Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

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  1. Atas B, Caksen H, Tuncer O, Oner AF, Kirimi E, Akbayram S
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Mar;60(1):91-3.
    PMID: 16250288
    In this article, we present an 18-month-old girl with acute iron poisoning who died from acute respiratory distress syndrome due to overdose of desferrioxamine. Our purpose is to emphasize the importance of close follow-up children with acute iron poisoning for desferrioxamine toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose/complications
  2. Mak KK, Ho CS, Zhang MW, Day JR, Ho RC
    Asian J Psychiatr, 2013 Oct;6(5):373-9.
    PMID: 24011683 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2013.03.011
    Overdosing is an accessible method adopted by people attempting suicide in city settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose/ethnology; Drug Overdose/epidemiology*; Drug Overdose/psychology
  3. Marzilawati AR, Ngau YY, Mahadeva S
    PMID: 23021009 DOI: 10.1186/2050-6511-13-8
    The metabolism of paracetamol in Asians is thought to differ from Westerners. Detailed clinical features of paracetamol -induced hepatotoxicity among Asians remains largely unreported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose/etiology; Drug Overdose/epidemiology
  4. Mohd Zain Z, Fathelrahman AI, Ab Rahman AF
    Singapore Med J, 2006 Feb;47(2):134-7.
    PMID: 16435055
    Paracetamol is available as an over-the-counter medication in many countries including Malaysia. This drug has been implicated in many poisoning cases admitted to hospitals throughout the country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose/epidemiology; Drug Overdose/therapy
  5. Malik AS, Zabidi MH, Noor AR
    Singapore Med J, 1994 Apr;35(2):215-6.
    PMID: 7939826
    Traditional medicine is practised to some degree in all cultures. Many different types of herbal preparations and "oils" are widely used in Malaysia, too. We report a case of acute salicylism due to accidental ingestion of one brand of such oils. Compulsory labelling of traditional drugs with their chemical ingredients is suggested for proper and timely management of such cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose/blood; Drug Overdose/etiology*
  6. Zyoud SH, Awang R, Sulaiman SA, Al-Jabi SW
    Hum Exp Toxicol, 2011 Jul;30(7):550-9.
    PMID: 20630911 DOI: 10.1177/0960327110377647
    Acetaminophen is one of the most commonly encountered medications in self-poisoning, with a high rate of morbidity. The prevalence and characteristics of acetaminophen intoxication associated with long hospital stay in patients are not well defined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose/drug therapy; Drug Overdose/economics*
  7. Fathelrahman AI, Ab Rahman AF, Mohd Zain Z
    Gen Hosp Psychiatry, 2008 Sep-Oct;30(5):467-70.
    PMID: 18774431 DOI: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2008.04.004
    OBJECTIVE: Drug overdose exposures were compared with chemical poisoning in terms of demographics, associated factors and final outcomes.
    METHOD: Deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) cases admitted to Penang General Hospital during the years 2000-2004 were studied. Chi-square, independent t-test and binary logistic were used whenever applicable.
    RESULTS: Indian patients were more likely to use household products, whereas Malay and Chinese patients were more likely to take drug overdoses (P=.001). Drug overdose victims experienced more socioeconomic problems (P=.05) and were more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (P=.052). Chemical poisoning patients presented earlier (P=.011), were hospitalized for shorter time (P=.001) and had a higher rate of mortality (P=.01).
    CONCLUSION: The present study has identified a unique ethnic variation in the choice of suicide attempts from toxic substances. DSP associated with drug overdose showed significant morbidity, but increased mortality was seen in chemical poisoning.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose/ethnology*; Drug Overdose/mortality; Drug Overdose/psychology
  8. Vicknasingam B, Narayanan S, Singh D, Corazza O
    Curr Opin Psychiatry, 2020 07;33(4):295-300.
    PMID: 32398543 DOI: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000612
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to provide an update on recent trends of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) and the current global strategies implemented to manage them.

    RECENT FINDINGS: The number of NPS has increased from 166 in 2009 to 892 in 2018, with about 36% having stimulant effects. Such trend revels some unprecedented patterns. The decline in the emergence of new synthetic cannabinoids has coincided with rising deaths due to overdose of fentanyl and non-fentanyl compounds in North America and Europe. The detection of new stimulant NPS has stabilized since 2015. Although the level of seizures of mephedrone have risen since then, they are still below the levels reported before international control. The legal status of kratom still remains unclear, whereas calls for research on its benefits continue. The nonmedical use of tramadol in Africa and Middle East is a cause of growing concern.

