Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 31 in total

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  1. Tripathy A, Pramanik S, Cho J, Santhosh J, Osman NA
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(9):16343-422.
    PMID: 25256110 DOI: 10.3390/s140916343
    The humidity sensing characteristics of different sensing materials are important properties in order to monitor different products or events in a wide range of industrial sectors, research and development laboratories as well as daily life. The primary aim of this study is to compare the sensing characteristics, including impedance or resistance, capacitance, hysteresis, recovery and response times, and stability with respect to relative humidity, frequency, and temperature, of different materials. Various materials, including ceramics, semiconductors, and polymers, used for sensing relative humidity have been reviewed. Correlations of the different electrical characteristics of different doped sensor materials as the most unique feature of a material have been noted. The electrical properties of different sensor materials are found to change significantly with the morphological changes, doping concentration of different materials and film thickness of the substrate. Various applications and scopes are pointed out in the review article. We extensively reviewed almost all main kinds of relative humidity sensors and how their electrical characteristics vary with different doping concentrations, film thickness and basic sensing materials. Based on statistical tests, the zinc oxide-based sensing material is best for humidity sensor design since it shows extremely low hysteresis loss, minimum response and recovery times and excellent stability.
  2. Pramanik S, Pingguan-Murphy B, Cho J, Abu Osman NA
    Sci Rep, 2014 Jul 28;4:5843.
    PMID: 25068570 DOI: 10.1038/srep05843
    The complex architecture of the cortical part of the bovine-femur was examined to develop potential tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds. Weight-change and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that significant phase transformation and morphology conversion of the bone occur at 500-750°C and 750-900°C, respectively. Another breakthrough finding was achieved by determining a sintering condition for the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystal from bovine bone via XRD technique. Scanning electron microscopy results of morphological growth suggests that the concentration of polymer fibrils increases (or decreases, in case of apatite crystals) from the distal to proximal end of the femur. Energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray, Fourier transform infrared, micro-computer tomography, and mechanical studies of the actual composition also strongly support our microscopic results and firmly indicate the functionally graded material properties of bovine-femur. Bones sintered at 900 and 1000°C show potential properties for soft and hard TE applications, respectively.
  3. Basar MR, Ahmad MY, Cho J, Ibrahim F
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(6):10929-51.
    PMID: 24949645 DOI: 10.3390/s140610929
    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.
  4. Joseph K, Ibrahim F, Cho J, Thio TH, Al-Faqheri W, Madou M
    PLoS One, 2015;10(9):e0136519.
    PMID: 26422249 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136519
    The development of micro-power generators for centrifugal microfluidic discs enhances the platform as a green point-of-care diagnostic system and eliminates the need for attaching external peripherals to the disc. In this work, we present micro-power generators that harvest energy from the disc's rotational movement to power biomedical applications on the disc. To implement these ideas, we developed two types of micro-power generators using piezoelectric films and an electromagnetic induction system. The piezoelectric-based generator takes advantage of the film's vibration during the disc's rotational motion, whereas the electromagnetic induction-based generator operates on the principle of current generation in stacks of coil exposed to varying magnetic flux. We have successfully demonstrated that at the spinning speed of 800 revolutions per minute (RPM) the piezoelectric film-based generator is able to produce up to 24 microwatts using 6 sets of films and the magnetic induction-based generator is capable of producing up to 125 milliwatts using 6 stacks of coil. As a proof of concept, a custom made localized heating system was constructed to test the capability of the magnetic induction-based generator. The heating system was able to achieve a temperature of 58.62 °C at 2200 RPM. This development of lab-on-a-disc micro power generators preserves the portability standards and enhances the future biomedical applications of centrifugal microfluidic platforms.
  5. Sayad A, Ibrahim F, Mukim Uddin S, Cho J, Madou M, Thong KL
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2018 Feb 15;100:96-104.
    PMID: 28869845 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2017.08.060
    Outbreaks of foodborne diseases have become a global health concern; hence, many improvements and developments have been made to reduce the risk of food contamination. We developed a centrifugal microfluidic automatic wireless endpoint detection system integrated with loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for monoplex pathogen detection. Six identical sets were designed on the microfluidic compact disc (CD) to perform 30 genetic analyses of three different species of foodborne pathogens. The consecutive loading, mixing, and aliquoting of the LAMP primers/reagents and DNA sample solutions were accomplished using an optimized square-wave microchannel, metering chambers and revulsion per minute (RPM) control. We tested 24 strains of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Vibrio cholerae), with 8 strains of each bacterium, and performed DNA amplification on the microfluidic CD for 60min. Then, the amplicons of the LAMP reaction were detected using the calcein colorimetric method and further analysed via the developed electronic system interfaced with Bluetooth wireless technology to transmit the results to a smartphone. The system showed a limit of detection (LOD) of 3 × 10-5ngμL-1 DNA by analysing the colour change when tested with chicken meat spiked with the three pathogenic bacteria. Since the entire process was performed in a fully automated way and was easy to use, our microdevice is suitable for point-of-care (POC) testing with high simplicity, providing affordability and accessibility even to poor, resource-limited settings.
  6. Lee KS, Park H, Kang D, Byun HJ, Foo CY, Hadi FA, et al.
    Neurourol Urodyn, 2021 11;40(8):1972-1980.
    PMID: 34486168 DOI: 10.1002/nau.24776
    AIMS: To descriptively evaluate treatment persistence among adults who received mirabegron or antimuscarinics in South Korea.

