Displaying publications 41 - 55 of 55 in total

  1. Shamsudin S, Selamat J, Sanny M, A R SB, Jambari NN, Khatib A
    Molecules, 2019 Oct 29;24(21).
    PMID: 31671885 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24213898
    Stingless bee honey produced by Heterotrigona itama from different botanical origins was characterised and discriminated. Three types of stingless bee honey collected from acacia, gelam, and starfruit nectars were analyzed and compared with Apis mellifera honey. The results showed that stingless bee honey samples from the three different botanical origins were significantly different in terms of their moisture content, pH, free acidity, total soluble solids, colour characteristics, sugar content, amino acid content and antioxidant properties. Stingless bee honey was significantly different from Apis mellifera honey in terms of physicochemical and antioxidant properties. The amino acid content was further used in the chemometrics analysis to evaluate the role of amino acid in discriminating honey according to botanical origin. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed that the stingless bee honey was completely distinguishable from Apis mellifera honey. Notably, a clear distinction between the stingless bee honey types was also observed. The specific amino acids involved in the distinction of honey were cysteine for acacia and gelam, phenylalanine and 3-hydroxyproline for starfruit, and proline for Apismellifera honey. The results showed that all honey samples were successfully classified based on amino acid content.
  2. Mediani A, Abas F, Khatib A, Tan CP, Ismail IS, Shaari K, et al.
    Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 2015 Jun;70(2):184-92.
    PMID: 25800644 DOI: 10.1007/s11130-015-0478-5
    The study investigated the changes in the metabolite, antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Phyllanthus niruri after three drying treatments: air, freeze and oven dryings. Water extracts and extracts obtained using different solvent ratios of ethanol and methanol (50, 70, 80 and 100%) were compared. The relationships among the antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and metabolite levels of the extracts were evaluated using partial least-square analysis (PLS). The solvent selectivity was assessed based on the phytochemical constituents present in the extract and their concentrations quantitatively analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. The freeze-dried P. niruri samples that were extracted with the mixture of ethanol or methanol with low ratio of water showed higher biological activity values compared with the other extracts. The PLS results for the ethanolic with different ratio and water extracts demonstrated that phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid) and flavonoids were highly linked to strong α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities.
  3. Wan-Nadilah WA, Akhtar MT, Shaari K, Khatib A, Hamid AA, Hamid M
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Sep 05;19(1):245.
    PMID: 31488132 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2655-9
    BACKGROUND: Cosmos caudatus is an annual plant known for its medicinal value in treating several health conditions, such as high blood pressure, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the leaf aqueous ethanolic extracts of the plant at different growth stages (6, 8. 10, 12 and 14 weeks) were determined in an effort to ascertain the best time to harvest the plant for maximum medicinal quality with respect to its glucose-lowering effects.

    METHODS: The aqueous ethanolic leaf extracts of C. caudatus were characterized by NMR and LC-MS/MS. The total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, respectively. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated using one-way ANOVA with Duncan's post hoc test, and correlation among the different activities was performed by Pearson's correlation test. NMR spectroscopy along with multivariate data analysis was used to identify the metabolites correlated with total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the C. caudatus leaf extracts.

    RESULTS: It was found that the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the optimized ethanol:water (80:20) leaf extract of the plant increased significantly as the plant matured, reaching a maximum at the 10th week. The IC50 value for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (39.18 μg mL- 1) at the 10th week showed greater potency than the positive standard, quercetin (110.50 μg mL- 1). Through an 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach, the 10-week-old samples were shown to be correlated with a high total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. From the partial least squares biplot, rutin and flavonoid glycosides, consisting of quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and quercetin 3-O-xyloside, were identified as the major bioactive metabolites. The metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopy (J-resolve, HSQC and HMBC experiments) and further supported by dereplication via LC-MS/MS.

    CONCLUSION: For high phytomedicinal quality, the 10th week is recommended as the best time to harvest C. caudatus leaves with respect to its glucose lowering potential.

  4. Alam MA, Zaidul IS, Ghafoor K, Sahena F, Hakim MA, Rafii MY, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Mar 31;17(1):181.
    PMID: 28359331 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1684-5
    BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to evaluate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with a subsequent analysis of total phenolic and total flavonoid content of methanol extract and its derived fractions from Clinacanthus nutans accompanied by comprehensive phytochemical profiling.

