Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

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  1. Harano K, Harano T
    Rinsho Byori, 2013 Mar;61(3):217-23.
    PMID: 23785790
    This study was done to detect and diagnose beta-thalassemia (beta-Thal) gene quickly. We applied sequence specific Amplification (SSA) method to the analysis. 13 kinds of beta-Thal and two kinds of hemoglobin variants were able to detect under the same PCR condition. These mutations were found frequently in ten countries of Asian region (the southern part of China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Pakistan, India), and 15 kinds in total (-28CapA-->G, CD5-CT, CD8/9+-G, CD15G-->A, CD17A-->T, IVSI-1G-->T, CD41/42-4del, CD16-C, CD26G-->A(betaE), IVSI-5G-->C, CD35C-->A, CD71/72 +A, CD6A-->T (betaS), -619del, IVSII-654C-->T). More than 80% of patients are included in these mutations. To make the reagents a kit, the procedure became simple and rapid. DNA was extracted by salting out method. The PCR product was detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. The confirmation of the variant was done by the PCR-direct sequencing method. It took approximately six hours for PCR reaction, electrophoresis and staining. This method made us to detect and diagnose beta-Thal in one day.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis*
  2. Chandran R, Ainoon O, Anson I, Anne J, Cheong SK
    Med J Malaysia, 1993 Sep;48(3):341-4.
    PMID: 8183149
    DNA analysis for the diagnosis of beta-thalassaemia is a relatively new technique in Malaysia. This, combined with chorionic villus sampling, has enabled us to offer prenatal diagnosis in the first trimester for this common condition. To the best of our knowledge, this has not hitherto been reported in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis*
  3. Mahmud N, Maffei M, Mogni M, Forni GL, Pinto VM, Barberio G, et al.
    Genes (Basel), 2021 11 19;12(11).
    PMID: 34828427 DOI: 10.3390/genes12111821
    BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin A (Hb A) (α2β2) in the normal adult subject constitutes 96-98% of hemoglobin, and Hb F is normally less than 1%, while for hemoglobin A2 (Hb A2) (α2δ2), the normal reference values are between 2.0 and 3.3%. It is important to evaluate the presence of possible delta gene mutations in a population at high risk for globin gene defects in order to correctly diagnose the β-thalassemia carrier.

    METHODS: The most used methods for the quantification of Hb A2 are based on automated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). In particular Hb analyses were performed by HPLC on three dedicated devices. DNA analyses were performed according to local standard protocols.

    RESULTS: Here, we described eight new δ-globin gene variants discovered and characterized in some laboratories in Northern Italy in recent years. These new variants were added to the many already known Hb A2 variants that were found with an estimated frequency of about 1-2% during the screening tests in our laboratories.

    CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge recognition of the delta variant on Hb analysis and accurate molecular characterization is crucial to provide an accurate definitive thalassemia diagnosis, particularly in young subjects who would like to ask for a prenatal diagnosis or preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis
  4. Teh LK, Lee TY, Tan JA, Lai MI, George E
    Int J Lab Hematol, 2015 Feb;37(1):79-89.
    PMID: 24725998 DOI: 10.1111/ijlh.12240
    In Malaysia, β-thalassaemia is a common inherited blood disorder in haemoglobin synthesis with a carrier rate of 4.5%. Currently, PCR-incorporating techniques such as amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) or reverse dot blot hybridization (RDBH) are used in β-thalassaemia mutation detection. ARMS allows single-mutation identification using two reactions, one for wild type and another for mutant alleles. RDBH requires probe immobilization and optimization of hybridization and washing temperatures which is time consuming. The aim of our study was to investigate whether β-thalassaemia mutations can be identified in samples with low DNA concentrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis*
  5. Karthipan SN, George E, Jameela S, Lim WF, Teh LK, Lee TY, et al.
    Int J Lab Hematol, 2011 Oct;33(5):540-4.
    PMID: 21884505 DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-553X.2011.01304.x
    Dried blood spots (DBS) are currently the recommended sample collection method for newborn screening programmes in America. Early diagnosis of beta-thalassaemia screening is essential as it provides an added advantage especially in sickle cell disease. Beta-thalassaemia frequency is high in many poor countries, and the cost of using commercial DNA extraction kits can be prohibitive. Our study assessed three methods that use minimal reagents and materials to extract DNA from DBS for beta-thalassaemia identification.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis*
  6. Hafiza A, Malisa MY, Khirotdin RD, Azlin I, Azma Z, Thong MC, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2012 Dec;34(2):161-4.
    PMID: 23424780
    The capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a new system that utilizes the principle of electrokinetic separation of molecules in eight electrolyte buffer-filled silica capillaries. In this study, we established the normal ranges of haemoglobin A2 (HbA2) and haemoglobin F (HbF) levels for normal individuals using this system and also the HbA2 level in beta thalassaemia and haemoglobin E (HbE) individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis
  7. Thong MK, Tan JA, Tan KL, Yap SF
    J Trop Pediatr, 2005 Dec;51(6):328-33.
    PMID: 15967770 DOI: 10.1093/tropej/fmi052
    beta-thalassaemia major, an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy, is one of the most common single gene disorders in multi-racial Malaysia. The control of beta-thalassaemia major requires a multi-disciplinary approach that includes population screening, genetic counselling, prenatal diagnosis and the option of termination of affected pregnancies. To achieve this objective, the molecular characterisation of the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in each of the affected ethnic groups is required. We studied 88 consecutive unrelated individuals and their respective families with beta-thalassaemia (74 beta-thalassaemia major, 12 HbE-beta-thalassaemia, 2 with HbE homozygotes) and four individuals with beta-thalassaemia trait that contributed a total 180 alleles for study. Using a 2-step molecular diagnostic strategy consisting of amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) to identify the 8 most common mutations followed by other DNA-based diagnostic techniques, a total of 177 (98.3 per cent) of the 180 beta-thalassaemia alleles were characterised. One out of 91 (1 per cent) of the Chinese alleles, one out of 46 (2.2 per cent) Malay alleles and one out of two Indian alleles remained unknown. A 100 per cent success rate was achieved in studying the Kadazandusun community in this study. A strategy to identify beta-globin gene mutations in Malaysians with beta-thalassaemia is proposed based on this outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis
  8. Chen JJ, Tan JA, Chua KH, Tan PC, George E
    BMJ Open, 2015 Jul 22;5(7):e007648.
    PMID: 26201722 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-007648
    OBJECTIVES: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with a mutation can be used to identify the presence of the paternally-inherited wild-type or mutant allele as result of the inheritance of either allele in the fetus and allows the prediction of the fetal genotype. This study aims to identify paternal SNPs located at the flanking regions upstream or downstream from the β-globin gene mutations at CD41/42 (HBB:c.127_130delCTTT), IVS1-5 (HBB:c.92+5G>C) and IVS2-654 (HBB:c.316-197C>T) using free-circulating fetal DNA.

    SETTING: Haematology Lab, Department of Biomedical Science, University of Malaya.

    PARTICIPANTS: Eight couples characterised as β-thalassaemia carriers where both partners posed the same β-globin gene mutations at CD41/42, IVS1-5 and IVS2-654, were recruited in this study.

    OUTCOME MEASURES: Genotyping was performed by allele specific-PCR and the locations of SNPs were identified after sequencing alignment.

    RESULTS: Genotype analysis revealed that at least one paternal SNP was present for each of the couples. Amplification on free-circulating DNA revealed that the paternal mutant allele of SNP was present in three fcDNA. Thus, the fetuses may be β-thalassaemia carriers or β-thalassaemia major. Paternal wild-type alleles of SNP were present in the remaining five fcDNA samples, thus indicating that the fetal genotypes would not be homozygous mutants.

    CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary research demonstrates that paternal allele of SNP can be used as a non-invasive prenatal diagnosis approach for at-risk couples to determine the β-thalassaemia status of the fetus.

