Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 48035 in total

  1. 'Adlina Abdul Khalil, Rosfazila Abd Rahman, Hairol Anuar Mak Din
    This is a case study research that is trying to identify a social interaction among multi ethnic students to maintain national integration. This research is concern on the factors that influence social interaction among students through co-curriculum activities like participate in sports and clubs at school. Findings from interview session individualy and grouping at two secondary schools at Kuala Ketil, Kedah shown there is a conflict and stereotype among students, however feeling to learn and accept the differences within ethnics still exist. Throughout the research, it shows that factors from external influence comes from school and peer groups. However, in the part of internal influence it is from student’s intrapersonal factor. In order to maintain social interaction among students, strategies had been taken by school through co-curriculum activities like sports and clubs. As a conclusion, a good social interaction among multiethnic students very important and need support from school’s administrator to maintain and sustain the harmonius and glory of the nation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  2. A A, R N, K P, Bing CH, R R
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2018 Aug;133:655-663.
    PMID: 30041362 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.06.033
    The concentrations of nine trace metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, and Pb) were measured in different tissues of two pelagic and five demersal fish species collected from the Miri coast, Sarawak. The sequence of accumulation of trace metals in different tissues were: liver > gill > gonad > muscle. Zn (301.00 μg g-1) and Cd (0.10 μg g-1) was the maximum and minimum accumulated elements. According to the Hazard Index calculation, none of the elements will pose any adverse health effects to humans for both ingestion rates (normal and habitual fish consumers) proposed by USEPA, except for Pb and Cd in certain fish species. On the basis of the results, the level of elements in the edible muscle tissues of all the analyzed fish species from the Miri coast are below the maximum permissible limits of Malaysian and International seafood guideline values and safe for consumers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  3. A Aziz NA, Mhd Jalil AM
    Foods, 2019 Mar 13;8(3).
    PMID: 30871187 DOI: 10.3390/foods8030096
    Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) is an energy-dense seasonal tropical fruit grown in Southeast Asia. It is one of the most expensive fruits in the region. It has a creamy texture and a sweet-bitter taste. The unique durian flavour is attributable to the presence of fat, sugar, and volatile compounds such as esters and sulphur-containing compounds such as thioacetals, thioesters, and thiolanes, as well as alcohols. This review shows that durian is also rich in flavonoids (i.e., flavanols, anthocyanins), ascorbic acid, and carotenoids. However, limited studies exist regarding the variation in bioactive and volatile components of different durian varieties from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Experimental animal models have shown that durian beneficially reduces blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Durian extract possesses anti-proliferative and probiotics effects in in vitro models. These effects warrant further investigation in human interventional studies for the development of functional food.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  4. A Azizi, HM Rafidah
    Individuals with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clinical characteristics in hypertensive patients according to the criteria of the new International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition. Hypertensive patients were recruited from the Medical Out-Patient Department, Kuantan Hospital. The five components of metabolic syndrome were examined which included blood pressure (≥130/85 mmHg), fasting glucose (≥5.6mmol/L), fasting triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (80cm). Out of 139 hypertensive patients, there were 113 met all the selection criteria consisted of 61 male and 52 female subjects. The participants’ age ranged from 21 to 91 years (51.9±16.8 years; mean±SD), and body mass index 13.5-42.3 kg/m2 (27.5±4.9 kg/m2). According to the IDF criteria, the prevalence of central obesity was 67.2% in men and 84.6% in women. Among the 113 hypertensive subjects over 21 years of age, 51 subjects or 45.1% had metabolic syndrome. The present data revealed that there was high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysian hypertensive subjects. This finding was supported by the fact of high prevalence of central obesity among the study subjects.
    Study site: Medical clinic, Hospital Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  5. A Hamid MS, Mohamed Ali MR, Yusof A, George J, Lee LP
    Am J Sports Med, 2014 Oct;42(10):2410-8.
    PMID: 25073598 DOI: 10.1177/0363546514541540
    BACKGROUND: A hamstring injury is one of the most common types of injury affecting athletes. Despite this, the optimal management of hamstring muscle injuries is not yet defined. The effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy on the recovery of hamstring injuries is unclear.
    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of a single PRP injection in the treatment of grade 2 hamstring muscle injuries.
    STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2.
    METHODS: Twenty-eight patients diagnosed with an acute hamstring injury were randomly allocated to autologous PRP therapy combined with a rehabilitation program or a rehabilitation program only. The primary outcome of this study was time to return to play. In addition, changes in pain severity and pain interference scores over time were examined.
    RESULTS: Patients in the PRP group achieved full recovery significantly earlier than controls (P = .02). The mean time to return to play was 26.7 ± 7.0 days and 42.5 ± 20.6 days for the PRP and control groups, respectively (t(22) = 2.50, P = .02). [corrected]. Significantly lower pain severity scores were observed in the PRP group throughout the study. However, no significant difference in the pain interference score was found between the 2 groups.
    CONCLUSION: A single autologous PRP injection combined with a rehabilitation program was significantly more effective in treating hamstring injuries than a rehabilitation program alone.
    KEYWORDS: management; muscle injury; platelet-rich plasma (PRP); return to play
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  6. A Hamid MS, Mohamed Ali MR, Yusof A, George J
    PMID: 22866670 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-13-138
    Muscle injuries are one of the commonest injuries affecting athletes. It often leads to significant pain and disability causing loss of training and competition time. With current treatment, the duration to return-to-play ranges form six weeks to never, depending on injury severity. Recent researches have suggested that autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection into the injured site may hasten soft tissues healing. To-date, there has been no randomised clinical trials to evaluate the effects of PRP on muscle healing. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of autologous PRP on duration to return-to-play after muscle injury.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  7. A Hamid MS, Sazlina SG
    PLoS One, 2019;14(1):e0209746.
    PMID: 30625165 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209746
    BACKGROUND: Childhood overweight and obesity has emerged as a major public health threat worldwide with challenges in its management. This review assessed the effectiveness of interventions for childhood overweight and obesity.

    METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using CINAHL, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO and SPORTDiscus databases to retrieve articles published from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2017. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies comparing different strategies in managing overweight and obesity among schoolchildren (6 to 12 years of age) were included. The main outcomes of interest were reductions in weight related variables included anthropometry and body composition measurements. All variables were analysed using random effects meta-analyses.

    RESULTS: Fourteen studies were reviewed, 13 were RCTs and one was a quasi-experimental study. The risk of bias for randomisation was low risk for all of RCTs except for one, which was unclear. The risk of bias for randomisation was high for the quasi-experimental study. Most interventions incorporated lifestyle changes and behavioural strategies such as coping and problem solving skills with family involvement. The meta-analyses did not show significant effects of the intervention in reducing weight related outcomes when compared with controls.

    CONCLUSION: Meta-analyses of the selected studies did not show significant effects of the interventions on weight related outcomes among overweight and obese schoolchildren when compared with controls. The role of interdisciplinary team approaches with family involvement using behaviour and lifestyle strategies to curb obesity among schoolchildren is important.

    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  8. A Hamid MS, Hussein KH, Helmi Salim AM, Puji A, Mat Yatim R, Yong CC, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2020 08 20;10(8):e039105.
    PMID: 32820000 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039105
    INTRODUCTION: Hamstring injury among athletes often results in significant morbidity. Currently, there are controversies regarding the clinical use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for the treatment of acute hamstring injury.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is a single-centre double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Sixty-eight patients will be randomised to receive under ultrasound guidance either a single injection of leucocyte-rich PRP (LR-PRP) or normal saline. All patients will undergo a standardised hamstring rehabilitation programme under the supervision of a sports physiotherapist. Outcome data will be collected before intervention (baseline), and thereafter on a weekly basis. The primary outcome measure is the duration to return-to-play. It is defined as the duration (in days) from the date on which the injury occurred until the patients were pain-free, able to perform the active knee extension test and have regained hamstring muscle strength. Secondary outcome measures include assessment of pain intensity and the effect of pain on to day-to-day functions using the self-reported Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form questionnaire. Both the primary and secondary outcomes were assessed at baseline and thereafter once a week until return to play. Also, hamstring injury recurrence within the first 6 months after recovery will be monitored via telephone. The results of this study will provide insights into the effect of LR-PRP in muscle and may help to identify the best PRP application protocol for muscle injuries.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval were obtained from the Medical Research Ethics Committee of the University of Malaya Medical Centre. Results of this trial will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.