    METHODS: This study involved a retrospective analysis of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA) database. Patients (≥18 years) who had a new prescription for an overactive bladder (OAB) target medication (mirabegron/antimuscarinic) within an 8-month index period (July 1, 2015-February 29, 2016) were included. The date when the target (index) medication was dispensed was the index date. The 6-month period before the index date was used to assess patient eligibility. A 12-month post-index period was used to assess medication persistence, which was defined as the time to discontinuation. Overall data were analyzed and the results were also stratified by age group (≤65, >65 years), sex, or prior OAB medication experience. Persistence rates were calculated after the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th months.

    RESULTS: A data set of 52 722 cases was obtained (mirabegron: 11 424, antimuscarinics: 41 298). The mean age was 60.9 ± 16.1 years and the majority of the patients were female (30 862 [58.5%] patients). Median persistence was longer with mirabegron (51 days) versus antimuscarinics (25 days). The persistence rate with mirabegron was higher throughout the study compared with all the antimuscarinics (12-month data: 13.5% and 4.9%, respectively). Longer treatment persistence was noted in older, male, and treatment-experienced patients.

    CONCLUSION: The results from the HIRA database showed that persistence was longer with mirabegron than with antimuscarinics in South Korea. This finding may help inform clinical decision-making within the South Korean healthcare system.

  7. Uddin SM, Ibrahim F, Sayad AA, Thiha A, Pei KX, Mohktar MS, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2015;15(3):5376-89.
    PMID: 25751077 DOI: 10.3390/s150305376
    In recent years, many improvements have been made in foodborne pathogen detection methods to reduce the impact of food contamination. Several rapid methods have been developed with biosensor devices to improve the way of performing pathogen detection. This paper presents an automated endpoint detection system for amplicons generated by loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) on a microfluidic compact disk platform. The developed detection system utilizes a monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) emitter for excitation of fluorescent labeled LAMP amplicons and a color sensor to detect the emitted florescence from target. Then it processes the sensor output and displays the detection results on liquid crystal display (LCD). The sensitivity test has been performed with detection limit up to 2.5 × 10(-3) ng/µL with different DNA concentrations of Salmonella bacteria. This system allows a rapid and automatic endpoint detection which could lead to the development of a point-of-care diagnosis device for foodborne pathogens detection in a resource-limited environment.
  8. Choi Y, Chang Y, Ryu S, Cho J, Rampal S, Zhang Y, et al.
    Heart, 2015 May;101(9):686-91.
    PMID: 25732752 DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2014-306663
    To investigate the association between regular coffee consumption and the prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic men and women.
  9. Duong CN, Ra JS, Cho J, Kim SD, Choi HK, Park JH, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2010 Jan;78(3):286-93.
    PMID: 19931116 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.10.048
    The effects of treatment processes on estrogenicity were evaluated by examining estradiol equivalent (EEQ) concentrations in influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) located along Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers in Korea. The occurrence and distribution of estrogenic chemicals were also estimated for surface water in Korea and compared with seven other Asian countries including Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. Target compounds were nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and genistein (Gen). Water samples were pretreated and analyzed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the treatment processes of Korean STPs were sufficient to reduce the estrogenic activity of municipal wastewater. The concentrations of phenolic xenoestrogens (i.e., NP, OP and BPA) in samples of Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers were smaller than those reported by previous studies in Korea. In most samples taken from the seven Asian countries, the presence of E2 and EE2 was a major contributor toward estrogenic activity. The EEQ concentrations in surface water samples of the seven Asian countries were at a higher level in comparison to that reported in European countries, America and Japan. However, further studies with more sampling frequencies and sampling areas should be carried out for better evaluation of the occurrence and distribution of estrogenic compounds in these Asian countries.
  10. Chun S, Choi Y, Chang Y, Cho J, Zhang Y, Rampal S, et al.
    Am. Heart J., 2016 07;177:17-24.
    PMID: 27297845 DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.03.018
    BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and clinically manifest coronary heart disease, but its association with subclinical coronary heart disease remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in a large study of asymptomatic men and women.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 22,210 adult men and women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination between 2011 and 2013 (median age 40 years). Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and CAC was measured by cardiac computed tomography. Multivariable-adjusted CAC score ratios and 95% CIs were estimated from robust Tobit regression models for the natural logarithm (CAC score +1).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 11.7% (n = 2,604). After adjustment for age; sex; center; year of screening examination; education level; physical activity; smoking; alcohol intake; family history of cardiovascular disease; history of hypertension; history of hypercholesterolemia; and intake of total energy, fruits, vegetables, and red and processed meats, only the highest category of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was associated with an increased CAC score compared with the lowest consumption category. The multivariable-adjusted CAC ratio comparing participants who consumed ≥5 sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages per week with nondrinkers was 1.70 (95% CI, 1.03-2.81). This association did not differ by clinical subgroup, including participants at low cardiovascular risk.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that high levels of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption are associated with a higher prevalence and degree of CAC in asymptomatic adults without a history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes.

