Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 77 in total

  1. Boo, L., Sofiah, S., Selvaratnam, L., Tai, C.C., Pingguan-Murphy, B., Kamarul, T.
    Malays Orthop J, 2009;3(2):16-23.
    Purpose:To investigate the feasibilty of using processed human amniotic membrane (HAM) to support the attachment and proliferation of chondrocytes in vitro which it turn can be utilised as a cell delivery vehicle in tissue engineering applications. Methods: Fresh HAM obtained from patients undergoing routine elective ceasarean sections was harvested., processed and dried using either freez drying (FD) or air drying (AD) methods prior to sterilisation by gamma irradiation. Isolated, processed and characterised rabbit autologous chondrolytes were seeded on processsed HAM and cultured for up to three weeks. Cell attachment and proliferation were examined qualitatively using inverted brightfield microcospy. Results: Processed HAM appeared to allow cell attachment when implanted with chrondocytes. Although cells seeded on AD and FD HAM did not appear to attach as strongly as those seeded on glycerol preserved intact human amniotic membrane, these cells to be proliferated in cell culture conditions. Conclusion: Prelimanary results show that processed HAM chondrocyte attachment and proliferation.
  2. Pingguan-Murphy B, Nawi I
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012 Aug;67(8):939-44.
    PMID: 22948463
    OBJECTIVES: The promotion of extracellular matrix synthesis by chondrocytes is a requisite part of an effective cartilage tissue engineering strategy. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of bi-axial cyclic mechanical loading on cell proliferation and the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by chondrocytes in three-dimensional cultures.

    METHOD: A strain comprising 10% direct compression and 1% compressive shear was applied to bovine chondrocytes seeded in an agarose gel during two 12-hour conditioning periods separated by a 12-hour resting period.

    RESULTS: The bi-axial-loaded chondrocytes demonstrated a significant increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis compared with samples exposed to uni-axial or no loading over the same period (p<0.05). The use of a free-swelling recovery period prior to the loading regime resulted in additional glycosaminoglycan production and a significant increase in DNA content (p<0.05), indicating cell proliferation.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the use of a bi-axial loading regime results in increased matrix production compared with uni-axial loading.

  3. Moo EK, Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2011;66(8):1431-6.
    PMID: 21915496
    INTRODUCTION: Although previous studies have been performed on cartilage explant cultures, the generalized dynamics of cartilage metabolism after extraction from the host are still poorly understood due to differences in the experimental setups across studies, which in turn prevent building a complete picture.

    METHODS: In this study, we investigated the response of cartilage to the trauma sustained during extraction and determined the time needed for the cartilage to stabilize. Explants were extracted aseptically from bovine metacarpal-phalangeal joints and cultured for up to 17 days.

    RESULTS: The cell viability, cell number, proteoglycan content, and collagen content of the harvested explants were analyzed at 0, 2, 10, and 17 days after explantation. A high percentage of the cartilage explants were found to be viable. The cell density initially increased significantly but stabilized after two days. The proteoglycan content decreased gradually over time, but it did not decrease to a significant level due to leakage through the distorted peripheral collagen network and into the bathing medium. The collagen content remained stable for most of the culture period until it dropped abruptly on day 17.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, the tested cartilage explants were sustainable over long-term culture. They were most stable from day 2 to day 10. The degradation of the collagen on day 17 did not reach diseased levels, but it indicated the potential of the cultures to develop into degenerated cartilage. These findings have implications for the application of cartilage explants in pathophysiological fields.

  4. Soon G, Pingguan-Murphy B, Akbar SA
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2017 04;68:26-31.
    PMID: 28135639 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.01.028
    This study utilizes the technique of self-assembly to fabricate arrays of nanoislands on (001)-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia single crystal substrates with miscut of 10° toward <110> direction. These self-assembled nanostructures were annealed at 1100°C for 5h upon doping with 10mol% gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) by powder-suspension based method. X-Ray diffraction result showed that the miscut substrate after doping GDC was in the cubic phase. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) illustrates that the nanopatterned material contains all the elements from the GDC source and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. It also demonstrates a higher surface roughness and a more hydrophilic surface. The nanostructured materials were subsequently used for an in vitro study using a human fetal osteoblastic cell line (hFOB). An improved spreading, enhanced cell proliferation and up-regulated alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) were observed on the nanopatterned substrates compared to the control substrates. Calcium deposits, which were stained positively by Alizarin Red S, appeared to be more abundant on the nanopatterned surfaces on day 7. The overall findings suggest that post fabrication treatment with surface modification such as creating a nanostructure (e.g. nanopatterns) can improve biocompatibility.