    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  9. A P, Bd A, Wm Z, S MN, S S, Tj TZ, et al.
    PMID: 30388737 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15112425
    BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution, especially in developing countries such as Malaysia. This study was designed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices (KABP) toward leptospirosis among the communities in northeastern Malaysia and to determine the sociodemographic factors associated with the KABP toward leptospirosis. A cross-sectional study using a stratified sampling method was conducted among 214 individuals in four locales in northeastern Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 214 respondents in northeastern Malaysia using a multi-stage stratified random sampling method. The study population was divided into two groups based on geographical locations: urban and rural. All data were entered and analyzed using the IBM Statistics for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 software for Windows (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). The continuous variables were presented using mean and standard deviation (SD), whereas the categorical variables were described using frequency and percentage. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the associated factors for good KABP toward leptospirosis among the respondents.

    RESULTS: It was found that 52.8% of respondents had good knowledge, 84.6% had positive attitudes, 59.8% had positive beliefs, and 53.7% had satisfactory practices. There were no significant sociodemographic factors associated with knowledge and practice, except for educational status, which was significant in the attitude and belief domains. Those with higher education exhibited better attitudes (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.329; 95% Coefficient Interval (CI): 1.140, 9.723; p = 0.028) and beliefs (OR 3.748; 95% CI: 1.485, 9.459; p = 0.005). The communities in northeastern Malaysia generally have good knowledge and a high level of positive attitude; however, this attitude cannot be transformed into practice as the number of people with satisfactory practice habits is much lower compared to those with positive attitudes. As for the belief domain, the communities must have positive beliefs to perceive the threat of the disease.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our current health program on preventing leptospirosis is good in creating awareness and a positive attitude among the communities, but is not sufficient in promoting satisfactory practice habits. In conclusion, more attention needs to be paid to promoting satisfactory practice habits among the communities, as they already possess good knowledge and positive attitudes and beliefs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  10. A RS, Abdullah S
    J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol, 2016 10;21(3):439-43.
    PMID: 27595972 DOI: 10.1142/S2424835516970018
    A report on the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for the Surgery of the Hand and 6(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Hand Therapists is submitted detailing the numbers of attendees participating, papers presented and support received as well the some of the challenges faced and how best to overcome them from the local conference chair and scientific chair point of view.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  11. A Rahaman SN, Mat Yusop J, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Aizat WM, Ho KL, Teh AH, et al.
    PeerJ, 2018;6:e5377.
    PMID: 30280012 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.5377
    Proteins of the DUF866 superfamily are exclusively found in eukaryotic cells. A member of the DUF866 superfamily, C1ORF123, is a human protein found in the open reading frame 123 of chromosome 1. The physiological role of C1ORF123 is yet to be determined. The only available protein structure of the DUF866 family shares just 26% sequence similarity and does not contain a zinc binding motif. Here, we present the crystal structure of the recombinant human C1ORF123 protein (rC1ORF123). The structure has a 2-fold internal symmetry dividing the monomeric protein into two mirrored halves that comprise of distinct electrostatic potential. The N-terminal half of rC1ORF123 includes a zinc-binding domain interacting with a zinc ion near to a potential ligand binding cavity. Functional studies of human C1ORF123 and its homologue in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpEss1) point to a role of DUF866 protein in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  12. A Rahim AI, Ibrahim MI, A Salim FN, Ariffin MAI
    PMID: 30781691 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16040591
