Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1456 in total

  1. Shimelis H, Mesman RLS, Von Nicolai C, Ehlen A, Guidugli L, Martin C, et al.
    Cancer Res., 2017 06 01;77(11):2789-2799.
    PMID: 28283652 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-2568
    Breast cancer risks conferred by many germline missense variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, often referred to as variants of uncertain significance (VUS), have not been established. In this study, associations between 19 BRCA1 and 33 BRCA2 missense substitution variants and breast cancer risk were investigated through a breast cancer case-control study using genotyping data from 38 studies of predominantly European ancestry (41,890 cases and 41,607 controls) and nine studies of Asian ancestry (6,269 cases and 6,624 controls). The BRCA2 c.9104A>C, p.Tyr3035Ser (OR = 2.52; P = 0.04), and BRCA1 c.5096G>A, p.Arg1699Gln (OR = 4.29; P = 0.009) variant were associated with moderately increased risks of breast cancer among Europeans, whereas BRCA2 c.7522G>A, p.Gly2508Ser (OR = 2.68; P = 0.004), and c.8187G>T, p.Lys2729Asn (OR = 1.4; P = 0.004) were associated with moderate and low risks of breast cancer among Asians. Functional characterization of the BRCA2 variants using four quantitative assays showed reduced BRCA2 activity for p.Tyr3035Ser compared with wild-type. Overall, our results show how BRCA2 missense variants that influence protein function can confer clinically relevant, moderately increased risks of breast cancer, with potential implications for risk management guidelines in women with these specific variants. Cancer Res; 77(11); 2789-99. ©2017 AACR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  2. Zhang Y, Yan W, Collins MA, Bednar F, Rakshit S, Zetter BR, et al.
    Cancer Res., 2013 Oct 15;73(20):6359-74.
    PMID: 24097820 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-1558-T
    Pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest human malignancies, is almost invariably associated with the presence of an oncogenic form of Kras. Mice expressing oncogenic Kras in the pancreas recapitulate the stepwise progression of the human disease. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 is often expressed by multiple cell types within the tumor microenvironment. Here, we show that IL-6 is required for the maintenance and progression of pancreatic cancer precursor lesions. In fact, the lack of IL-6 completely ablates cancer progression even in presence of oncogenic Kras. Mechanistically, we show that IL-6 synergizes with oncogenic Kras to activate the reactive oxygen species detoxification program downstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling cascade. In addition, IL-6 regulates the inflammatory microenvironment of pancreatic cancer throughout its progression, providing several signals that are essential for carcinogenesis. Thus, IL-6 emerges as a key player at all stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis and a potential therapeutic target.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  3. Razali WA, Sreenivasan VK, Bradac C, Connor M, Goldys EM, Zvyagin AV
    J Biophotonics, 2016 08;9(8):848-58.
    PMID: 27264934 DOI: 10.1002/jbio.201600050
    Fluorescence microscopy is a fundamental technique for the life sciences, where biocompatible and photostable photoluminescence probes in combination with fast and sensitive imaging systems are continually transforming this field. A wide-field time-gated photoluminescence microscopy system customised for ultrasensitive imaging of unique nanoruby probes with long photoluminescence lifetime is described. The detection sensitivity derived from the long photoluminescence lifetime of the nanoruby makes it possible to discriminate signals from unwanted autofluorescence background and laser backscatter by employing a time-gated image acquisition mode. This mode enabled several-fold improvement of the photoluminescence imaging contrast of discrete nanorubies dispersed on a coverslip. It enabled recovery of the photoluminescence signal emanating from discrete nanorubies when covered by a layer of an organic fluorescent dye, which were otherwise invisible without the use of spectral filtering approaches. Time-gated imaging also facilitated high sensitivity detection of nanorubies in a biological environment of cultured cells. Finally, we monitor the binding kinetics of nanorubies to a functionalised substrate, which exemplified a real-time assay in biological fluids. 3D-pseudo colour images of nanorubies immersed in a highly fluorescent dye solution. Nanoruby photoluminescence is subdued by that of the dye in continuous excitation/imaging (left), however it can be recovered by time-gated imaging (right). At the bottom is schematic diagram of nanoruby assay in a biological fluid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  4. Somchit N, Sanat F, Gan EH, Shahrin IA, Zuraini A
    Singapore Med J, 2004 Nov;45(11):530-2.
    PMID: 15510325
    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to treat musculoskeletal disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Virtually all NSAIDs are capable of producing liver injury ranging from mild reversible elevation of liver enzymes to severe hepatic necrosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  5. Fong MY, Lau YL, Zulqarnain M
    Biotechnol. Lett., 2008 Apr;30(4):611-8.