    SUMMARY: Although the rise of NPS is a cause for concern, evidence suggests that the strategy to face the challenge should include updating international data collection systems, integrating scientific-based interventions for drug use, strengthening national monitoring, and increasing collaborative research and forensic capabilities. The legal, regulatory framework and clinical guidelines should remain dynamic, whereas enforcement agencies should measure success by destroying drug networks as seizures rarely dismantle drug markets.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose
  9. Singh D, Brown PN, Cinosi E, Corazza O, Henningfield JE, Garcia-Romeu A, et al.
    Front Psychiatry, 2020;11:574483.
    PMID: 33324252 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.574483
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth., Rubiaceae) is native to and has traditional use in Southeast Asia. The number of kratom users outside of Southeast Asia has increased significantly in recent decades with use spreading to the Unites States (US) and Europe. Because of its reputed opioid-like psychoactive effects at higher doses, kratom has been regulated in several countries and is subject to an import ban by the US Food and Drug Administration. Nonetheless, in the US it is estimated that 10-15 million people consume kratom primarily for the self-treatment of pain, psychiatric disorders, to mitigate withdrawal from or dependence on opioids, and to self-treat opioid use disorder or other substance use disorders (SUDs). Due to the global COVID-19 pandemic, a shortage in the supply of kratom products may place unexpected burdens on kratom users, potentially influencing some who use kratom for SUD self-treatment to regress to harmful drug use, hence increasing the likelihood of adverse outcomes, including overdose. Inadequate treatment, treatment barriers, and increases in the sales of adulterated kratom products on the internet or in convenience stores could exacerbate circumstances further. Although there are currently no verified indications of kratom scarcity, researchers and clinicians should be aware of and remain vigilant to this unanticipated possibility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose
  10. Bazazi AR, Zelenev A, Fu JJ, Yee I, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    PMID: 25532449 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.11.010
    Overdose is the leading cause of death among opioid users, but no data are available on overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia. We present the first estimates of the prevalence and correlates of recent non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose/epidemiology*
  11. Zyoud SH, Awang R, Sulaiman SA, Al-Jabi SW
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2011 Feb;20(2):203-8.
    PMID: 21254292 DOI: 10.1002/pds.2060
    Acetaminophen overdose may be accompanied by electrolyte disturbances. The basis for electrolyte change appears to be due to increased fractional urinary electrolyte excretion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose/blood
  12. Zyoud SH, Awang R, Sulaiman SA, Khan HR, Sawalha AF, Sweileh WM, et al.
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, 2010 Sep;107(3):718-23.
    PMID: 20374238 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00567.x
    Intravenous N-acetylcysteine is usually regarded as a safe antidote. However, during the infusion of the loading dose, different types of adverse drug reactions (ADR) may occur. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between the incidence of different types of ADR and serum acetaminophen concentration in patients presenting to the hospital with acetaminophen overdose. This is a retrospective study of patients admitted to the hospital for acute acetaminophen overdose over a period of 5 years (1 January 2004 to 31 December 2008). Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to test differences between groups depending on the normality of the data. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis. Of 305 patients with acetaminophen overdose, 146 (47.9%) were treated with intravenous N-acetylcysteine and 139 (45.6%) were included in this study. Different types of ADR were observed in 94 (67.6%) patients. Low serum acetaminophen concentrations were significantly associated with cutaneous anaphylactoid reactions but not other types of ADR. Low serum acetaminophen concentration was significantly associated with flushing (p < 0.001), rash (p < 0.001) and pruritus (p < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in serum acetaminophen concentrations between patients with and without the following ADR: gastrointestinal reactions (p = 0.77), respiratory reactions (p = 0.96), central nervous reactions (p = 0.82) and cardiovascular reactions (p = 0.37). In conclusion, low serum acetaminophen concentrations were associated with higher cutaneous anaphylactoid reactions. Such high serum acetaminophen concentrations may be protective against N-acetylcysteine-induced cutaneous ADR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose/drug therapy
  13. Zyoud SH, Awang R, Sulaiman SA, Al-Jabi SW
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2010 Oct;19(10):1064-70.
    PMID: 20712021 DOI: 10.1002/pds.1955
    To investigate the relationship between different types of adverse drug reaction (ADR) and late time to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) infusion in patients presenting to the hospital with acetaminophen overdose.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose/drug therapy*
  14. Zyoud SH, Awang R, Sulaiman SA, Al-Jabi SW
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol, 2011 Jun;25(3):405-10.
