Displaying publications 21 - 32 of 32 in total

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  1. Wong HV, Vythilingam I, Sulaiman WY, Lulla A, Merits A, Chan YF, et al.
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2016 Jan;94(1):182-6.
    PMID: 26598564 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0318
    Vertical transmission may contribute to the maintenance of arthropod-borne viruses, but its existence in chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is unclear. Experimental vertical transmission of infectious clones of CHIKV in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Malaysia was investigated. Eggs and adult progeny from the second gonotrophic cycles of infected parental mosquitoes were tested. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 56.3% of pooled eggs and 10% of adult progeny had detectable CHIKV RNA, but no samples had detectable infectious virus by plaque assay. Transfected CHIKV RNA from PCR-positive eggs did not yield infectious virus in BHK-21 cells. Thus, vertical transmission of viable CHIKV was not demonstrated. Noninfectious CHIKV RNA persists in eggs and progeny of infected Ae. aegypti, but the mechanism and significance are unknown. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that vertical transmission exists in CHIKV, as positive results reported in previous studies were almost exclusively based only on viral RNA detection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  2. Elliott R
    Can HIV AIDS Policy Law Rev, 2003 Apr;8(1):77.
    PMID: 12924337
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  3. Hamid MZ, Aziz NA, Zulkifli ZS, Norlijah O, Azhar RK
    PMID: 18564712
    A prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the incidence of progressive encephalopathy (PE) and its associated clinical manifestations amongst a cohort of HIV infected children attending the HIV/AIDS clinic of the Pediatric Institute, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Malaysia. Neurological and neurobehavioral assessments were performed in 55 children with HIV over a 24-month study period. Parameters assessed were physical and neurological assessments, CD4 counts, CD4 percentages, RNA viral loads and an IQ assessment at four monthly intervals. PE was diagnosed when patient developed at least one of the definitive criteria for PE based on the Consensus of Pediatric Neurology/Psychology Working Group, AIDS Clinical Trial 1996. The incidence of encephalopathy was 18.2% (n = 10) in 2002. All the patients had hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, abnormal deep tendon reflexes and five had impairment in brain growth. The CD4 counts and CD4 percentages were more likely to be associated with PE compared to the non-PE group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  4. Balkis, A.K., Zahari, C.D.
    MyJurnal
    National Antenatal HIV Screening Programme has been integrated as a routine screening in antenatal care in early 1998 and in Terengganu since May 1998 involving all health centers in the state. As of December 2001, a total number of 57,882 antenatal mothers were screened (97.5% of all new antenatal mothers). The HIV prevalence rate among antenatal mothers was found to be 0.052%. All HIV positive mothers were married and majority were Malays (93 .3%). Ninety percents of them revealed that the only risk factorfor HIV was through sexual contact. HIV positive status was confirmed in 66 .7% ofthe husbands. All twenty eight mothers that managed to be followed up delivered to live birth babies. All newborns reported to have good Apgar score (9 at 5 minutes of life). Mean birth weight was 3 .08 kilograms 1- 0.45 and only 8% were premature babies. The observed rate of HIV vertical transmission was 6.25% and this is lower than the expected mother to child transmission rate of 30% without intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  5. Sahlan N, Fadzilah MN, Muslim A, Shaari SA, Abdul Rahman T, Hoh BP
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 Aug;74(4):320-325.
    PMID: 31424040
    INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among the non-indigenous people in Malaysia has been well established and range between 3% and 5%. However, data from the indigenous (Orang Asli) people is still lacking. The Negrito population is the most remotely located Orang Asli tribe with limited access to health care facilities. This study was undertaken to determine the epidemiology and seroprevalence of HBV infection among the Negrito.

    METHODS: Surveys were conducted in five Negrito settlements in Kelantan and Perak states in Malaysia. A total of 150 participants were recruited. Clinical history was taken and physical examination was performed. Five millilitres of whole blood were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.