    PMID: 18043869
    The surface antigen 2 (SAG2) gene of the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, was cloned and extracellularly expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The effectiveness of the secreted recombinant SAG2 (rSAG2-S) as a serodiagnosis reagent was assessed by western blots and ELISA. In the western blot assay, rSAG2-S reacted with all Toxoplasma-antibody positive human serum samples but not with Toxoplasma-negative samples. In the ELISA, rSAG2-S yielded sensitivity rates ranging from 80% (IgG negative, IgM positive) to 100% (IgG positive, IgM negative). In vivo experiments showed that serum from mice immunized with rSAG2-S reacted specifically with the native SAG2 of T. gondii. These mice were protected when challenged with live cells of T. gondii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  6. Karuppaiya A, Cheah SH, Mohd S, Kamal WH, Zulkifli MH
    Hybridoma (Larchmt), 2009 Apr;28(2):133-7.
    PMID: 19249990 DOI: 10.1089/hyb.2008.0085
    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely used as a diagnostic marker for the detection of prostate cancer in men. We have generated stable hybridomas producing specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of the IgG class against PSA from fusions of splenocytes from immunized mice with myeloma cells. The hybridomas were adapted into serum-free media and cultured in CELLine CL-1000 bioreactors to produce milligram quantities of MAbs. Cross-reactivity study demonstrated that all the MAbs reacted did not cross-react with several other types of tumor antigens. Two of the MAbs were successfully radiolabeled by the iodogen method. The (125)I-labeled MAbs demonstrated strong binding to PSA on the surface of the LNCaP cells (Kd of 1.16 x 10(-9) M and 1.4 x 10(-9) M). Thus the (125)I-labeled MAbs retained their immunoreactivity and possessed high affinity and is potentially useful for binding to tumor cells. In conclusion, the MAbs can be used to develop radioimmunodiagnostic, radioimaging, and immunohistochemistry techniques for the early detection and treatment of prostate cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  7. Dahham SS, Hassan LE, Ahamed MB, Majid AS, Majid AM, Zulkepli NN
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016 Jul 22;16:236.
    PMID: 27450078 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1210-1
    Aquilaria crassna has been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat vomiting, rheumatism, asthma, and cough. Furthermore, earlier studies from our laboratory have revealed that the essential oil extract from agarwood inhibited colorectal carcinoma cells. Despite of the wide range of ethno-pharmacological uses of agarwood, its toxicity has not been previously evaluated through systematic toxicological studies. Therefore, the potential safety of essential oil extract and its in vivo anti-tumor activity had been investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Nude; Mice
  8. Rehman K, Aluwi MF, Rullah K, Wai LK, Mohd Amin MC, Zulfakar MH
    Int J Pharm, 2015 Jul 25;490(1-2):131-41.
    PMID: 26003416 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.05.045
    Imiquimod is a chemotherapeutic agent for many skin-associated diseases, but it has also been associated with inflammatory side effects. The aim of this study was to prevent the inflammatory effect of commercial imiquimod (Aldara(®)) by controlled release of imiquimod through a hydrogel/oleogel colloidal mixture (CA bigel) containing fish oil as an anti-inflammatory agent. Imiquimod permeability from Aldara® cream and bigel through mice skin was evaluated, and the drug content residing in the skin via the tape stripping technique was quantified. The fish oil fatty acid content in skin along with its lipophilic environment was also determined. An inflammation study was conducted using animal models, and Aldara(®) cream was found to potentially cause psoriasis-like inflammation, which could be owing to prolonged application and excessive drug permeation. Controlled release of imiquimod along with fish oil through CA bigel may have caused reduced imiquimod inflammation. NMR studies and computerized molecular modeling were also conducted to observe whether the fish oil and imiquimod formed a complex that was responsible for improving imiquimod transport and reducing its side effects. NMR spectra showed dose-dependent chemical shifts and molecular modeling revealed π-σ interaction between EPA and imiquimod, which could help reduce imiquimod inflammation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  9. Rehman K, Zulfakar MH
    Pharm. Res., 2017 01;34(1):36-48.
    PMID: 27620176 DOI: 10.1007/s11095-016-2036-8
    PURPOSE: To characterize bigel system as a topical drug delivery vehicle and to establish the immunomodulatory role of imiquimod-fish oil combination against skin cancer and inflammation resulting from chemical carcinogenesis.

    METHODS: Imiquimod-loaded fish oil bigel colloidal system was prepared using a blend of carbopol hydrogel and fish oil oleogel. Bigels were first characterized for their mechanical properties and compared to conventional gel systems. Ex vivo permeation studies were performed on murine skin to analyze the ability of the bigels to transport drug across skin and to predict the release mechanism via mathematical modelling. Furthermore, to analyze pharmacological effectiveness in skin cancer and controlling imiquimod-induced inflammatory side effects, imiquimod-fish oil combination was tested in vitro on epidermoid carcinoma cells and in vivo in Swiss albino mice cancer model.

