• 1 Centre for Applied Biomechanics, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
  • 2 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae, 621-749, Republic of Korea
Sci Rep, 2014 Jul 28;4:5843.
PMID: 25068570 DOI: 10.1038/srep05843


The complex architecture of the cortical part of the bovine-femur was examined to develop potential tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds. Weight-change and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that significant phase transformation and morphology conversion of the bone occur at 500-750°C and 750-900°C, respectively. Another breakthrough finding was achieved by determining a sintering condition for the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystal from bovine bone via XRD technique. Scanning electron microscopy results of morphological growth suggests that the concentration of polymer fibrils increases (or decreases, in case of apatite crystals) from the distal to proximal end of the femur. Energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray, Fourier transform infrared, micro-computer tomography, and mechanical studies of the actual composition also strongly support our microscopic results and firmly indicate the functionally graded material properties of bovine-femur. Bones sintered at 900 and 1000°C show potential properties for soft and hard TE applications, respectively.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.