  11. Zhao D, Kim MH, Pastor-Barriuso R, Chang Y, Ryu S, Zhang Y, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(1):e0146057.
    PMID: 26731527 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146057
    IMPORTANCE: Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction or stabilization is the only proven method for glaucoma management. Identifying risk factors for IOP is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of glaucoma.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of change in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent fat mass with change in intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean adults.

    DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cohort study of 274,064 young and middle age Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings who attended annual or biennial health exams from January 1, 2002 to Feb 28, 2010 (577,981 screening visits).

    EXPOSURES: BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes with automated noncontact tonometers.

    RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted models, the average increase in IOP (95% confidence intervals) over time per interquartile increase in BMI (1.26 kg/m2), waist circumference (6.20 cm), and percent fat mass (3.40%) were 0.18 mmHg (0.17 to 0.19), 0.27 mmHg (0.26 to 0.29), and 0.10 mmHg (0.09 to 0.11), respectively (all P < 0.001). The association was stronger in men compared to women (P < 0.001) and it was only slightly attenuated after including diabetes and hypertension as potential mediators in the model.

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Increases in adiposity were significantly associated with an increase in IOP in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health screening visits, an association that was stronger for central obesity. Further research is needed to understand better the underlying mechanisms of this association, and to establish the role of weight gain in increasing IOP and the risk of glaucoma and its complications.