    PMID: 20584210 DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-8206.2010.00831.x
    Intravenous N-acetylcysteine (IV-NAC) is usually regarded as a safe antidote to acetaminophen overdose. However, during infusion of the loading dose, adverse drug reactions such as a headache may occur. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of headache in patients presenting to hospital after acetaminophen overdose and to determine which clinical findings are most predictive of headache among these patients. This is a retrospective cohort study of hospital admissions for acute acetaminophen overdose that was conducted over a period of 4 years from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2008. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, and predictors of headache were analyzed. spss 15 was used for data analysis. Two-hundred and fifty-five patients were studied; their mean age was 23.1 ± 1.6; 83.9% of them were women and 14.9% had a headache during hospitalization. Headache among patients was significantly associated with IV-NAC administration (P = 0.001), intentional ingestion of drug (P = 0.04), acetaminophen concentration above 'possible toxicity' treatment line (P = 0.04), a high acetaminophen concentration (P = 0.04), and a long hospital stay (P = 0.03). Multiple logistic regression showed a significant risk factor for headache in patients administered IV-NAC (P = 0.04). We recorded a high frequency of headache in patients with acute acetaminophen overdose in our geographical area. This study suggests that among those patients, the use of IV-NAC is associated with an increased risk of headache.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose/drug therapy*
  15. Zyoud SH, Awang R, Syed Sulaiman SA, Sweileh WM, Al-Jabi SW
    Hum Exp Toxicol, 2010 Mar;29(3):153-60.
    PMID: 20071472 DOI: 10.1177/0960327109359642
    Intravenous N-acetylcysteine (IV-NAC) is widely recognized as the antidote of choice for acetaminophen overdose. However, its use is not without adverse drug reactions (ADR) that might affect therapeutic outcome or lead to treatment delay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose/drug therapy
  16. Fathelrahman AI, Ab Rahman AF, Zain ZM, Tengku MA
    Hum Exp Toxicol, 2006 Apr;25(4):167-73.
    PMID: 16696291
    Data on adult risk factors associated with drug or chemical poisonings in Malaysia are scarce. The objective of the study was to identify possible risk factors associated with adult admissions to the Penang General Hospital (PGH) due to chemical poisoning and/or drug overdose. The present study was a case-control study, conducted over 18 weeks. One hundred acutely poisoned adult patients admitted to PGH during the period from September 2003 to February 2004 were considered as cases. Two hundred patients admitted to the same medical wards for other illnesses, during the same period, were matched for age and gender with the poisoned cases and thus selected as controls. McNemar test and binary logistic were used for univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis for multivariate analyses. The odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated for each predictor variable. Positive histories of psychiatric illness and previous poisoning, problems in boy/girl friend relationships, family problems, marital problems, Indian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity, living in rented houses and living in a household with less than five people were significant risk factors associated with adult admissions due to poisoning.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose/epidemiology
  17. Lee WS, McKiernan P, Kelly DA
    J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr., 2005 May;40(5):575-81.
    PMID: 15861019
    OBJECTIVE: To study the etiology, outcome and prognostic indicators in children with fulminant hepatic failure in the United Kingdom.
    DESIGN: Retrospective review of all patients <17 years with fulminant hepatic failure from 1991 to 2000. Fulminant hepatic failure was defined as presence of coagulopathy (prothrombin time >24 seconds or International Normalized Ratio >2.0) with or without hepatic encephalopathy within 8 weeks of the onset of symptoms.
    SETTING: Liver Unit, Birmingham Children's Hospital, United Kingdom.
    RESULTS: Ninety-seven children (48 male, 49 female; median age, 27 months; range, 1 day-192.0 months) were identified with fulminant hepatic failure. The etiologies were: 22 metabolic, 53 infectious, 19 drug-induced, and 3 autoimmune hepatitis. The overall survival rate was 61%. 33% (32/97) recovered spontaneously with supportive management. Fifty-five children were assessed for liver transplantation. Four were unstable and were not listed for liver transplantation; 11 died while awaiting liver transplantation. Liver transplantation was contraindicated in 10 children. Of the 40 children who underwent liver transplantation, 27 survived. Children with autoimmune hepatitis, paracetamol overdose or hepatitis A were more likely to survive without liver transplantation. Children who had a delay between the first symptom of liver disease and the onset of hepatic encephalopathy (median, 10.5 days versus 3.5 days), higher plasma bilirubin (299 micromol/L versus 80 micromol/L), higher prothrombin time (62 seconds versus 40 seconds) or lower alanine aminotransferase (1288 IU/L versus 2929 IU/L) levels on admission were more likely to die of fulminant hepatic failure or require liver transplantation (P < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, the significant independent predictors for the eventual failure of conservative therapy were time to onset of hepatic encephalopathy >7 days, prothrombin time >55 seconds and alanine aminotransferase =2384 IU/L on admission.
