• 1 Department of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
  • 2 Department of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
  • 3 Department of Pharmacy, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK
PMID: 32349339 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17093039


The contribution of all key healthcare professionals is vital to promote an efficient adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting system. In this context, nurses are important as they are in a better position to observe a patient's response regarding the drug therapy and to report an ADR. The aim of the study was to explore the perspectives of nurses about ADR reporting system in Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 21 nurses were interviewed. The thematic content analysis of the qualitative interviews yielded six major themes and eight subthemes. Major themes included: (1) Knowledge about the concept of the medication safety & the ADR; (2) Knowledge regarding pharmacovigilance activities; (3) Willingness to report; (4) Practices related to the ADR reporting; (5) Barriers to the ADR reporting; (6) Facilitators to the ADR reporting. The majority of the nurses were aware of medicine safety and ADRs, but in many cases, they were unable to report these ADRs. The study pointed out considerable concerns regarding the knowledge and practices of nurses about pharmacovigilance activities in their workplace, mainly due to increased workload, due to the absence of a reporting system and legal liability. The main challenges turned out to be the lack of knowledge and training, as well as the implementation of guidelines. Based on the findings, it is suggested that outcome of this study can serve as a guide to design policies that support ADR reporting by nurses in Pakistan.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.