycosylation pathways by targeting intrinsic genes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts
  13. Zainal Abidin, M., Shamsudin, R., Othman, Z., Abdul Rahman, R.
    Cantaloupes continue to ripen after harvesting which is caused by ethylene production due to climacteric behaviour during postharvest storage. In this study, the cantaloupe fruits harvested at commercial maturity were evaluated for quality attributes during three weeks of storage at 10°C and a relative humidity (RH) of 90±5%. In addition, fresh-cut samples were stored for a further 19 days at 2°C and 87% RH. The fresh-cut samples were prepared on a weekly basis by dipping into deionised water (control) at 2°C for 1 minute. The effect of postharvest storage of cantaloupe on the physico-chemical properties and microbial activity was observed prior to fresh-cut processing. It was found that firmness, luminosity (L*), and titratable acidity (TA) decreased, while total soluble solids (TSS), pH, TSS:TA ratio, microbial activity (total plate count (TPC) and yeast and mould (YM)) of the fresh-cut increased over the postharvest storage period of the fruit. Meanwhile, the orange colour and the intensity (hue angle, hab, and chromaticity) of the flesh did not differ significantly during storage. The cantaloupe stored for three weeks at a low temperature indicated a successful potential for fresh-cut processing due to good maintenance of the product quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts
  14. Ilias, N.N., Jamal, P., Sulaiman, S., Jaswir, I., Ansari, A.H., Azmi, A.S., et al.
    Bioprotein is one of the useful products obtained from biotechnology invention. It is a promising replacement for the commercial fish feed supplement. In this study, the enrichment of the bioprotein content after solid state fermentation using palm kernel cake and seaweed by the white rot fungus: Phanerochaete chrysoporium and yeast: Candida utilis was carried out. The growth media components were selected from 11 types of media using Plackett-Burman design (hereinafter PBD) and were optimized by one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method with bioprotein concentration (mg/g) as the response. From the screening result using PBD, three media components, namely K2HPO4, CuSO4.5H2O and MnSO4.H2O were selected for further optimization using OFAT method because of their positive contributions to the response. The final results showed that 5.0 g/L K2HPO4, 3.0 g/L CuSO4.5H2O and 0.1 g/L MnSO4.H2O were there to be the optimum media constituents with 9.0 g/L, MgSO4.7H2O, 0.1 g/L, CaCl2.H2O, 3.0 g/L FeSO4.7H2O and 3.0 g/L peptone as fixed compositions. At this optimum concentration, the protein increment of 11% was observed as compared to the results determined in the screening using PBD. The study revealed the benefits of using mixed cultures in improving the protein concentrations which can be used as nutritious fish feed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts
  15. Usman MS, El Zowalaty ME, Shameli K, Zainuddin N, Salama M, Ibrahim NA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2013;8:4467-79.
    PMID: 24293998 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S50837
    Copper nanoparticle synthesis has been gaining attention due to its availability. However, factors such as agglomeration and rapid oxidation have made it a difficult research area. In the present work, pure copper nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of a chitosan stabilizer through chemical means. The purity of the nanoparticles was authenticated using different characterization techniques, including ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The antibacterial as well as antifungal activity of the nanoparticles were investigated using several microorganisms of interest, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Candida albicans. The effect of a chitosan medium on growth of the microorganism was studied, and this was found to influence growth rate. The size of the copper nanoparticles obtained was in the range of 2-350 nm, depending on the concentration of the chitosan stabilizer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts/drug effects
  16. Mohamed MS, Tan JS, Mohamad R, Mokhtar MN, Ariff AB
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:948940.