    CONCLUSIONS: Children with fulminant hepatic failure with severe coagulopathy, lower alanine aminotransferase on admission and prolonged duration of illness before the onset of hepatic encephalopathy are more likely to require liver transplantation. Early referral to a specialized center for consideration of liver transplantation is vital.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose/complications
  18. Meera Thalayasingam, Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi
    MyJurnal
    Anaphylaxis in the operating room although infrequent can be potentially fatal. The diagnosis of perioperative anaphylaxis is complex due to a multitude of factors. Firstly, patients under anesthesia cannot verbalize their complaints, the anesthetic agents themselves can alter vital parameters (e.g. heart rate and blood pressure) and cutaneous signs in a completely draped patient may be missed. Secondly, the differential diagnosis of intraoperative anaphylaxis is wide. Conditions such as asthma exacerbation, arrhythmia, hemorrhage, angioedema, mastocytosis, acute myocardial infarction, drug overdose, pericardial tamponade, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolus, sepsis, tension pneumothorax, vasovagal reaction, venous air embolism, laryngospasm, blood transfusion reaction and malignant hyperthermia need to be considered. Thirdly, the diagnostic workup is challenging due to the multiple medications administered and other exposures encountered such as latex and chlorhexidene. However, through a timely allergy consultation and a systematic approach, identification of the culprit agent and safe alternatives can be established to prevent future occurrences as illustrated in the case below.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose
  19. Low, Qin Jian, Chew, Soo Foong
    MyJurnal
    Both metformin and gliclazide have been used extensively in the management of type II diabetes mellitus. Metformin and gliclazide overdose can lead to severe hypoglycaemia refractory to intravenous (IV) dextrose rescue therapy. A 21-year-old man complained of vomiting and felt dizzy after four hours of taking 70 tablets of Metformin 500 mg and 40 tablets of Gliclazide 80 mg. He had major depressive disorder and wanted to commit suicide. He was given IV Dextrose 50% 50 cc immediately. Octreotide had been used successfully to reverse the refractory hypoglycaemia caused by gliclazide overdose. Unfortunately, he developed severe lactic acidosis with acute kidney injury. Dialysis had been done by continuous venovenous haemodiafiltrationa and intravenous sodium bicarbonate 8.4% infusion was given. However, the patient succumbed due to the severe lactic acidosis and kidney failure despite of urgent dialysis. Octreotide infusion helps in preventing refractory hypoglycaemia secondary to sulfonylurea overdose by inhibit calcium-mediated insulin release. Metformin overdose causes severe lactic acidosis due to conversion of glucose to lactate. Sodium bicarbonate therapy in metformin induced lactic acidosis is also controversial. Though sulfonylurea and metformin are the most commonly-prescribed anti-hypoglycaemic agents, thus during prescribing everyone has to be careful about the overdoses and side effects of these drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose
  20. Cheema E, McGuinness K, Hadi MA, Paudyal V, Elnaem MH, Alhifany AA, et al.
    J Pain Res, 2020;13:3281-3294.
    PMID: 33324089 DOI: 10.2147/JPR.S280462
    Purpose: Fentanyl poisoning has been widely reported, yet there is a lack of systematic evaluation of the nature and toxicology of associated deaths in the published literature. This article aims to systematically review the nature, causes, routes of administration and toxicology of fentanyl-associated deaths using case studies and case series in peer-reviewed published literature.

    Methods: Four electronic databases including Embase, Medline (via Ovid), Scopus and Google Scholar were searched from inception until October 2019 to identify the studies reporting fentanyl related deaths. Two independent reviewers screened and selected the titles and then evaluated the full texts. Only case studies and case series were included. A structured data extraction tool was used to extract data on the number of deaths, routes of administration, concomitant drug use and toxicological data. The Joanna Briggs Institute quality assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of included studies. Data were synthesized narratively.

    Results: Of 1251 articles identified during initial search, 8 case reports and 9 case series met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1969 deaths were reported in the included studies. Deaths were concentrated in the north American region (n = 1946) and the Nordic region (n = 22). Reported causes of death included fentanyl overdose (n = 321, 56.4%), mixed drug toxicity (n = 196, 34.5%), natural (n = 28, 4.9%), other drug toxicity (n = 10, 1.8%), fentanyl and ethanol intoxication (n = 8, 1.4%), incidental (n = 5, <1%) and aspiration (n = 1). Most common routes of use were intravenous (70.5%) and transdermal routes (23.0%). Deaths came swiftly via the intravenous route. Mean level of blood fentanyl amongst all reported deaths was 0.024 µg/mL.

    Conclusion: Literature related to fentanyl-associated deaths predominantly come from North America. Deaths are comparatively lower or not reported in peer-reviewed publications from the rest of the world. Abuse through intravenous administration, mixed drug toxicities and self-treatment of breakthrough pain are mainly responsible for majority of the reported deaths.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Overdose
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