    Health organizations have widely adopted social media for health promotion, public health communication conveyance, and organizational promotion activities. However, little published data exists on the factors that facilitate health information diffusion in South East Asia, especially Malaysia compared with Western countries. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with good engagement rates among internet users on the Facebook (FB) page of Ministry of Health Malaysia. In this observational study, 2123 FB posts were randomly selected. Data dated from 1 November 2016 to 31 October 2017 was gathered from the Facebook Insight. The logistic regression model was applied to identify factors associated with good engagement rates. This study found that a FB post with a good engagement rate was significantly associated with a health education post (Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR): 3.80, 95% Confidence Interval CI: 3.02⁻4.78, p < 0.001), a risk communication post (AOR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.39⁻2.26, p < 0.001), a post in the afternoon (AOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.34⁻2.31, p < 0.001) or in the evening (AOR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.20⁻1.82, p < 0.001), and a video format (AOR: 3.74, 95% CI: 1.44⁻9.71, p = 0.007). Therefore, we present the first comprehensive analysis of health information engagement among internet users in Malaysia. The growing trends of online health information-seeking behaviors and demand for the availability of validated health information require effective strategies by public health organizations to disseminate health information and achieve better audience engagement on social media.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  13. A Rahim AI, Ibrahim MI, Musa KI, Chua SL
    PMID: 34299905 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18147454
    Patient satisfaction is one indicator used to assess the impact of accreditation on patient care. However, traditional patient satisfaction surveys have a few disadvantages, and some researchers have suggested that social media be used in their place. Social media usage is gaining popularity in healthcare organizations, but there is still a paucity of data to support it. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between online reviews and hospital patient satisfaction and the relationship between online reviews and hospital accreditation. We used a cross-sectional design with data acquired from the official Facebook pages of 48 Malaysian public hospitals, 25 of which are accredited. We collected all patient comments from Facebook reviews of those hospitals between 2018 and 2019. Spearman's correlation and logistic regression were used to evaluate the data. There was a significant and moderate correlation between hospital patient satisfaction and online reviews. Patient satisfaction was closely connected to urban location, tertiary hospital, and previous Facebook ratings. However, hospital accreditation was not found to be significantly associated with online reports of patient satisfaction. This groundbreaking study demonstrates how Facebook reviews can assist hospital administrators in monitoring their institutions' quality of care in real time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  14. A Rahim NN, Chin YS, Sulaiman N
    Nutrients, 2019 Jan 11;11(1).
    PMID: 30641864 DOI: 10.3390/nu11010142
    Considering the double burden of malnutrition in Malaysia, data on malnourished children living in welfare homes are limited. This study aimed to determine the body weight status of children living in welfare homes and its associated factors. A total of 307 children aged 7⁻17 years old living in 15 selected welfare homes completed a standardized questionnaire, and their body weight and height were measured by trained researchers. There were 54.4% orphans, 23.8% abandoned children, and 21.8% children from problematic families. There were 51.5% boys and 48.5% girls; 52.4% were Malays, followed by 31.3% Indians, 12.7% Chinese, and 3.6% from other ethnic groups. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (23.1%) was higher than the prevalence of thinness (8.5%). In bivariate analyses, socio-demographic factors of age (p = 0.003), sex (p = 0.0001), ethnicity (p = 0.001), and welfare home enrollment status (p = 0.003), and psychological factors of self-esteem (p = 0.003), body shape dissatisfaction (p = 0.0001), and underestimation of body weight status (p = 0.002), were significantly associated with body mass index (BMI)-for-age. In the multiple linear regression analysis, children who were either Malays (β = 0.492) or Chinese (β = 0.678), with a status of being abandoned (β = 0.409), with body shape dissatisfaction (β = 0.457), and underestimated body weight status (β = 0.628) significantly explained 39.7% of the variances in higher BMI-for-age (F = 39.550; p < 0.05). Besides socio-demographic background, the current findings emphasized the importance of incorporating body image perception in an obesity prevention intervention program in welfare homes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  15. A Rashid, K., Narayan, K.A., Azizah, A.M.