    RESULTS: Imiquimod-loaded fish oil bigels exhibited higher drug availability inside the skin as compared to individual imiquimod hydrogel and oleogel controls through quasi-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Imiquimod-fish oil combination in bigel enhanced the antitumor effects and significantly reduced serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, and reducing tumor progression via inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor. Imiquimod-fish oil combination also resulted in increased expression of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which could also aid anti-tumor activity against skin cancer.

    CONCLUSION: Imiquimod administration through a bigel vehicle along with fish oil could be beneficial for controlling imiquimod-induced inflammatory side effects and in the treatment of skin cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  10. Sarker MM, Zhong M
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2014 Jan-Feb;46(1):40-5.
    PMID: 24550583 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.125164
    Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a popular tumor vaccine carrier protein and an immunostimulant. The present study aimed to investigate the immunoregulatory activity of KLH on cytotoxicity, cytokines production, and proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells. Moreover, antiproliferative activity of KLH on Meth A sarcoma cells was studied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice
  11. Akowuah GA, Zhari I
    Pharmazie, 2008 Nov;63(11):788-90.
    PMID: 19069237
    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine the content of betulinic acid (BA) in rat plasma collected at different times (0-8 h) after oral administration of Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extract was developed. The features of the assay include protein precipitation using acetonitrile and isocratic elution using reverse phase C-18 column with ultraviolet (UV) detection. The recovery of BA from plasma varied from 98.4 to 102.5%. The R.S.D of intra- and inter-day precision from rat plasma ranged from 4.2 to 9.8%. The maximum concentration of BA in the plasma was 1.2 +/- 0.3 microg/ml at 1 h after oral administration of the extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  12. Hu T, Zheng Y, Zhang Y, Li G, Qiu W, Yu J, et al.
    BMC Microbiol., 2012;12:305.
    PMID: 23268691 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-12-305
    The identification of new virus strains is important for the study of infectious disease, but current (or existing) molecular biology methods are limited since the target sequence must be known to design genome-specific PCR primers. Thus, we developed a new method for the discovery of unknown viruses based on the cDNA--random amplified polymorphic DNA (cDNA-RAPD) technique. Getah virus, belonging to the family Togaviridae in the genus Alphavirus, is a mosquito-borne enveloped RNA virus that was identified using the Virus-Discovery-cDNA RAPD (VIDISCR) method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  13. Karunakaran T, Ee GCL, Ismail IS, Mohd Nor SM, Zamakshshari NH
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2018 Jun;32(12):1390-1394.
    PMID: 28715912 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1350666
    Pure β-mangostin (1) was isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana L. One monoacetate (2) and five O-alkylated β-mangostin derivatives (3-7) were synthesised from β-mangostin. The structures of these compounds were elucidated and determined using spectroscopic techniques such as 1D NMR and MS. The cytotoxicities and anti-inflammatory activities of these five compounds against RAW cell 264.7 were tested. The structural-activity relationship studies indicated that β-mangostin showed a significant activity against the LPS-induced RAW cell 264.7, while the acetyl- as well as the O-alkyl- β-mangostin derivatives did not give good activity. Naturally occurring β-mangostin demonstrated comparatively better anti-inflammatory activity than its synthetic counterparts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  14. Mohd Ridzuan MA, Sow A, Noor Rain A, Mohd Ilham A, Zakiah I
    Trop Biomed, 2007 Jun;24(1):111-8.
    PMID: 17568384 MyJurnal
    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as 'Tongkat Ali' is a popular local medicinal plant that possess a lot of medicinal properties as claimed traditionally, especially in the treatment of malaria. The claims have been proven scientifically on isolated compounds from the plant. The present study is to investigate the anti malaria properties of Eurycoma longifolia standardized extract (root) (TA164) alone and in combination with artemisinin in vivo. Combination treatment of the standardized extract (TA164) with artemisinin suppressed P. yoelii infection in the experimental mice. The 4 day suppressive test showed that TA164 suppressed the parasitemia of P. yoelii-infected mice as dose dependent manner (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg BW) by oral and subcutaneous treatment. By oral administration, combination of TA164 at 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg BW each with artemisinin respectively showed a significant increase in the parasitemia suppression to 63, 67 and 80 percent as compared to artemisinin single treatment (31%). Using subcutaneous administration, at 10 mg/kg BW of TA164 in combination with 1.7 mg/kg BW of artemisinin gave a suppression of 80% of infection. This study showed that combination treatment of TA164 with artemisinin gives a promising potential anti malaria candidate using both oral and subcutaneous route, the later being the most potent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  15. Mohd Ridzuan MA, Ruenruetai U, Noor Rain A, Khozirah S, Zakiah I
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Dec;23(2):140-6.