    RESULTS: Participants were mainly from the Bateq (49.3%) and Mendriq (29.4%) sub-tribes. Overall, 13 subjects (8.7 %); nine males and four females were HBsAg positive. Nine of the HBsAg positive subjects were ≥35 years old. All of them had history of home deliver without evidence of antenatal record. Six (46%) of the HBsAg positive subjects had tattoo and body piercing in the past.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HBV infection rate amongst the Negrito tribe is almost three-fold compared to the national rates. The reason for this finding remains unclear. Tattooing, body piercing and vertical transmission could be the main possible routes of transmission of HBV among the Negrito population in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  6. Cheah TS, Mattsson JG, Zaini M, Sani RA, Jakubek EB, Uggla A, et al.
    Vet. Parasitol., 2004 Dec 15;126(3):263-9.
    PMID: 15567590
    In order to attempt isolate the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum, an N. caninum seropositive pregnant Sahiwal Friesian cross heifer from a large-scale dairy farm in Malaysia was kept for observation until parturition at the Veterinary Research Institute, Ipoh. The heifer gave birth to a female calf that was weak, underweight and unable to rise. Precolostral serum from the calf had an N. caninum indirect fluorescent antibody test titre of 1:3200. It died 12 h after birth and necropsy was performed. Brain homogenate from the calf was inoculated into 10 BALB/c mice that were kept for 3 months after which brain tissue from the mice was inoculated onto 24 h fresh monolayer Vero cell lines. The cell cultures were examined daily until growth of intracellular protozoa was observed. DNA of the organisms from the cell cultures was analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing. DNA fragments of the expected size were amplified from the isolate using N. caninum-specific primers, and sequence analysis of ITS1 clearly identified the isolate as N. caninum. This is the first successful isolation of N. caninum from a bovine in Malaysia, and the isolate is designated Nc-MalB1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/veterinary
  7. Yang F, Guo GZ, Chen JQ, Ma HW, Liu T, Huang DN, et al.
    Epidemiol. Infect., 2014 Feb;142(2):225-33.
    PMID: 23587429 DOI: 10.1017/S0950268813000897
    A suspected dengue fever outbreak occurred in 2010 at a solitary construction site in Shenzhen city, China. To investigate this epidemic, we used serological, molecular biological, and bioinformatics techniques. Of nine serum samples from suspected patients, we detected seven positive for dengue virus (DENV) antibodies, eight for DENV-1 RNA, and three containing live viruses. The isolated virus, SZ1029 strain, was sequenced and confirmed as DENV-1, showing the highest E-gene homology to D1/Malaysia/36000/05 and SG(EHI)DED142808 strains recently reported in Southeast Asia. Further phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed their close relationship. At the epidemic site, we also detected 14 asymptomatic co-workers (out of 291) positive for DENV antibody, and DENV-1-positive mosquitoes. Thus, we concluded that DENV-1 caused the first local dengue fever outbreak in Shenzhen. Because no imported case was identified, the molecular fingerprints of the SZ1029 strain suggest this outbreak may be due to vertical transmission imported from Southeast Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  8. Wong LP, Syuhada AR
    PMID: 22299438
    Globally, HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes deter the effectiveness of HIV prevention and care programs. This study investigated the general public's perceptions about HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS in order to understand the root of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes. Study was carried out using qualitative focus group discussions (FGD). An interview guide with semi-structured questions was used. Participants were members of the public in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was adopted for recruitment of participants. A total 14 focus group discussions (n = 74) was carried out between March and July 2008. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) was profound. Key factors affecting discriminatory attitudes included high-risk taking behavior, individuals related to stigmatized identities, sources of HIV infection, stage of the disease, and relationship with an infected person. Other factors that influence attitudes toward PLWHA include ethnicity and urban-rural locality. Malay participants were less likely than other ethnic groups to perceive no stigmatization if their spouses were HIV positive. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination were stronger among participants in rural settings. The differences indicate attitudes toward PLWHA are influenced by cultural differences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  9. Shamsuddin K, Marmuji LZ
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Oct;51(10):800-5.
    PMID: 21103816
    Several strategies have been developed to reduce hepatitis B infections. These include antenatal screening, universal immunisation of newborns and immunoglobulin therapy for babies who are at risk. Antenatal screening for hepatitis B is not routinely performed, but all newborns in Malaysia are immunised against hepatitis B. We assessed the prevalence of hepatitis B and the factors associated with it among antenatal mothers in Ipoh. This information is useful in decision-making for future hepatitis B screening programmes for antenatal mothers, allowing for immunoglobulin therapies for newborns if their mother's hepatitis B virus (HBV) status is known.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  10. Yap PK, Loo Xin GL, Tan YY, Chellian J, Gupta G, Liew YK, et al.
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2019 Sep;71(9):1339-1352.
    PMID: 31144296 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.13107
    OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral agents (ARVs) have been the most promising line of therapy in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Some of these ARVs are used in the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to suppress the transmission of HIV. Prophylaxis is primarily used in uninfected people, before exposure, to effectively prevent HIV infection. Several studies have shown that ART PrEP prevents HIV acquisition from sexual, blood and mother-to-child transmissions. However, there are also several challenges and limitations to PrEP. This review focuses on the current antiretroviral therapies used in PrEP.