  5. Sirkkunan DS, Muhamad F, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Gels, 2021 Sep 27;7(4).
    PMID: 34698174 DOI: 10.3390/gels7040154
    The use of neural scaffolds with a highly defined microarchitecture, fabricated with standard techniques such as electrospinning and microfluidic spinning, requires surgery for their application to the site of injury. To circumvent the risk associated with aciurgy, new strategies for treatment are sought. This has led to an increase in the quantity of research into injectable hydrogels in recent years. However, little research has been conducted into controlling the building blocks within these injectable hydrogels to produce similar scaffolds with a highly defined microarchitecture. "Magnetic particle string" and biomimetic amphiphile self-assembly are some of the methods currently available to achieve this purpose. Here, we developed a "magnetic anchor" method to improve the orientation of collagen fibres within injectable 3D scaffolds. This procedure uses GMNP (gold magnetic nanoparticle) "anchors" capped with CMPs (collagen mimetic peptides) that "chain" them to collagen fibres. Through the application of a magnetic field during the gelling process, these collagen fibres are aligned accordingly. It was shown in this study that the application of CMP functionalised GMNPs in a magnetic field significantly improves the alignment of the collagen fibres, which, in turn, improves the orientation of PC12 neurites. The growth of these neurite extensions, which were shown to be significantly longer, was also improved. The PC12 cells grown in collagen scaffolds fabricated using the "magnetic anchor" method shows comparable cellular viability to that of the untreated collagen scaffolds. This capability of remote control of the alignment of fibres within injectable collagen scaffolds opens up new strategic avenues in the research for treating debilitating neural tissue pathologies.
  6. Pramanik S, Pingguan-Murphy B, Cho J, Abu Osman NA
    Sci Rep, 2014 Jul 28;4:5843.
    PMID: 25068570 DOI: 10.1038/srep05843
    The complex architecture of the cortical part of the bovine-femur was examined to develop potential tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds. Weight-change and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that significant phase transformation and morphology conversion of the bone occur at 500-750°C and 750-900°C, respectively. Another breakthrough finding was achieved by determining a sintering condition for the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystal from bovine bone via XRD technique. Scanning electron microscopy results of morphological growth suggests that the concentration of polymer fibrils increases (or decreases, in case of apatite crystals) from the distal to proximal end of the femur. Energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray, Fourier transform infrared, micro-computer tomography, and mechanical studies of the actual composition also strongly support our microscopic results and firmly indicate the functionally graded material properties of bovine-femur. Bones sintered at 900 and 1000°C show potential properties for soft and hard TE applications, respectively.
  7. Yusoff N, Abu Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Med Eng Phys, 2011 Jul;33(6):782-8.
    PMID: 21356602 DOI: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2011.01.013
    A mechanical-conditioning bioreactor has been developed to provide bi-axial loading to three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs within a highly controlled environment. The computer-controlled bioreactor is capable of applying axial compressive and shear deformations, individually or simultaneously at various regimes of strain and frequency. The reliability and reproducibility of the system were verified through validation of the spatial and temporal accuracy of platen movement, which was maintained over the operating length of the system. In the presence of actual specimens, the system was verified to be able to deliver precise bi-axial load to the specimens, in which the deformation of every specimen was observed to be relatively homogeneous. The primary use of the bioreactor is in the culture of chondrocytes seeded within an agarose hydrogel while subjected to physiological compressive and shear deformation. The system has been designed specifically to permit the repeatable quantification and characterisation of the biosynthetic activity of cells in response to a wide range of short and long term multi-dimensional loading regimes.
  8. Pramanik S, Pingguan-Murphy B, Abu Osman NA
    Sci Technol Adv Mater, 2012 Aug;13(4):043002.
    PMID: 27877500
    There has been unprecedented development in tissue engineering (TE) over the last few years owing to its potential applications, particularly in bone reconstruction or regeneration. In this article, we illustrate several advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to the design of electrospun TE scaffolds. We also review the major benefits of electrospun fibers for three-dimensional scaffolds in hard connective TE applications and identify the key strategies that can improve the mechanical properties of scaffolds for bone TE applications. A few interesting results of recent investigations have been explained for future trends in TE scaffold research.
  9. Pramanik S, Hanif ASM, Pingguan-Murphy B, Abu Osman NA
    Materials (Basel), 2012 Dec 21;6(1):65-75.