    PMID: 17322815 MyJurnal
    Malaria is a disease which is still endemic and has become a disastrous scourge because of the emergence of antimalarial drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. A new approach in addressing this is in developing a combination drug. This study is to show the enhancement of antimalarial properties, when single compound, goniothalamin combine with standard drug, chloroquine. Based on 4 Day Test, percentage of parasite growth on treated infected mice were determined. Oral treatment with 1 mg/kg BW of chloroquine on experimental mice suppressed 70% and 76.7% of both Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei, respectively. The infection of P. berghei in mice was inhibited less than 50% by goniothalamin individual treatment at all doses in this study. About 27.8% and 18.5% inhibition of infection were observed in P. yoelii infected mice treated with 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of goniothalamin respectively and the suppression exceed more than 50% at higher doses (90 and 120 mg/kg). Combination of 1 mg/kg chloroquine with either 30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg of goniothalamin decreased the parasitemia of P. yoelii infected mice more than 90% and prolong the survival up to 100% after treatment. Similar treatment to P. berghei infected mice only shows about 60% reduction of parasitemia. The study findings showed that antimalarial property of goniothalamin was enhanced by combination with chloroquine at lower dose of each drug.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  16. Ong YS, Saiful Yazan L, Ng WK, Abdullah R, Mustapha NM, Sapuan S, et al.
    Nanomedicine (Lond), 2018 07;13(13):1567-1582.
    PMID: 30028248 DOI: 10.2217/nnm-2017-0322
    AIM: To investigate the enhancement of anticancer activity of thymoquinone (TQ) by the use of nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) in 4T1 tumor-bearing female BALB/c mice.

    MATERIAL & METHODS: TQ was incorporated into NLC (TQNLC) by using high pressure homogenization. TQNLC and TQ were orally administered to the mice.

    RESULTS & CONCLUSION: TQNLC and TQ are potential chemotherapeutic drugs as they exhibited anticancer activity. The use of NLC as a carrier has enhanced the therapeutic property of TQ by increasing the survival rate of mice. The antimetastasis effect of TQNLC and TQ to the lungs was evidence by downregulation of MMP-2. TQNLC and TQ induced apoptosis via modulation of Bcl-2 and caspase-8 in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  17. Hammadi NI, Abba Y, Hezmee MNM, Razak ISA, Kura AU, Zakaria ZAB
    In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim., 2017 Dec;53(10):896-907.
    PMID: 28916966 DOI: 10.1007/s11626-017-0197-3
    Cockle shell-derived calcium carbonate nanoparticles have shown promising potentials as slow drug-releasing compounds in cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro efficacy of docetaxel (DTX)-loaded CaCO3NP on 4T1 cell line. This was achieved by evaluating the following: cytotoxicity using MTT assay, fluorescence imaging, apoptosis with Annexin V assay, cell cycle analysis, scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scratch assay. Based on the results, DTX-CaCO3NP with a DTX concentration of 0.5 μg/mL and above had comparable cytotoxic effects with free DTX at 24 h, while all concentrations had similar cytotoxic effect on 4T1 cells at 48 and 72 h. Fluorescence and apoptosis assay showed a higher (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  18. Mamat SS, Kamarolzaman MF, Yahya F, Mahmood ND, Shahril MS, Jakius KF, et al.
    PMID: 24267313 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-326
    Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomaceae) is a small shrub with various medicinal uses. The present study was carried out to determine the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves (MEMM) against the paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  19. Mahmood ND, Mamat SS, Kamisan FH, Yahya F, Kamarolzaman MF, Nasir N, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:695678.
    PMID: 24868543 DOI: 10.1155/2014/695678
    Muntingia calabura L. is a tropical plant species that belongs to the Elaeocarpaceae family. The present study is aimed at determining the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC) using two models of liver injury in rats. Rats were divided into five groups (n=6) and received 10% DMSO (negative control), 50 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine (NAC; positive control), or MEMC (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg) orally once daily for 7 days and on the 8th day were subjected to the hepatotoxic induction using paracetamol (PCM). The blood and liver tissues were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. The extract was also subjected to antioxidant study using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-(DPPH) and superoxide anion-radical scavenging assays. At the same time, oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and total phenolic content were also determined. From the histological observation, lymphocyte infiltration and marked necrosis were observed in PCM-treated groups (negative control), whereas maintenance of hepatic structure was observed in group pretreated with N-acetylcysteine and MEMC. Hepatotoxic rats pretreated with NAC or MEMC exhibited significant decrease (P<0.05) in ALT and AST enzymes level. Moreover, the extract also exhibited good antioxidant activity. In conclusion, MEMC exerts potential hepatoprotective activity that could be partly attributed to its antioxidant activity and, thus warrants further investigations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
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