  12. Zhao D, Kim MH, Pastor-Barriuso R, Chang Y, Ryu S, Zhang Y, et al.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2014 Oct;55(10):6244-50.
    PMID: 25183763 DOI: 10.1167/iovs.14-14151
    To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women.
  13. Zhang Y, Chang Y, Ryu S, Cho J, Lee WY, Rhee EJ, et al.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2014 Jul;99(7):2467-76.
    PMID: 24708095 DOI: 10.1210/jc.2013-3832
    CONTEXT: Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, both overt and subclinical, are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The association between thyroid hormones and mortality in euthyroid individuals, however, is unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the prospective association between thyroid hormones levels within normal ranges and mortality endpoints.
    SETTING AND DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of 212 456 middle-aged South Korean men and women who had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease at baseline from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2009. Free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3), and TSH levels were measured by RIA. Vital status and cause of death ascertainment were based on linkage to the National Death Index death certificate records.
    RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 730 participants died (335 deaths from cancer and 112 cardiovascular-related deaths). FT4 was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.95, comparing the highest vs lowest quartile of FT4; P for linear trend = .01), and FT3 was inversely associated cancer mortality (HR = 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.45-0.85; P for linear trend = .001). TSH was not associated with mortality endpoints.
    CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, FT4 and FT3 levels within the normal range were inversely associated with the risk of all-cause mortality and cancer mortality, particularly liver cancer mortality.
  14. Rampal S, Yang MH, Sung J, Son HJ, Choi YH, Lee JH, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2014 Jul;147(1):78-87.e3.
    PMID: 24632359 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.03.006
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diabetes is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. We studied the association between markers of glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome and the presence of colorectal adenomas in a large number of asymptomatic men and women attending a health screening program in South Korea. We also investigated whether these associations depend on adenoma location.
    METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we measured fasting levels of glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, and C-peptide and calculated homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) values (used to quantify insulin resistance) for 19,361 asymptomatic South Korean subjects who underwent colonoscopy examinations from January 2006 to June 2009. Participants completed a standardized self-administered health questionnaire and a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Blood samples were collected on the day of the colonoscopy; fasting blood samples were also collected. Robust Poisson regression was used to model the associations of glucose markers with the prevalence of any adenoma.
    RESULTS: Using detailed multivariable-adjusted dose-response models, the prevalence ratios (aPR, 95% confidence interval [CI]) for any adenoma, comparing the 90th with the 10th percentile, were 1.08 (1.00-1.16; P = .04) for fasting glucose, 1.07 (0.99-1.15; P = .10) for insulin, 1.09 (1.02-1.18, P = .02) for HOMA, 1.09 (1.01-1.17; P = .02) for hemoglobin A1c, and 1.14 (1.05-1.24; P = .002) for C-peptide. The corresponding ratios for nonadvanced adenomas were 1.11 (0.99-1.25; P = .08), 1.10 (0.98-1.24; P = .12), 1.15 (1.02-1.29; P = .02), 1.14 (1.01-1.28; P = .03), and 1.20 (1.05-1.37; P = .007), respectively. The corresponding ratios for advanced adenomas were 1.32 (0.94-1.84; P = .11), 1.23 (0.87-1.75; P = .24), 1.30 (0.92-1.85; P = .14), 1.13 (0.79-1.61; P = .50), and 1.67 (1.15-2.42; P = .007), respectively. Metabolic syndrome was associated with the prevalence of any adenoma (aPR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.24; P < .001), nonadvanced adenoma (aPR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20-1.40; P < .001), and advanced adenoma (aPR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.14-1.78; P = .002). Associations were similar for adenomas located in the distal versus proximal colon.
    CONCLUSIONS: Increasing levels of glucose, HOMA values, levels of hemoglobin A1c and C-peptide, and metabolic syndrome are significantly associated with the prevalence of adenomas. Adenomas should be added to the list of consequences of altered glucose metabolism.
  15. Chang Y, Kim BK, Yun KE, Cho J, Zhang Y, Rampal S, et al.
    J Am Coll Cardiol, 2014 Jun 24;63(24):2679-86.
    PMID: 24794119 DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.03.042
    The purpose of this study was to compare the coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores of metabolically-healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically healthy normal-weight individuals in a large sample of apparently healthy men and women.
  16. Yang MH, Rampal S, Sung J, Choi YH, Son HJ, Lee JH, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2014 Mar;23(3):499-507.
    PMID: 24443404 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0682
    Colorectal cancer incidence is rapidly rising in many Asian countries, with rates approaching those of Western countries. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and trends of colorectal adenomas by age, sex, and risk strata in asymptomatic Koreans.
  17. Ong ME, Cho J, Ma MH, Tanaka H, Nishiuchi T, Al Sakaf O, et al.
    Emerg Med Australas, 2013 Feb;25(1):55-63.
    PMID: 23379453 DOI: 10.1111/1742-6723.12032
    Asia-Pacific countries have unique prehospital emergency care or emergency medical services (EMS) systems, which are different from European or Anglo-American models. We aimed to compare the EMS systems of eight Asia-Pacific countries/regions as part of the Pan Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS), to provide a basis for future comparative studies across systems of care.
  18. Cainzos-Achirica M, Rampal S, Chang Y, Ryu S, Zhang Y, Zhao D, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2015 Aug;241(2):350-6.
    PMID: 26071657 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.05.031
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a convenient, non-radiating, readily available measurement of arterial stiffness, and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a reliable marker of coronary atherosclerosis, in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults; and to assess the incremental value of baPWV for detecting prevalent CAC beyond traditional risk factors.
    METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 15,185 asymptomatic Korean adults who voluntarily underwent a comprehensive health screening program including measurement of baPWV and CAC. BaPWV was measured using an oscillometric method with cuffs placed on both arms and ankles. CAC burden was assessed using a multi-detector CT scan and scored following Agatston's method.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of CAC > 0 and CAC > 100 increased across baPWV quintiles. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC > 0 comparing baPWV quintiles 2-5 versus quintile 1 were 1.06 (0.87-1.30), 1.24 (1.02-1.50), 1.39 (1.15-1.69) and 1.60 (1.31-1.96), respectively (P trend < 0.001). Similarly, the relative prevalence ratios for CAC > 100 were 1.30 (0.74-2.26), 1.59 (0.93-2.71), 1.74 (1.03-2.94) and 2.59 (1.54-4.36), respectively (P trend < 0.001). For CAC > 100, the area under the ROC curve for baPWV alone was 0.71 (0.68-0.74), and the addition of baPWV to traditional risk factors significantly improved the discrimination and calibration of models for detecting prevalent CAC > 0 and CAC > 100.
    CONCLUSIONS: BaPWV was independently associated with the presence and severity of CAC in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults. BaPWV may be a valuable tool for identifying apparently low-risk individuals with increased burden of coronary atherosclerosis.
    KEYWORDS: Arterial stiffness; Atherosclerosis; Coronary artery calcium; Pulse wave velocity; Subclinical disease
  19. Choi Y, Chang Y, Lee JE, Chun S, Cho J, Sung E, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2015 Aug;241(2):305-12.
    PMID: 26062990 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.05.036
    OBJECTIVE:
    The association of egg consumption with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the association between egg consumption and prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC).
    METHODS:
    Cross-sectional study of 23,417 asymptomatic adult men and women without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or hypercholesterolemia, who underwent a health screening examination including cardiac computed tomography for CAC scoring and completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Total Healthcare Centers, South Korea (March 2011-April 2013).
    RESULTS:
    The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score > 0) was 11.2%. In multivariable-adjusted models, CAC score ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing participants eating ≥ 7 eggs/wk to those eating < 1 egg/wk was 1.80 (1.14-2.83; P for trend = 0.003). The multivariable CAC score ratio (95% CI) associated with an increase in consumption of 1 egg/day was 1.54 (1.11-2.14). The positive association seemed to be more pronounced among participants with low vegetable intake (P for interaction = 0.02) and those with high BMI (P for interaction = 0.05). The association was attenuated and no longer significant after further adjustment for dietary cholesterol.
    CONCLUSION:
    Egg consumption was associated with an increased prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and with a greater degree of coronary calcification in asymptomatic Korean adults, which may be mediated by dietary cholesterol. The association was particularly pronounced among individuals with low vegetable intake and those with high BMI.
    KEYWORDS:
    Coronary artery calcium score; Coronary artery disease; Egg consumption
  20. Yun KE, Chang Y, Rampal S, Zhang Y, Cho J, Jung HS, et al.
    J Clin Gastroenterol, 2018 07;52(6):508-514.
    PMID: 28471937 DOI: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000824
    GOALS: Because of shared risk factors between clinically manifest cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer, we hypothesized the coexistence of subclinical atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC) and colorectal adenoma (CRA) and that these 2 processes would also share common risk factors.