    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis*
  9. Chan YF, Tan KL, Wong YC, Wee YC, Yap SF, Tan JAMA
    PMID: 12041567
    Molecular characterization and prenatal diagnosis for beta-thalassemia can be carried out using the Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS). The ARMS is a rapid and direct molecular technique in which beta-thalassemia mutations are visualized immediately after DNA amplification by gel electrophoresis. In the University of Malaya Medical Center, molecular characterization and prenatal diagnosis for beta-thalassemia is carried out using ARMS for about 96% of the Chinese and 84.6% of the Malay patients. The remaining 4% and 15.4% of the uncharacterized mutations in the Chinese and Malay patients respectively are detected using DNA sequencing. DNA sequencing is an accurate technique but it is more time-consuming and expensive compared with the ARMS. The ARMS for the rare Chinese beta-mutations at position -29 (A-->G) and the ATG-->AGG base substitution at the initiator codon for translation in the beta-gene was developed. In the Malays, ARMS was optimized for the beta-mutations at codon 8/9 (+G), Cap (+1) (A-->C) and the AATAAA-->AATAGA base substitution in the polyadenylation region of the beta-gene. The ARMS protocols were developed by optimization of the parameters for DNA amplification to ensure sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. ARMS primers (sequences and concentration), magnesium chloride concentration, Taq DNA polymerase and PCR cycling parameters were optimized for the specific amplification of each rare beta-thalassemia mutation. The newly-developed ARMS for the 5 rare beta-thalassemia mutations in the Chinese and Malays in Malaysia will allow for more rapid and cost-effective molecular characterization and prenatal diagnosis for beta-thalassemia in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis
  10. George E
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1994 Jan;23(1):89-93.
    PMID: 7514384
    The clinical severity of the mutations causing beta-thalassaemia in West Malaysia is presented. Thalassaemia clinical scores (Thal CS), a scoring system, has been formulated to predict clinical severity. It is the type of beta-thalassaemia mutation present that decides on the clinical phenotype. The most severe beta-thalassaemia mutation is assigned a score of 4. A score of 8 indicates a severe thalassaemia phenotype. Alpha-thalassaemia, increased synthesis of Hb F, and glucose-6-phosphate deficiency may ameliorate the clinical condition at phenotype level, and the co-inheritance of hereditary ovalocytosis aggravates it.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis*
  11. George E, George R, Ariffin WA, Mokhtar AB, Azman ZA, Sivagengei K
    Med J Malaysia, 1993 Sep;48(3):325-9.
    PMID: 8183146
    The study concerned the identification of the beta-thalassaemia mutations that were present in 24 patients with beta-thalassaemia major who were transfusion dependent. The application of a modified polymerase chain reaction, the amplification refractory system (ARMS) was found to be an effective and rapid method for the identification of the beta-thalassaemia mutations. Six different mutations were detected. Seventy five percent of the patients were Chinese-Malaysians and showed the commonly occurring anomalies: 1. frameshift codon 41 and 42 (-TCTT); 2. the C to T substitution at position 654 of intron 2 (IVS-2); 3. the mutation at position -28(A to G); and the nonsense mutation A to T at codon 17. In the Malays, the common mutations seen were: 1. the G to C mutation at position 5 of IVS-1; 2. the G to T mutation at position 1 of intron 1 (IVS-1); and the A to T at codon 17. The delineation of the specific mutations present will enable effective prenatal diagnosis for beta-thalassaemia to be instituted.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis
  12. Tan JA, Tay SH, Kham KY, Wong HB
    Jpn. J. Hum. Genet., 1993 Sep;38(3):315-8.
    PMID: 7903173 DOI: 10.1007/BF01874141
    The distribution of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) at the BamH1 site of the beta-globin gene was investigated in the Chinese, Indian, and Malay race in Singapore. The sample comprised of 183 normal individuals and 35 beta-thalassemia carriers in which 13 were couples with at least one beta-major child. The results from this study indicate that BamH1 polymorphism will be informative in 22% of pregnancies at risk for beta-thalassemia major in Chinese, 19% in Malays and 7% in Indians. In prenatal diagnosis using BamH1 polymorphism for one beta-major affected family, the fetus was diagnosed to be normal or beta-carrier. The validity of BamH1 polymorphism in the exclusion of beta-thalassemia major was subsequently confirmed at birth by globin chain biosynthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis*
  13. Alauddin H, Langa M, Mohd Yusoff M, Raja Sabudin RZA, Ithnin A, Abdul Razak NF, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Apr;39(1):17-23.
    PMID: 28413201 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Haemoglobin Bart's (Hb Bart's) level is associated with α-thalassaemia traits in neonates, enabling early diagnosis of α-thalassaemia. The study aimed to detect and quantify the Hb Bart's using Cord Blood (CB) and CE Neonat Fast Hb (NF) progammes on fresh and dried blood spot (DBS) specimen respectively by capillary electrophoresis (CE).

    METHODS: Capillarys Hemoglobin (E) Kit (for CB) and Capillarys Neonat Hb Kit (for NF) were used to detect and quantify Hb Bart's by CE in fresh cord blood and dried blood spot (DBS) specimens respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using the β-Thal Short Programme was also performed concurrently with CE analysis. Confirmation was obtained by multiplex ARMS Gap PCR.