    PMID: 28809294 DOI: 10.3390/ma6010065
    In this work, untreated bovine cortical bones (BCBs) were exposed to a range of heat treatments in order to determine at which temperature the apatite develops an optimum morphology comprising porous nano hydroxyapatite (nanoHAp) crystals. Rectangular specimens (10 mm × 10 mm × 3-5 mm) of BCB were prepared, being excised in normal to longitudinal and transverse directions. Specimens were sintered at up to 900 °C under ambient pressure in order to produce apatites by two steps sintering. The samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attached to an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy detector. For the first time, morphology of the HAp particles was predicted by XRD, and it was verified by SEM. The results show that an equiaxed polycrystalline HAp particle with uniform porosity was produced at 900 °C. It indicates that a porous nanoHAp achieved by sintering at 900 °C can be an ideal candidate as an in situ scaffold for load-bearing tissue applications.
  10. Tapsir Z, Jamaludin FH, Pingguan-Murphy B, Saidin S
    J Biomater Appl, 2018 02;32(7):987-995.
    PMID: 29187035 DOI: 10.1177/0885328217744081
    The utilisation of hydroxyapatite and collagen as bioactive coating materials could enhance cells attachment, proliferation and osseointegration. However, most methods to form crystal hydroxyapatite coating do not allow the incorporation of polymer/organic compound due to production phase of high sintering temperature. In this study, a polydopamine film was used as an intermediate layer to immobilise hydroxyapatite-collagen without the introduction of high sintering temperature. The surface roughness, coating adhesion, bioactivity and osteoblast attachment on the hydroxyapatite-collagen coating were assessed as these properties remains unknown on the polydopamine grafted film. The coating was developed by grafting stainless steel 316L disks with a polydopamine film. Collagen type I fibres were then immobilised on the grafted film, followed by the biomineralisation of hydroxyapatite. The surface roughness and coating adhesion analyses were later performed by using AFM instrument. An Alamar Blue assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of the coating, while an alkaline phosphatase activity test was conducted to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts on the coating. Finally, the morphology of cells attachment on the coating was visualised under FESEM. The highest RMS roughness and coating adhesion were observed on the hydroxyapatite-collagen coating (hydroxyapatite-coll-dopa). The hydroxyapatite-coll-dopa coating was non-toxic to the osteoblast cells with greater cells proliferation, greater level of alkaline phosphate production and more cells attachment. These results indicate that the immobilisation of hydroxyapatite and collagen using an intermediate polydopamine is identical to enhance coating adhesion, osteoblast cells attachment, proliferation and differentiation, and thus could be implemented as a coating material on orthopaedic and dental implants.
  11. Pingguan-Murphy B, El-Azzeh M, Bader DL, Knight MM
    J Cell Physiol, 2006 Nov;209(2):389-97.
    PMID: 16883605
    Mechanical loading modulates cartilage homeostasis through the control of matrix synthesis and catabolism. However, the mechanotransduction pathways through which chondrocytes detect different loading conditions remain unclear. The present study investigated the influence of cyclic compression on intracellular Ca2+ signalling using the well-characterised chondrocyte-agarose model. Cells labelled with Fluo4 were visualised using confocal microscopy following a period of 10 cycles of compression between 0% and 10% strain. In unstrained agarose constructs, not subjected to cyclic compression, a subpopulation of approximately 45% of chondrocytes exhibited spontaneous global Ca2+ transients with mean transient rise and fall times of 19.4 and 29.4 sec, respectively. Cyclic compression modulated global Ca2+ signalling by increasing the percentage of cells exhibiting Ca2+ transients (population modulation) and/or reducing the rise and fall times of these transients (transient shape modulation). The frequency and strain rate of compression differentially modulated these Ca2+ signalling characteristics providing a potential mechanism through which chondrocytes may distinguish between different loading conditions. Treatment with apyrase, gadolinium and the P2 receptor blockers, suramin and basilen blue, significantly reduced the percentage of cells exhibiting Ca2+ transients following cyclic compression, such that the mechanically induced upregulation of Ca2+ signalling was completely abolished. Thus cyclic compression appears to activate a purinergic pathway involving the release of ATP followed by the activation of P2 receptors causing a combination of extracellular Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+ release. Knowledge of this fundamental cartilage mechanotransduction pathway may lead to improved therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cartilage damage and disease.
  12. Choi JR, Hu J, Feng S, Wan Abas WA, Pingguan-Murphy B, Xu F
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2016 May 15;79:98-107.