    BACKGROUND: No study has directly compared the risk factors associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and CRA.

    STUDY: This was a cross-sectional study using multinomial logistic regression analysis of 4859 adults who participated in a health screening examination (2010 to 2011; analysis 2014 to 2015). CAC scores were categorized as 0, 1 to 100, or >100. Colonoscopy results were categorized as absent, low-risk, or high-risk CRA.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of CAC>0, CAC 1 to 100 and >100 was 13.0%, 11.0%, and 2.0%, respectively. The prevalence of any CRA, low-risk CRA, and high-risk CRA was 15.1%, 13.0%, and 2.1%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for CAC>0 comparing participants with low-risk and high-risk CRA with those without any CRA were 1.35 (1.06-1.71) and 2.09 (1.29-3.39), respectively. Similarly, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for any CRA comparing participants with CAC 1 to 100 and CAC>100 with those with no CAC were 1.26 (1.00-1.6) and 2.07 (1.31-3.26), respectively. Age, smoking, diabetes, and family history of CRC were significantly associated with both conditions.

    CONCLUSIONS: We observed a graded association between CAC and CRA in apparently healthy individuals. The coexistence of both conditions further emphasizes the need for more evidence of comprehensive approaches to screening and the need to consider the impact of the high risk of coexisting disease in individuals with CAC or CRA, instead of piecemeal approaches restricted to the detection of each disease independently.

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