    RESULTS: This study was performed on 600 neonates. 32/600 (5.3%) samples showed presence of Hb Bart's peak using the NF programme while 33/600 (5.5%) were positive with CB programme and HPLC methods. The range of Hb Bart's using NF programme and CB programme were (0.5-4.1%) and (0.5-7.1%), respectively. Molecular analysis confirmed all positive samples possessed α-thalassaemia genetic mutations, with 23/33 cases being αα/--SEA, four -α3.7/-α3.7, two αα/-α3.7 and three αα/ααCS. Fifty Hb Bart's negative samples were randomly tested for α-genotypes, three were also found to be positive for α-globin gene mutations. Thus, resulting in sensitivity of 91.7% and 88.9% and specificity of 100% for the Capillarys Cord Blood programme and Capillarys Neonat Fast programme respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Both CE programmes using fresh or dried cord blood were useful as a screening tool for α-thalassaemia in newborns. All methods show the same specificity (100%) with variable, but acceptable sensitivities in the detection of Hb Bart.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis
  14. Nasri NW, Jamal AR, Abdullah NC, Razi ZR, Mokhtar NM
    Arch Med Res, 2009 Jan;40(1):1-9.
    PMID: 19064120 DOI: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2008.10.008
    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of monogenic autosomal hereditary disorders following assisted conception usually involves the removal of one or two blastomeres from preimplantation embryos. However, the amount of DNA from a single blastomere is insufficient to amplify the region of interest. Hence, the whole genome amplification (WGA) method is performed prior to amplifying the genes of interest before analysis of DNA material through polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis*
  15. Nandakumal G, Ismail F, Mohamad NF, Lott PW, Chew KS, Ab Rahman S, et al.
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 2021 04 01;43(3):101-103.
    PMID: 33560075 DOI: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000002077
    Hemolacria is a rare condition that causes a person to produce tears that are partially composed of blood. It can be a presenting feature of certain ocular and systemic conditions. Here, the authors describe an interesting case of a 12-year-old boy with an underlying beta-thalassemia trait, who presented with a 2-day history of bilateral blood-stained tears, and an episode of epistaxis. Ocular examination was normal, and syringing showed no nasolacrimal duct blockage. Systemic examination was unremarkable. Laboratory investigations confirmed type 2 von Willebrand disease. Management of hemolacria remains a clinical challenge given the rare occurrence of the disease. In this case report, the authors discuss the differential diagnosis and management approach to hemolacria.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis
  16. Wee SY, Muhamed Said SS, Raja Sabudin RZA, Alauddin H, Ithnin A
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Aug;42(2):195-201.
    PMID: 32860371
    INTRODUCTION: Differentiating between thalassaemia and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in hypochromic anaemia is a challenge to pathologists as it influences the choice of subsequent specialized confirmatory tests. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the performance of microcytic to hypochromic ratio (MicroR/ Hypo-He, M/H ratio) as a discriminant index in hypochromic anaemia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on 318 subjects with hypochromic anaemia, which comprised 162 IDA and 156 thalassaemia trait subjects with α-thalassemia, β-thalassemia and HbE trait. Optimal cut-off value, sensitivity and specificity of M/H ratio for thalassaemia trait discrimination was determined using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis.

    RESULTS: Subjects with thalassaemia trait showed higher MicroR compared to IDA ( p< 0.001) while subjects with IDA demonstrated higher Hypo-He than thalassaemia trait (p < 0.001). M/H ratio was significantly higher in thalassaemia trait compared to IDA, with medians of 3.77 (interquartile range: 2.57 - 6.52) and 1.73 (interquartile range: 1.27 - 2.38), respectively (p < 0.001). M/H ratio ≥ 2.25 was the optimal cut-off value for discriminating thalassaemia trait from IDA in hypochromic anaemia, with the area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.83, sensitivity of 80.8% and specificity of 71.6%.

    CONCLUSIONS: M/H ratio is a useful discriminant index to distinguish thalassaemia trait from IDA in hypochromic anaemia prior to diagnostic analysis for thalassaemia confirmation. High M/H ratio is suggestive of thalassaemia trait than of IDA. However, more studies are required to establish the role of M/H ratio as a screening tool for thalassaemia discrimination in hypochromic anaemia.