    The population of the world is ageing and Malaysia is no exception. The proportion of those above 60 will be 9.5% by the year 2020. Cognitive impairment and depression are two common problems in this age group. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression and their associated factors in the elderly population in a rural community in Kedah. The study design was descriptive cross sectional study. A standardized questionnaire was used in two villages in Mukim Kota Kuala Muda. Barthels index, geriatric depression scale and elderly cognitive assessment questionnaire were also used. The prevalence rate of cognitive impairment was 18.5%. Cognitive impairment was higher among females (22.6%) than males (12.8%). 34.8% of the widowed were cognitively impaired and it increases with age 15.1% within age groups 60 to 69 years, 42.9% in age groups 80 to 89 years and the one and only participant above 90 years was cognitively impaired. Among those with disability, the only one with very severe disability had cognitive impairment, 40% among the severely disabled and 33. 3% among the moderately disabled (p<0.05). Those with cognitive impairment were living with some functional disabilities involving feeding (p<0.05), bathing (p<0.05), grooming (p<0.05), dressing (p<0.05), bladder control (p<0.05), toilet use (p<0.05), transfer from bed to chair (p<0.05), mobility on level surfaces (p<0.05) and climbing stairs (p<0.05). The prevalence of depression was found to be 46.4%. Higher among males (48.4%) as compared to females (44.7%). Depression was 50.0% among the age groups 80 to 89 and 52.4% among the age groups 70 to 79. 63.6% of those living alone were depressed as were 54.8% of the unemployed. 43.8% of those depressed had functional disability. The only one with severe disability was depressed and 66. 7% of those with severe disability were depressed. 47.5% of those with hypertension were depressed. It is a matter of concern that even in a small population the rate of cognitive impairment and mental depression is very high. Health screening is an important aspect of health promotion and disease prevention in people over 60 years. Although screening for many conditions cannot conclusively prove benefit, special attention to these factors can decrease morbidity and improve quality of life in aging population.
    Key words: elderly, cognitive impairment, depression, rural community, Malaysia
    Study site: Two villages in Mukim Kota Kuala Muda, Kuala Muda District, Kedah, Malaysia
    Device, Questionnaire & Scale: Barthels index; Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30); Elderly Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  16. A Talip B, Snelling WJ, Sleator RD, Lowery C, Dooley JSG
    BMC Microbiol, 2018 11 26;18(1):196.
    PMID: 30477427 DOI: 10.1186/s12866-018-1335-0
    BACKGROUND: The field of diagnostics continues to advance rapidly with a variety of novel approaches, mainly dependent upon high technology platforms. Nonetheless much diagnosis, particularly in developing countries, still relies upon traditional methods such as microscopy. Biological material, particularly nucleic acids, on archived glass slides is a potential source of useful information both for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes. There are significant challenges faced when examining archived samples in order that an adequate amount of amplifiable DNA can be obtained. Herein, we describe a model system to detect low numbers of bacterial cells isolated from glass slides using (laser capture microscopy) LCM coupled with PCR amplification of a suitable target.

    RESULTS: Mycobacterium smegmatis was used as a model organism to provide a proof of principle for a method to recover bacteria from a stained sample on a glass slide using a laser capture system. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained cells were excised and catapulted into tubes. Recovered cells were subjected to DNA extraction and pre-amplified with multiple displacement amplification (MDA). This system allowed a minimum of 30 catapulted cells to be detected following a nested real-time PCR assay, using rpoB specific primers. The combination of MDA and nested real-time PCR resulted in a 30-fold increase in sensitivity for the detection of low numbers of cells isolated using LCM.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the potential of LCM coupled with MDA as a tool to improve the recovery of amplifiable nucleic acids from archived glass slides. The inclusion of the MDA step was essential to enable downstream amplification. This platform should be broadly applicable to a variety of diagnostic applications and we have used it as a proof of principle with a Mycobacterium sp. model system.

    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  17. A'ziz ANA, Minhat FI, Pan HJ, Shaari H, Saelan WNW, Azmi N, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 Apr 26;11(1):8890.
    PMID: 33903697 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-88404-3
    Pulau Tioman is a famous tourist island off Peninsular Malaysia with beautiful coral reefs. This study aims to assess the health of the coral reefs surrounding Pulau Tioman based on the application of the Foraminifera in Reef Assessment and Monitoring Index (FI). Ten sampling sites around Pulau Tioman were studied with a total of 30 samples. Eight orders, 41 families, 80 genera, and 161 species of benthic foraminifera were identified. The agglutinated type of foraminifera constituted 2-8% of the total assemblages. Calcareous hyaline and porcelaneous groups represented 79% and 19% of the total assemblages, respectively. Symbiont-bearing taxa were the most common foraminifera. The results indicate that most of the sampling sites are conducive for coral reef growth with good recoverability from future stress to the ecosystem. However, several areas with higher coastal development and tourism have reduced water and sediment quality. Therefore, the limit on the number of visitors and tourists should be revised to enable coral growth and health. The FI values in this study showed a positive correlation with good water qualities and a negative correlation with organic matter enrichment. The FI is a good measure to assess the health of a coral reef and can be applied to other reef ecosystems around Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  18. A. B. M. Tofazzal Hossain, Shaila Kabir, Charissa Winston, Loo Yizhan, Sadia Choudhury Shimmi, M. Tanveer Hossain Parash, et al.