    METHODS: Liquid-liquid partition chromatography was used to separate methanolic extract to get hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and residual aqueous fractions. The total antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The antidiabetic activity of methanol extract and its consequent fractions were examined by α-glucosidase inhibitory bioassay. The chemical profiling was carried out by gas chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC Q-TOF MS).

    RESULTS: The total yield for methanol extraction was (12.63 ± 0.98) % (w/w) and highest fractionated value found for residual aqueous (52.25 ± 1.01) % (w/w) as compared to the other fractions. Significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity was found for methanolic extract (63.07 ± 0.11) % and (79.98 ± 0.31) % for ethyl acetate fraction among all the fractions evaluated. Methanol extract was the most prominent in case of FRAP (141.89 ± 0.87 μg AAE/g) whereas most effective reducing power observed in ethyl acetate fraction (133.6 ± 0.2987 μg AAE/g). The results also indicated a substantial α-glucosidase inhibitory activity for butanol fraction (72.16 ± 1.0) % and ethyl acetate fraction (70.76 ± 0.49) %. The statistical analysis revealed that total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the samples had the significant (p 

  5. Easmin S, Sarker MZI, Ghafoor K, Ferdosh S, Jaffri J, Ali ME, et al.
    J Food Drug Anal, 2017 Apr;25(2):306-315.
    PMID: 28911672 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfda.2016.09.007
    Phaleria macrocarpa, known as "Mahkota Dewa", is a widely used medicinal plant in Malaysia. This study focused on the characterization of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of P. macrocarpa extracts using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-based metabolomics. P. macrocarpa and its extracts contain thousands of compounds having synergistic effect. Generally, their variability exists, and there are many active components in meager amounts. Thus, the conventional measurement methods of a single component for the quality control are time consuming, laborious, expensive, and unreliable. It is of great interest to develop a rapid prediction method for herbal quality control to investigate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of P. macrocarpa by multicomponent analyses. In this study, a rapid and simple analytical method was developed using FTIR spectroscopy-based fingerprinting. A total of 36 extracts of different ethanol concentrations were prepared and tested on inhibitory potential and fingerprinted using FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with chemometrics of orthogonal partial least square (OPLS) at the 4000-400 cm-1 frequency region and resolution of 4 cm-1. The OPLS model generated the highest regression coefficient with R2Y = 0.98 and Q2Y = 0.70, lowest root mean square error estimation = 17.17, and root mean square error of cross validation = 57.29. A five-component (1+4+0) predictive model was build up to correlate FTIR spectra with activity, and the responsible functional groups, such as -CH, -NH, -COOH, and -OH, were identified for the bioactivity. A successful multivariate model was constructed using FTIR-attenuated total reflection as a simple and rapid technique to predict the inhibitory activity.
  6. Abu Bakar Sajak A, Mediani A, Maulidiani, Mohd Dom NS, Machap C, Hamid M, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2017 Dec 01;36:201-209.
    PMID: 29157816 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.10.011
    BACKGROUND: Ipomoea aquatica (locally known as "kangkung") has previously been reported to have hypoglycemic activities on glucose level in diabetes patients. However, the effect of I. aquatica ethanolic extract on the metabolites in the body has remained unknown.

    PURPOSE: This study provides new insights on the changes of endogenous metabolites caused by I. aquatica ethanolic extract and improves the understanding on the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of I. aquatica ethanolic extract.

    METHODS: By using a combination of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with multivariate analysis (MVDA), the changes of metabolites due to I. aquatica ethanolic extract administration in obese diabetic-induced Sprague Dawley rats (OB+STZ+IA) were identified.

    RESULTS: The results suggested 19 potential biomarkers with variable importance projections (VIP) above 0.5, which include creatine/creatinine, glucose, creatinine, citrate, carnitine, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, hippurate, leucine, 1-methylnicotinamice (MNA), taurine, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB), tryptophan, lysine, trigonelline, allantoin, formiate, acetoacetate (AcAc) and dimethylamine. From the changes in the metabolites, the affected pathways and aspects of metabolism were identified.