    PMID: 26700582 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2015.12.005
    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) have currently attracted broad interest for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, but their application has been restricted by poor quantification and limited sensitivity. While the former has been currently solved to some extent by the development of handheld or smartphone-based readers, the latter has not been addressed fully, particularly the potential influences of environmental conditions (e.g., temperature and relative humidity (RH)), which have not yet received serious attention. The present study reports the use of a portable temperature-humidity control device to provide an optimum environmental requirement for sensitivity improvement in LFAs, followed by quantification by using a smartphone. We found that a RH beyond 60% with temperatures of 55-60°C and 37-40°C produced optimum nucleic acid hybridization and antigen-antibody interaction in LFAs, respectively representing a 10-fold and 3-fold signal enhancement over ambient conditions (25°C, 60% RH). We envision that in the future the portable device could be coupled with a fully integrated paper-based sample-to-answer biosensor for sensitive detection of various target analytes in POC settings.
  13. Zeimaran E, Pourshahrestani S, Djordjevic I, Pingguan-Murphy B, Kadri NA, Wren AW, et al.
    J Mater Sci Mater Med, 2016 Jan;27(1):18.
    PMID: 26676864 DOI: 10.1007/s10856-015-5620-2
    Bioactive glasses may function as antimicrobial delivery systems through the incorporation and subsequent release of therapeutic ions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of a series of composite scaffolds composed of poly(octanediol citrate) with increased loads of a bioactive glass that releases zinc (Zn(2+)) and gallium (Ga(3+)) ions in a controlled manner. The antibacterial activity of these scaffolds was investigated against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The ability of the scaffolds to release ions and the subsequent ingress of these ions into hard tissue was evaluated using a bovine bone model. Scaffolds containing bioactive glass exhibited antibacterial activity and this increased in vitro with higher bioactive glass loads; viable cells decreased to about 20 % for the composite scaffold containing 30 % bioactive glass. The Ga(3+) release rate increased as a function of time and Zn(2+) was shown to incorporate into the surrounding bone.
  14. Gao B, Wang L, Han S, Pingguan-Murphy B, Zhang X, Xu F
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2016 Aug;36(4):619-29.
    PMID: 25669871 DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2014.1002381
    Diabetes now is the most common chronic disease in the world inducing heavy burden for the people's health. Based on this, diabetes research such as islet function has become a hot topic in medical institutes of the world. Today, in medical institutes, the conventional experiment platform in vitro is monolayer cell culture. However, with the development of micro- and nano-technologies, several microengineering methods have been developed to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) islet models in vitro which can better mimic the islet of pancreases in vivo. These in vitro islet models have shown better cell function than monolayer cells, indicating their great potential as better experimental platforms to elucidate islet behaviors under both physiological and pathological conditions, such as the molecular mechanisms of diabetes and clinical islet transplantation. In this review, we present the state-of-the-art advances in the microengineering methods for fabricating microscale islet models in vitro. We hope this will help researchers to better understand the progress in the engineering 3D islet models and their biomedical applications such as drug screening and islet transplantation.
  15. Wang L, Li Y, Huang G, Zhang X, Pingguan-Murphy B, Gao B, et al.
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2016 Jun;36(3):553-65.
    PMID: 25641330 DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2014.993588
    Natural cellular microenvironment consists of spatiotemporal gradients of multiple physical (e.g. extracellular matrix stiffness, porosity and stress/strain) and chemical cues (e.g. morphogens), which play important roles in regulating cell behaviors including spreading, proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis, especially for pathological processes such as tumor formation and progression. Therefore, it is essential to engineer cellular gradient microenvironment incorporating various gradients for the fabrication of normal and pathological tissue models in vitro. In this article, we firstly review the development of engineering cellular physical and chemical gradients with cytocompatible hydrogels in both two-dimension and three-dimension formats. We then present current advances in the application of engineered gradient microenvironments for the fabrication of disease models in vitro. Finally, concluding remarks and future perspectives for engineering cellular gradients are given.