    KEY FINDINGS: Among ARVs, the most common drugs employed from the class of entry inhibitors are maraviroc (MVC), which is a CCR5 receptor antagonist. Other entry inhibitors like emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) are also used. Rilpivirine (RPV) and dapivirine (DPV) are the most common drugs employed from the Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs) class, whereas, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is primarily used in the Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTIs) class. Cabotegravir (CAB) is an analog of dolutegravir, and it is an integrase inhibitor. Some of these drugs are also used in combination with other drugs from the same class.

    SUMMARY: Some of the most common pre-exposure prophylactic strategies employed currently are the use of inhibitors, namely entry inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, integrase and protease inhibitors. In addition, we have also discussed on the adverse effects caused by ART in PrEP, pharmacoeconomics factors and the use of antiretroviral prophylaxis in serodiscordant couples.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  11. Chua KB, Ngeow YF, Ng KB, Chye JK, Lim CT
    Singapore Med J, 1998 Jul;39(7):300-2.
    PMID: 9885690
    A prospective study was carried out at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur to determine the cervical carriage rate of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis among healthy pregnant women at delivery and the incidence of nasopharyngeal colonisation among their infants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  12. Boettiger DC, Sudjaritruk T, Nallusamy R, Lumbiganon P, Rungmaitree S, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Adolesc Health, 2016 Apr;58(4):451-459.
    PMID: 26803201 DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.11.006
    PURPOSE: About a third of untreated, perinatally HIV-infected children reach adolescence. We evaluated the durability and effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this population.

    METHODS: Data from perinatally HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve patients initiated on NNRTI-based ART aged 10-19 years who had ≥6 months of follow-up were analyzed. Competing risk regression was used to assess predictors of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure (World Health Organization Stage 3/4 event or death). Viral suppression was defined as a viral load <400 copies/mL.

    RESULTS: Data from 534 adolescents met our inclusion criteria (56.2% female; median age at treatment initiation 11.8 years). After 5 years of treatment, median height-for-age z score increased from -2.3 to -1.6, and median CD4+ cell count increased from 131 to 580 cells/mm(3). The proportion of patients with viral suppression after 6 months was 87.6% and remained >80% up to 5 years of follow-up. NNRTI substitution and clinical failure occurred at rates of 4.9 and 1.4 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation was associated with NNRTI substitution (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5 vs. using; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-2.2; p = .05). Baseline CD4+ count ≤200 cells/mm(3) (HR, 3.3 vs. >200; 95% CI = 1.2-8.9; p = .02) and not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation (HR, 2.1 vs. using; 95% CI = 1.0-4.6; p = .05) were both associated with clinical failure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite late ART initiation, adolescents achieved good rates of catch-up growth, CD4+ count recovery, and virological suppression. Earlier ART initiation and routine cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in this population may help to reduce current rates of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
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