    CONCLUSION: I. aquatica ethanolic extract increases metabolite levels such as creatinine/creatine, carnitine, MNA, trigonelline, leucine, lysine, 3-HB and decreases metabolite levels, including glucose and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates. This implies capabilities of I. aquatica ethanolic extract promoting glycolysis, gut microbiota and nicotinate/nicotinamide metabolism, improving the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and reducing the β-oxidation rate. However, the administration of I. aquatica ethanolic extract has several drawbacks, such as unimproved changes in amino acid metabolism, especially in reducing branched chain amino acid (BCAA) synthesis pathways and lipid metabolism.

  7. Sarian MN, Ahmed QU, Mat So'ad SZ, Alhassan AM, Murugesu S, Perumal V, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2017;2017:8386065.
    PMID: 29318154 DOI: 10.1155/2017/8386065
    The best described pharmacological property of flavonoids is their capacity to act as potent antioxidant that has been reported to play an important role in the alleviation of diabetes mellitus. Flavonoids biochemical properties are structure dependent; however, they are yet to be thoroughly understood. Hence, the main aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of some structurally related flavonoids to identify key positions responsible, their correlation, and the effect of methylation and acetylation on the same properties. Antioxidant potential was evaluated through dot blot, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ABTS+ radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) assays. Antidiabetic effect was investigated through α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) assays. Results showed that the total number and the configuration of hydroxyl groups played an important role in regulating antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in scavenging DPPH radical, ABTS+ radical, and FRAP assays and improved both α-glucosidase and DPP-4 activities. Presence of C-2-C-3 double bond and C-4 ketonic group are two essential structural features in the bioactivity of flavonoids especially for antidiabetic property. Methylation and acetylation of hydroxyl groups were found to diminish the in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of the flavonoids.
  8. Mediani A, Abas F, Maulidiani M, Abu Bakar Sajak A, Khatib A, Tan CP, et al.
    J. Physiol. Biochem., 2018 May 15.
    PMID: 29766441 DOI: 10.1007/s13105-018-0631-3
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that can affect metabolism of glucose and other metabolites. In this study, the normal- and obese-diabetic rats were compared to understand the diabetes disorders of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. This was done by evaluating their urine metabolites using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based metabolomics and comparing with controls at different time points, considering the induction periods of obesity and diabetes. The biochemical parameters of the serum were also investigated. The obese-diabetic model was developed by feeding the rats a high-fat diet and inducing diabetic conditions with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (25 mg/kg bw). However, the normal rats were induced by a high dose of STZ (55 mg/kg bw). A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model showed the biomarkers of both DM types compared to control. The synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, tricarboxylic (TCA) cycles, and amino acid pathways were the ones most involved in the variation with the highest impact. The diabetic groups also exhibited a noticeable increase in the plasma glucose level and lipid profile disorders compared to the control. There was also an increase in the plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and a decline in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) of diabetic rats. The normal-diabetic rats exhibited the highest effect of all parameters compared to the obese-diabetic rats in the advancement of the DM period. This finding can build a platform to understand the metabolic and biochemical complications of both types of DM and can generate ideas for finding targeted drugs.
  9. Murugesu S, Ibrahim Z, Ahmed QU, Uzir BF, Nik Yusoff NI, Perumal V, et al.
    J Pharm Anal, 2019 Apr;9(2):91-99.
    PMID: 31011465 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpha.2018.11.001
    The present study used in vitro and in silico techniques, as well as the metabolomics approach to characterise α-glucosidase inhibitors from different fractions of Clinacanthus nutans. C. nutans is a medicinal plant belonging to the Acanthaceae family, and is traditionally used to treat diabetes in Malaysia. n-Hexane, n-hexane: ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v), ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate: methanol (1:1, v/v), and methanol fractions were obtained via partitioning of the 80% methanolic crude extract. The in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was analyzed using all the fractions collected, followed by profiling of the metabolites using liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. The partial least square (PLS) statistical model was developed using the SIMCA P+14.0 software and the following four inhibitors were obtained: (1) 4,6,8-Megastigmatrien-3-one; (2) N-Isobutyl-2-nonen-6,8-diynamide; (3) 1',2'-bis(acetyloxy)-3',4'-didehydro-2'-hydro-β, ψ-carotene; and (4) 22-acetate-3-hydroxy-21-(6-methyl-2,4-octadienoate)-olean-12-en-28-oic acid. The in silico study performed via molecular docking with the crystal structure of yeast isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A) involved a hydrogen bond and some hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and protein. The residues that interacted include ASN259, HID295, LYS156, ARG335, and GLY209 with a hydrogen bond, while TRP15, TYR158, VAL232, HIE280, ALA292, PRO312, LEU313, VAL313, PHE314, ARG315, TYR316, VAL319, and TRP343 with other forms of bonding.
  10. Murugesu S, Ibrahim Z, Ahmed QU, Nik Yusoff NI, Uzir BF, Perumal V, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 19;23(9).
    PMID: 30235889 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092402
    BACKGROUND: Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) is an Acanthaceae herbal shrub traditionally consumed to treat various diseases including diabetes in Malaysia. This study was designed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of C. nutans leaves extracts, and to identify the metabolites responsible for the bioactivity.