    PMID: 24109209 DOI: 10.1155/2013/948940
    Mixotrophic metabolism was evaluated as an option to augment the growth and lipid production of marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. FTC 209. In this study, a five-level three-factor central composite design (CCD) was implemented in order to enrich the W-30 algal growth medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to model the effect of three medium variables, that is, glucose (organic C source), NaNO3 (primary N source), and yeast extract (supplementary N, amino acids, and vitamins) on biomass concentration, X(max), and lipid yield, P(max)/X(max). RSM capability was also weighed against an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for predicting a composition that would result in maximum lipid productivity, Pr(lipid). A quadratic regression from RSM and a Levenberg-Marquardt trained ANN network composed of 10 hidden neurons eventually produced comparable results, albeit ANN formulation was observed to yield higher values of response outputs. Finalized glucose (24.05 g/L), NaNO3 (4.70 g/L), and yeast extract (0.93 g/L) concentration, affected an increase of X(max) to 12.38 g/L and lipid a accumulation of 195.77 mg/g dcw. This contributed to a lipid productivity of 173.11 mg/L per day in the course of two-week cultivation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts/metabolism
  17. Saad S, Taher M, Susanti D, Qaralleh H, Awang AF
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Jun;2(6):427-9.
    PMID: 23569943 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60069-0
    To investigate the antimicrobial property of mangrove plant Sonneratia alba (S. alba).
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts/drug effects*
  18. Cheong YM, Ng YP, Chin CS, Thambu J
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Mar;47(1):44-50.
    PMID: 1387449
    Vaginal discharge is a common complaint of women attending gynaecological clinics. The purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of commonly implicated microorganisms in vaginal discharge amongst women with or without the complaint, attending a gynaecological and family planning clinic. The association of Gardnerella vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis was also studied. It was found that there were no significant differences between the cases and controls in the isolation rate of Gardnerella vaginalis, Torulopsis glabrata, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma ssp and Group B streptococcus (p greater than 0.05). Only the isolation rate of Candida albicans was significantly higher in the cases than controls (p less than 0.01). However, there was a significant association of G. vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts/isolation & purification*
  19. Ngeow YF, Soo-Hoo TS
    Mycoses, 1989 Nov;32(11):563-7.
    PMID: 2615779
    A total of 2,153 high vaginal swabs were processed for the presence of yeasts. The specimens were obtained from pregnant and non-pregnant Malaysian women with and without vaginitis. The yeast species most commonly isolated were Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. famata and C. parapsilosis. C. albicans was isolated from 27% of pregnant women with vaginitis, 14% of pregnant women with no overt vaginitis, 15% of non-pregnant women with vaginitis, and 3% of non-pregnant women with no vaginitis. The significant difference of the isolation rates from women with and without vaginitis indicates that C. albicans is likely to be a vaginal pathogen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts/isolation & purification*
  20. Shreaz S, Wani WA, Behbehani JM, Raja V, Irshad M, Karched M, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2016 Jul;112:116-31.
    PMID: 27259370 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2016.05.016
    The last few decades have seen an alarming rise in fungal infections, which currently represent a global health threat. Despite extensive research towards the development of new antifungal agents, only a limited number of antifungal drugs are available in the market. The routinely used polyene agents and many azole antifungals are associated with some common side effects such as severe hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Also, antifungal resistance continues to grow and evolve and complicate patient management, despite the introduction of new antifungal agents. This suitation requires continuous attention. Cinnamaldehyde has been reported to inhibit bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous molds via the inhibition of ATPases, cell wall biosynthesis, and alteration of membrane structure and integrity. In this regard, several novel cinnamaldehyde derivatives were synthesized with the claim of potential antifungal activities. The present article describes antifungal properties of cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives against diverse classes of pathogenic fungi. This review will provide an overview of what is currently known about the primary mode of action of cinnamaldehyde. Synergistic approaches for boosting the effectiveness of cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives have been highlighted. Also, a keen analysis of the pharmacologically active systems derived from cinnamaldehyde has been discussed. Finally, efforts were made to outline the future perspectives of cinnamaldehyde-based antifungal agents. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antifungal properties and antifungal mode of action of cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of cinnamaldehyde as a natural antifungal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yeasts/drug effects
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