    Introduction:A unilateral enlarged tonsil always is a suspicion of carcinoma. Especially if it is with fungating ulcer-ative surface. Neoplasms in unilaterally enlarged tonsil include squamous cell carcinomas and lymphomas. Lym-phomas in oropharynx are not common specially with fungating surface. Usually lymphomas in these areas are Non-Hodgkin’s type. Case description: A 62-year-old woman was admitted in the tertiary level hospital of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, with the complaint of sore throat, odynophagia and right neck swelling. She was treated as a case of acute tonsillitis by general practitioner without any noticeable improvement. Oral cavity examination revealed a hugely enlarged right tonsil with fungating ulcerative surface and almost obstructing the oropharynx. Trismus was seen which make the examination difficult. A non-tender right upper neck swelling was palpable. All baseline lab-oratory investigations were normal. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass at oropharynx compromising the airway, right supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. Histology of biop-sy from right tonsillar mass showed High grade B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy was planned. First cycle of chemo-therapy was administered, Patient was discharged home with the complete plan of chemotherapy. Conclusion: This patient was clinically suspicious of carcinoma of palatine tonsil. But later proven as high grade B-cell lymphoma. All unilateral enlarged tonsils are not always carcinoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  19. A. N. Azahari, N. D.M Yusob, H.A. Saidun, N.K.Y Ali, R. Abdullah, R. Hashim, et al.
    Introduction: Various phantom with varied materials has been proposed to replace the human body. Besides, there is always a demand to use the local material as a phantom material, which is readily available and inexpensive. Wood is usually preferred because it is multifunction, environmentally friendly, low in toxic, inexpensive, as well as easy to use and prepare. Previous studies have found that Rhizophora spp. is a suitable natural source material and has been suggested due to its comparable dosimetric properties to commercial phantom. Methods: In this study, fabricated Rhizophora spp. particleboards phantom was opted as a solid-equivalent phantom medium at low energy photon beams using Gafchromic film x-ray quality assurance 2 (XRQA2). Additionally, the characteristics of XRQA2 film in the diagnostic energy range were generated. Results: Interestingly, the density of the fabricated Rhizophora spp particleboards was observed to have the same density with the water equivalent material (ρ= 1.00 g.cm-3) and has shown to have loosened agreement with PDD of water phantom at approximately 25% of the dose error. Also, further analysis using XRQA 2 film showed that energy was independent at different ranges. Conclusion: The analysis of fabricated Rhizophora spp particleboards undertaken here has extended our knowledge of the possibility of man- ufacturing cost-effective water equivalent phantom by using binder-less particleboard from Rhizophora spp. There- fore, a definite need for smaller interspacing particles should be considered to elevate the potential of Rhizophora spp particle boards as water equivalent materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  20. A/L B Vasanth Rao VR, Tan SH, Candasamy M, Bhattamisra SK
    Diabetes Metab Syndr, 2018 11 30;13(1):754-762.
    PMID: 30641802 DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.11.054
    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease and affects a large number of individuals with diabetes. However, the development of specific treatments for DN has not yet been identified. Hence, this review is concisely designed to understand the molecular pathways leading to DN in order to develop suitable therapeutic strategies. Extensive literature search have been carried in regard with the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of DN, drug targets and updates on clinical trials, the consequences associated with DN and the potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prediction of DN are discussed in this review. DN is characterised by microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, and morphological changes such as glomerular thickening, interstitial fibrosis, formation of nodular glomerulosclerosis and decreased endothelial cell fenestration. Besides, the involvement of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, inflammation and genetic factors are the key pathways in the progression of DN. In regard with drug development drugs targeted to epidermal growth factor, inflammatory cytokines, ACTH receptor and TGFβ1 receptors are in pipeline for clinical trials whereas, several drugs have also failed in phase III and phase IV of clinical trials due to lack of efficacy and severe adverse effect. The research on DN is limited with respect to its pathogenesis and drug development. Thus, a more detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of DN is very essential to progress in the drug development process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
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