    METHODS: Crude extract obtained from the dried leaves using 80% methanolic solution was further partitioned using different polarity solvents. The resultant extracts were investigated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory potential followed by metabolites profiling using the gas chromatography tandem with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    RESULTS: Multivariate data analysis was developed by correlating the bioactivity, and GC-MS data generated a suitable partial least square (PLS) model resulting in 11 bioactive compounds, namely, palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid (methyl ester), 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol, glycerol monostearate, alpha-tocospiro B, and stigmasterol. In-silico study via molecular docking was carried out using the crystal structure Saccharomyces cerevisiae isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A). Interactions between the inhibitors and the protein were predicted involving residues, namely LYS156, THR310, PRO312, LEU313, GLU411, and ASN415 with hydrogen bond, while PHE314 and ARG315 with hydrophobic bonding.

    CONCLUSION: The study provides informative data on the potential α-glucosidase inhibitors identified in C. nutans leaves, indicating the plant's therapeutic effect to manage hyperglycemia.

  11. Khan AYF, Ahmed QU, Narayanamurthy V, Razali S, Asuhaimi FA, Saleh MSM, et al.
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2019 Jun;114:108841.
    PMID: 30981106 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108841
    Porcupine bezoar (PB) is a calcified undigested material generally found in porcupine's (Hystrix brachyura) gastrointestinal tract. The bezoar is traditionally used in South East Asia and Europe for the treatment of cancer, poisoning, dengue, typhoid, etc. However, limited scientific studies have been performed to verify its anticancer potential to substantiate its traditional claims in the treatment of cancers. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating the in vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of two grassy PB aqueous extract (PB-A and PB-B) using A375 cancer cell line and zebrafish model, respectively. This paper presents the first report on in vitro A375 cell viability assay, apoptosis assay, cell cycle arrest assay, migration assay, invasion assay, qPCR experimental assay and in vivo anti-angiogenesis assay using the grassy PBs. Experimental findings revealed IC50 value are 26.59 ± 1.37 μg/mL and 30.12 ± 3.25 μg/mL for PB-A and PB-B respectively. PBs showed anti-proliferative activity with no significant cytotoxic effect on normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF). PBs were also found to induce apoptosis via intrinsic pathway and arrest cell cycle at G2/M phase. Additionally, the findings indicated its ability to debilitate migration and invasion of A375 cells. Further evaluation using embryo zebrafish model revealed LC50 = 450.0 ± 2.50 μg/mL and 58.7 ± 5.0 μg/mL for PB-A and PB-B which also exerted anti-angiogenesis effect in zebrafish. Moreover, stearic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid and pregnenolone were identified as possible metabolites that might contribute to the anticancer effect of the both PBs. Overall, this study demonstrated that PB-A and PB-B possess potential in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects which are elicited through selective cytotoxic effect, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of migration and invasion and anti-angiogenesis. This study provides scientific evidence that the porcupine bezoar do possess anti-cancer efficacy and further justifies its traditional utility. However, more experiments with higher vertebrae models are still warranted to validate its traditional claims as an anticancer agent.
  12. Benchoula K, Khatib A, Quzwain FMC, Che Mohamad CA, Wan Sulaiman WMA, Abdul Wahab R, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Apr 17;24(8).
    PMID: 30999617 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24081506
    A standard protocol to develop type 1 diabetes in zebrafish is still uncertain due to unpredictable factors. In this study, an optimized protocol was developed and used to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of Psychotria malayana leaf. The aims of this study were to develop a type 1 diabetic adult zebrafish model and to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the plant extract on the developed model. The ability of streptozotocin and alloxan at a different dose to elevate the blood glucose levels in zebrafish was evaluated. While the anti-diabetic activity of P. malayana aqueous extract was evaluated through analysis of blood glucose and LC-MS analysis fingerprinting. The results indicated that a single intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg/kg alloxan was the optimal dose to elevate the fasting blood glucose in zebrafish. Furthermore, the plant extract at 1, 2, and 3 g/kg significantly reduced blood glucose levels in the diabetic zebrafish. In addition, LC-MS-based fingerprinting indicated that 3 g/kg plant extract more effective than other doses. Phytosterols, sugar alcohols, sugar acid, free fatty acids, cyclitols, phenolics, and alkaloid were detected in the extract using GC-MS. In conclusion, P. malayana leaf aqueous extract showed anti-diabetic activity on the developed type 1 diabetic zebrafish model.