    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis
  17. Wee YC, Tan KL, Kuldip K, Tai KS, George E, Tan PC, et al.
    Community Genet, 2008;11(3):129-34.
    PMID: 18376108 DOI: 10.1159/000113874
    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Individuals with double heterozygosity for alpha- and beta-thalassaemia and heterozygous beta-thalassaemia show a similar haematological picture. Co-inheritance of alpha- and beta-thalassaemia in both partners may result in pregnancies with either Hb Bart's hydrops foetalis or beta-thalassaemia major, or pregnancies with both disorders.
    METHODS: The co-inheritance of alpha-thalassaemia in 322 beta-thalassaemia carriers in Malaysia was studied.
    RESULTS: The frequency of alpha-thalassaemia in the beta-thalassaemia carriers was 12.7% (41/322), with a carrier frequency of 7.8% for the SEA deletion, 3.7% for the -alpha(3.7) deletion, 0.9% for Hb Constant Spring and 0.3% for the -alpha(4.2) deletion.
    CONCLUSION: Double heterozygosity for alpha- and beta-thalassaemia was confirmed in 5 out of the 41 couples and the risk of the fatal condition Hb Bart's hydrops foetalis was confirmed in two of these couples. Detection of the Southeast Asian (SEA) deletion in the Malaysian Malays in this study confirms that Hb Bart's hydrops foetalis can occur in this ethnic group. Results of this study have provided new information on the frequency and different types of alpha-thalassaemia (--(SEA), -alpha(3.7) and -alpha(4.2) deletions, Hb Constant Spring) in Malaysian beta-thalassaemia carriers.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis
  18. Tan JA, George E, Tan KL, Chow T, Tan PC, Hassan J, et al.
    Clin. Exp. Med., 2004 Dec;4(3):142-7.
    PMID: 15599663 DOI: 10.1007/s10238-004-0048-x
    Beta-thalassemia is the most-common genetic disorder of hemoglobin synthesis in Malaysia, and about 4.5% of the population are heterozygous carriers of the disorder. Prenatal diagnosis was performed for 96 couples using the Amplification Refractory Mutation System and Gap-Polymerase Chain Reaction. We identified 17 beta-globin defects-initiation codon for translation (T-G), -29 (A-G), -28 (A-G), CAP +1 (A-C), CD 8/9 (+G), CD 15 (G-A), CD 17 (A-T), CD 19 (A-G), Hb E (G-A), IVS1-1 (G-T), IVS1-5 (G-C), CD 41/42 (-CTTT), CD 71-72 (+A), IVS2-654 (CT), poly A(A-G), 100-kb Ggamma(Agammadeltabeta) degrees and 45-kb Filipino deletions. The 192 beta-alleles studied comprised Chinese (151 patients), Malay (21), Orang Asli from East Malaysia (15), Filipino (1), Indian (1), Indonesian Chinese (2), and Thai (1). In the Chinese, 2 beta-globin defects at CD 41/42 and IVS2-654 were responsible for 74% of beta-thalassemia. beta-mutations at CD 19, IVS1-1 (G-T), IVS1-5, poly A, and hemoglobin E caused 76% of the hemoglobin disorders in the Malays. The Filipino 45-kb deletion caused 73.3% of bthalassemia in the Orang Asli. Using genomic sequencing, the rare Chinese beta-mutation at CD 43 (G-T) was confirmed in 2 Chinese, and the Mediterranean mutation IVS1-1 (G-A) was observed in a Malay beta-thalassemia carrier. The beta-globin mutations confirmed in this prenatal diagnosis study were heterogenous and 65 (68%) couples showed a different globin defect from each other. The use of specific molecular protocols has allowed rapid and successful prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis*
  19. Tan KL, Tan JA, Wong YC, Wee YC, Thong MK, Yap SF
    Genet. Test., 2001;5(1):17-22.
    PMID: 11336396 DOI: 10.1089/109065701750168626
    Beta-thalassemia major patients have chronic anemia and are dependent on blood transfusions to sustain life. Molecular characterization and prenatal diagnosis of beta3-thalassemia is essential in Malaysia because about 4.5% of the population are heterozygous carriers for beta-thalassemia. The high percentage of compound heterozygosity (47.62%) found in beta-thalassemia major patients in the Thalassaemia Registry, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia, also supports a need for rapid, economical, and sensitive protocols for the detection of beta-thalassemia mutations. Molecular characterization of beta-thalassemia mutations in Malaysia is currently carried out using ARMS, which detects a single beta-thalassemia mutation per PCR reaction. We developed and evaluated Combine amplification refractory mutation system (C-ARMS) techniques for efficient molecular detection of two to three beta-thalassemia mutations in a single PCR reaction. Three C-ARMS protocols were evaluated and established for molecular characterization of common beta-thalassemia mutations in the Malay and Chinese ethnic groups in Malaysia. Two C-ARMS protocols (cd 41-42/IVSII #654 and -29/cd 71-72) detected the beta-thalassemia mutations in 74.98% of the Chinese patients studied. The CARMS for cd 41-42/IVSII #654 detected beta-thalassemia mutations in 72% of the Chinese families. C-ARMS for cd 41-42/IVSI #5/cd 17 allowed detection of beta-thalassemia mutations in 36.53% of beta-thalassemia in the Malay patients. C-ARMS for cd 41-42/IVSI #5/cd 17 detected beta-thalassemia in 45.54% of the Chinese patients. We conclude that C-ARMS with the ability to detect two to three mutations in a single reaction provides more rapid and cost-effective protocols for beta-thalassemia prenatal diagnosis and molecular analysis programs in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis*
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