  16. Tan AW, Tay L, Chua KH, Ahmad R, Akbar SA, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:5389-401.
    PMID: 25473278 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S72659
    Two important criteria of an ideal biomaterial in the field of stem cells research are to regulate the cell proliferation without the loss of its pluripotency and to direct the differentiation into a specific cell lineage when desired. The present study describes the influence of TiO2 nanofibrous surface structures on the regulation of proliferation and stemness preservation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). TiO2 nanofiber arrays were produced in situ onto Ti-6Al-4V substrate via a thermal oxidation process and the successful fabrication of these nanostructures was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and contact angle measurement. ADSCs were seeded on two types of Ti-6Al-4V surfaces (TiO2 nanofibers and flat control), and their morphology, proliferation, and stemness expression were analyzed using FESEM, AlamarBlue assay, flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) after 2 weeks of incubation, respectively. The results show that ADSCs exhibit better adhesion and significantly enhanced proliferation on the TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces compared to the flat control surfaces. The greater proliferation ability of TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces was further confirmed by the results of cell cycle assay. More importantly, TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces significantly upregulate the expressions of stemness markers Sox-2, Nanog3, Rex-1, and Nestin. These results demonstrate that TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces can be used to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation while simultaneously maintaining the stemness of ADSCs, thereby representing a promising approach for their potential application in the field of bone tissue engineering as well as regenerative therapies.
  17. Nam HY, Pingguan-Murphy B, Amir Abbas A, Mahmood Merican A, Kamarul T
    Biomech Model Mechanobiol, 2015 Jun;14(3):649-63.
    PMID: 25351891 DOI: 10.1007/s10237-014-0628-y
    It has been previously demonstrated that mechanical stimuli are important for multipotent human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) to maintain good tissue homeostasis and even to enhance tissue repair processes. In tendons, this is achieved by promoting the cellular proliferation and tenogenic expression/differentiation. The present study was conducted to determine the optimal loading conditions needed to achieve the best proliferation rates and tenogenic differentiation potential. The effects of mechanical uniaxial stretching using different rates and strains were performed on hMSCs cultured in vitro. hMSCs were subjected to cyclical uniaxial stretching of 4, 8 or 12 % strain at 0.5 or 1 Hz for 6, 24, 48 or 72 h. Cell proliferation was analyzed using alamarBlue[Formula: see text] assay, while hMSCs differentiation was analyzed using total collagen assay and specific tenogenic gene expression markers (type I collagen, type III collagen, decorin, tenascin-C, scleraxis and tenomodulin). Our results demonstrate that the highest cell proliferation is observed when 4 % strain [Formula: see text] 1 Hz was applied. However, at 8 % strain [Formula: see text] 1 Hz loading, collagen production and the tenogenic gene expression were highest. Increasing strain or rates thereafter did not demonstrate any significant increase in both cell proliferation and tenogenic differentiation. In conclusion, our results suggest that 4 % [Formula: see text] 1 Hz cyclic uniaxial loading increases cell proliferation, but higher strains are required for superior tenogenic expressions. This study suggests that selected loading regimes will stimulate tenogenesis of hMSCs.
  18. Ataollahi F, Pingguan-Murphy B, Moradi A, Wan Abas WA, Chua KH, Abu Osman NA
    Cytotherapy, 2014 Aug;16(8):1145-52.
    PMID: 24831838 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2014.01.010
    Numerous protocols for the isolation of bovine aortic endothelial cells have been described in the previous literature. However, these protocols prevent researchers from obtaining the pure population of endothelial cells. Thus, this study aimed to develop a new and economical method for the isolation of pure endothelial cells by introducing a new strategy to the enzymatic digestion method proposed by previous researchers.
  19. Ataollahi F, Pramanik S, Moradi A, Dalilottojari A, Pingguan-Murphy B, Wan Abas WA, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2015 Jul;103(7):2203-13.
    PMID: 24733741 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35186
    Extracellular environments can regulate cell behavior because cells can actively sense their mechanical environments. This study evaluated the adhesion, proliferation and morphology of endothelial cells on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/alumina (Al2 O3 ) composites and pure PDMS. The substrates were prepared from pure PDMS and its composites with 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 wt % Al2 O3 at a curing temperature of 50°C for 4 h. The substrates were then characterized by mechanical, structural, and morphological analyses. The cell adhesion, proliferation, and morphology of cultured bovine aortic endothelial (BAEC) cells on substrate materials were evaluated by using resazurin assay and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-1,3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-acetylated LDL (Dil-Ac-LDL) cell staining, respectively. The composites (PDMS/2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 wt % Al2 O3 ) exhibited higher stiffness than the pure PDMS substrate. The results also revealed that stiffer substrates promoted endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation and also induced spread morphology in the endothelial cells compared with lesser stiff substrates. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of time on cell proliferation depended on stiffness. Therefore, this study concludes that the addition of different Al2 O3 percentages to PDMS elevated substrate stiffness which in turn increased endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation significantly and induced spindle shape morphology in endothelial cells.
Related Terms
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links