  13. Razali MTA, Zainal ZA, Maulidiani M, Shaari K, Zamri Z, Mohd Idrus MZ, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 28;23(9).
    PMID: 30154302 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092160
    The official standard for quality control of honey is currently based on physicochemical properties. However, this method is time-consuming, cost intensive, and does not lead to information on the originality of honey. This study aims to classify raw stingless bee honeys by bee species origins as a potential classifier using the NMR-LCMS-based metabolomics approach. Raw stingless bee honeys were analysed and classified by bee species origins using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) in combination with chemometrics tools. The honey samples were able to be classified into three different groups based on the bee species origins of Heterotrigona itama, Geniotrigona thoracica, and Tetrigona apicalis. d-Fructofuranose (H. itama honey), β-d-Glucose, d-Xylose, α-d-Glucose (G. thoracica honey), and l-Lactic acid, Acetic acid, l-Alanine (T. apicalis honey) ident d-Fructofuranose identified via ¹H-NMR data and the diagnostic ions of UHPLC-QTOF MS were characterized as the discriminant metabolites or putative chemical markers. It could be suggested that the quality of honey in terms of originality and purity can be rapidly determined using the classification technique by bee species origins via the ¹H-NMR- and UHPLC-QTOF MS-based metabolomics approach.
  14. Siddiqui MJ, Saleh MSM, Basharuddin SNBB, Zamri SHB, Mohd Najib MHB, Che Ibrahim MZB, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2018 12 21;10(4):173-180.
    PMID: 30568374 DOI: 10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_83_18
    Saffron, Crocus sativus (Iridaceae), is a perennial herb, which earned its popularity as both medicine and spice. It is an inhabitant of different mountainous regions of Asia Minor to Greece, Western Asia, Egypt, and India. The benefits of saffron as an antidepressant are well-documented. Almost 150 volatile and nonvolatile compounds are obtained from the chemical analysis of this plant. Fewer than 50 constituents elucidated and identified so far showed phytochemical characteristics. The major bioactive compounds identified are safranal, crocin, and picrocrocin, which are responsible for its aroma as well as its bitter taste. This review is an attempt to encompass the methods of analysis and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of saffron followed by its efficacious and safe potential.
  15. Zahra MH, Salem TAR, El-Aarag B, Yosri N, El-Ghlban S, Zaki K, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 08;24(13).
    PMID: 31288458 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24132495
    BACKGROUND/AIM: Plants play an important role in anti-cancer drug discovery, therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the biological activity of Alpinia zerumbet (A. zerumbet) flowers.

    METHODS: The phytochemical and biological criteria of A. zerumbet were in vitro investigated as well as in mouse xenograft model.

    RESULTS: A. zerumbet extracts, specially CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts, exhibited the highest potent anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. The most active CH2Cl2 extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation leading to isolatation of the naturally occurring 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) which was characterized by IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. A. zerumbet extracts, specially MeOH and CH2Cl2 extracts, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards tumor volume (TV). Furthermore, A. zerumbet extracts declined the high level of malonaldehyde (MDA) as well as elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver tissue homogenate. Moreover, DK showed anti-proliferative action on different human cancer cell lines. The recorded IC50 values against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (Hep-G2) and larynx carcinoma cells (HEP-2) were 3.08, 6.8, and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings open the door for further investigations in order to explore the potential medicinal properties of A. zerumbet.

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